MiR-93, miR-98, and miR-197 regulate expression of tumor suppressor gene FUS1.
ABSTRACT: FUS1 is a tumor suppressor gene located on human chromosome 3p21, and expression of Fus1 protein is highly regulated at various levels, leading to lost or greatly diminished tumor suppressor function in many lung cancers. Here we show that selected microRNAs (miRNA) interact with the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of FUS1, leading to down-regulation of protein expression. Using computational methods, we first predicted that FUS1 is a target of three miRNAs, miR-93, miR-98, and miR-197, and then showed that exogenous overexpression of these miRNAs inhibited Fus1 protein expression. We then confirmed that the three miRNAs target the 3'UTR region of the FUS1 transcript and that individual deletion of the three miRNA target sites in the FUS1 3'UTR restores the expression level of Fus1 protein. We further found that miR-93 and miR-98 are expressed at higher levels in small-cell lung cancer cell lines (SCLC) than in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines (NSCLC) and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), and that miR-197 is expressed at higher levels in both SCLCs and NSCLCs than in HBECs. Finally, we found that elevated miR-93 and miR-197 expression is correlated with reduced Fus1 expression in NSCLC tumor specimens. These results suggest that the three miRNAs are negative regulators of Fus1 expression in lung cancers.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of tumor-related death. The lack of effective treatments urges the development of new therapeutic approaches able to selectively kill cancer cells. The connection between aberrant microRNA (miRNA - miR) expression and tumor progression suggests a new strategy to fight cancer by interfering with miRNA function. In this regard, LNAs (locked nucleic acids) have proven to be very promising candidates for miRNA neutralization. Here, we employed an LNA-based anti-miR library in a functional screening to identify putative oncogenic miRNAs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). By screening NIH-H460 and A549 cells, miR-197 was identified as a new functional oncomiR, whose downregulation induces p53-dependent lung cancer cell apoptosis and impairs the capacity to establish tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. We further identified the two BH3-only proteins NOXA and BMF as new miR-197 targets responsible for induction of apoptosis in p53 wild-type cells, delineating miR-197 as a key survival factor in NSCLC. Thus, we propose the inhibition of miR-197 as a novel therapeutic approach against lung cancer.
Project description:Lung cancer is the most common incident cancer, with a high mortality worldwide, and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of cases. Numerous studies have shown that the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with the development and progression of cancers. However, the clinical significance and biological roles of most miRNAs in NSCLC remain elusive. In this study, we identified a novel miRNA, miR-34b-3p, that suppressed NSCLC cell growth and investigated the underlying mechanism. miR-34b-3p was down-regulated in both NSCLC tumour tissues and lung cancer cell lines (H1299 and A549). The overexpression of miR-34b-3p suppressed lung cancer cell (H1299 and A549) growth, including proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-34b-3p could bind to the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) to suppress the expression of CDK4 in NSCLC cells. H1299 and A549 cell proliferation inhibition is mediated by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with CDK4 interference. Moreover, CDK4 overexpression effectively reversed miR-34-3p-repressed NSCLC cell growth. In conclusion, our findings reveal that miR-34b-3p might function as a tumour suppressor in NSCLC by targeting CDK4 and that miR-34b-3p may, therefore, serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Increasing evidence reveals that deregulation of miRNAs contributes to carcinogenesis of the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our study discovered that the expression of miR-449a was markedly decreased in NSCLC cells with high metastatic capacity and tissues of positive lymph node metastasis. Moreover, our results showed that miR-449a could act as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-449a inhibited the expression of MAP2K1 by direct targeting its 3'UTR, and regulated the activity of MEK1/ERK1/2/c-Jun pathway through an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Furthermore, the histone methylation mediated the decreased expression of miR-449a through SUZ12. Taken together, the novel connection between miR-449a and MAP2K1 demonstrated here provided a new, potential therapeutic target for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs which can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Emerging evidence reveals that deregulation of miRNAs contributes to the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression levels of miR-132 were dramatically decreased in examined NSCLC cell lines and clinical NSCLC tissue samples. Then, we found that introduction of miR-132 significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells in vitro, suggesting that miR-132 may be a novel tumor suppressor. Further studies indicated that the EMT-related transcription factor ZEB2 was one direct target genes of miR-132, evidenced by the direct binding of miR-132 with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of ZEB2. Further, miR-132 could decrease the expression of ZEB2 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Notably, the EMT marker E-cadherin or vimentin, a downstream of ZEB2, was also down-regulated or up-regulated upon miR-132 treatment. Additionally, over-expressing or silencing ZEB2 was able to elevate or inhibit the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, parallel to the effect of miR-132 on the lung cancer cells. Meanwhile, knockdown of ZEB2 reversed the enhanced migration and invasion mediated by anti-miR-132. These results indicate that miR-132 suppresses the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells through targeting ZEB2 involving the EMT process. Thus, our finding provides new insight into the mechanism of NSCLC progression. Therapeutically, miR-132 may serve as a potential target in the treatment of human lung cancer.
Project description:Involvement of the RGS17 oncogene in the promotion of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported, but the regulation mechanism in NSCLC remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression, and their dysregulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis. To understand the role of miRNAs in Regulator of G Protein Signaling 17 (RGS17)-induced NSCLC, we showed that miR-203 was downregulated during tumorigenesis, and inhibited the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells. We then determined whether miR-203 regulated NSCLC by targeting RGS17. To characterize the regulatory effect of miR-203 on RGS17, we used lung cancer cell lines, A549 and Calu-1, and the constructed miR-203 and RGS17 overexpression vectors. The CCK8 kit was used to determine cell proliferation, and the Transwell® assay was used to measure cell invasion and migration. RT-PCR, western blots, and immunofluorescence were used to analyze expression of miR-203 and RGS17, and the luciferase reporter assay was used to examine the interaction between miR-203 and RGS17. Nude mice were used to characterize in vivo tumor growth regulation. Expression of miR-203 inhibited proliferation, invasion, and migration of lung cancer cell lines A549 and Calu-1 by targeting RGS17. The regulatory effect of miR-203 was inhibited after overexpression of RGS17. The luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-203 downregulated RGS17 by direct integration into the 3'-UTR of RGS17 mRNA. In vivo studies showed that expression of miR-203 significantly inhibited growth of tumors. Taken together, the results suggested that expression of miR-203 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis by targeting RGS17.
Project description:Dysregulation of miRNAs is reported to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. Previous studies showed that low serum miR-499 expression was associated with advanced TNM stage and poor prognosis. The present study is carried out to evaluate the biological functions of miR-499-5p in lung cancer. We demonstrated that miR-499-5p was significantly reduced in NSCLC tissues and correlated with poor clinical outcomes. Overexpression of miR-499-5p inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR-499-5p overexpression also inhibited NSCLC metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified VAV3 as a candidate target of miR-499-5p, and demonstrated that restoration of miR-499-5p expression in NSCLC cells downregulated VAV3 expression while inhibition of miR-499-5p upregulated VAV3 expression. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-499-5p targeted 3'-UTR of VAV3. Moreover, cancer growth, proliferation and metastasis were decreased and apoptosis was increased after VAV3 blockage induced by miR-499-5p overexpression. We conclude that miR-499-5p functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting VAV3. This finding may provide a therapeutic approach for future treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Lung cancers, the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, are characterized by a high metastatic potential. Growing evidence reveals that Spindlin 1 (SPIN1) is involved in tumor progression and carcinogenesis. However, the role of SPIN1 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms underlying SPIN1 in human NSCLC remain undetermined. Here we examined the function of SPIN1 in human NSCLC and found that the expression of SPIN1 was closely correlated with the overall survival and poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. Aberrant regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has an important role in cancer progression. We revealed that miR-409 inhibits the expression of SPIN1 by binding directly to the 3' UTR of SPIN1 using dual-luciferase reporter assays. Overexpression of miR-409 significantly suppressed cell migration, growth, and proliferation by inhibiting SPIN1 in vitro and in vivo. SPIN1 overexpression in miR-409-transfected NSCLC cells effectively rescued the suppression of cell migration, growth, and proliferation regulated by miR-409. miR-409 regulates the PI3K/AKT (protein kinase B) pathway in NSCLC. Moreover, clinical data showed that NSCLC patients with high levels of miR-409 experienced significantly better survival. miR-409 expression was also negatively associated with SPIN1 expression. Taken together, these findings highlight that the miR-409/SPIN1 axis is a useful pleiotropic regulatory network and could predict the metastatic potential in NSCLC patients early, indicating the possibility that miR-409 and SPIN1 might be attractive prognostic markers for treating NSCLC patients.
Project description:MicroRNA expression signatures can promote personalised care for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Our aim was to evaluate the previously unexplored prognostic potential of miR-197, a key oncogenic molecule for NSCLC.Total RNA isolation (n=124 NSCLC and n=21 tumour-adjacent normal tissues), was performed using the QIAsymphony SP workstation. The quantity and quality of RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis and an Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer. Polyadenylation and reverse transcription were subsequently carried out. MiR-197 expression levels were measured by qPCR, after quality control (inter-assay CV=7.8%). Internal validation procedures were followed by assigning training and test sets and robust biostatistical analyses were performed, including bootstrap resampling.MiR-197 is associated with larger tumours (P=0.042) and the squamous cell carcinoma histotype (P=0.032). Interestingly, after adjusting for important prognostic indicators, miR-197 expression was identified as a novel independent predictor of unfavourable prognosis for NSCLC patients (HR=1.97, 95% CI=1.10-3.38, P=0.013). We also demonstrate that miR-197 retains its prognostic performance in both early-stage I (P=0.045) and more advanced-stage individuals (P=0.036).The cost-effective expression analysis of miR-197 could constitute a novel molecular tool for NSCLC management.
Project description:Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) has recently gained considerable attention for its role in tumor immune escape. Here, we identify a miR-197/CKS1B/STAT3-mediated PD-L1 network in chemoresistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of immunoinhibitory signals. miR-197 is downregulated in platinum-resistant NSCLC specimens, resulting in the promotion of chemoresistance, tumorigenicity, and pulmonary metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations reveal that a miR-197-mediated CKS1B/STAT3 axis exerts tumor progression regulated by various oncogenic genes (Bcl-2, c-Myc, and cyclin D1), and PD-L1 is a putative biomarker of this axis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a miR-197 mimic sensitizes PD-L1(high) drug-resistant cells to chemotherapy. These results indicate that the biological interaction between PD-L1 and chemoresistance occurs through the microRNA regulatory cascade. More importantly, expression levels of miR-197 are inversely correlated with PD-L1 expression (n = 177; P = 0.026) and are associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.015). Our discoveries suggest that the miR-197/CKS1B/STAT3-mediated network can drive tumor PD-L1 expression as a biomarker of this cascade, and miR-197 replacement therapy may be a potential treatment strategy for chemoresistant NSCLC.
Project description:Recently, several miRNAs have been revealed to play critical roles in oncogenesis and tumor progression of many cancers. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) binding protein-2 (TBP-2) is an internal inhibitor of Trx-1, which plays the role in regulating oxidative stress, inhibiting cell growth, and promoting apoptosis. The expression of TBP-2 is usually decreased in cancer tissues. However, whether the miRNAs regulate the TBP-2 expression in lung cancer is still unclear. In this study, we examined the levels of TBP-2, miR-93, miR-373, and miR-17-5p in lung cancer tissues and their adjacent normal lung tissues of 36 patients. We found that the expressions of miR-93, miR-373, and miR-17-5p were higher, whereas the expression of TBP-2 mRNA and protein was significantly lower in lung cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal lung tissues. After the three miRNA mimics were transfected in the lung cancer cells, NCI-H460, the level of TBP-2 mRNA and TBP-2 protein was decreased. Then, the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil was used to stimulate the NCI-H460 cells; the mRNA levels of miR-93, miR-373, and miR-17-5p were decreased, and the level of TBP-2 mRNA and protein was increased. Collectively, the above results suggest that miR-93, miR-373, and miR-17-5p negatively regulate the TBP-2 expression in lung cancer. This study may provide therapeutic targets with lung cancer.