Alternative-splicing in the exon-10 region of GABA(A) receptor beta(2) subunit gene: relationships between novel isoforms and psychotic disorders.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GABRB2, the gene for beta(2)-subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor, have been associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and quantitatively correlated to mRNA expression and alternative splicing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Expression of the Exon 10 region of GABRB2 from minigene constructs revealed this region to be an "alternative splicing hotspot" that readily gave rise to differently spliced isoforms depending on intron sequences. This led to a search in human brain cDNA libraries, and the discovery of two novel isoforms, beta(2S1) and beta(2S2), bearing variations in the neighborhood of Exon-10. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of postmortem brain samples showed increased beta(2S1) expression and decreased beta(2S2) expression in both SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) compared to controls. Disease-control differences were significantly correlated with SNP rs187269 in BPD males for both beta(2S1) and beta(2S2) expressions, and significantly correlated with SNPs rs2546620 and rs187269 in SCZ males for beta(2S2) expression. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Thr(365), a potential phosphorylation site in Exon-10, played a key role in determining the time profile of the ATP-dependent electrophysiological current run-down. CONCLUSION: This study therefore provided experimental evidence for the importance of non-coding sequences in the Exon-10 region in GABRB2 with respect to beta(2)-subunit splicing diversity and the etiologies of SCZ and BPD.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder with evidence of a strong genetic component in the complex etiologies. Some studies indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor ?2 subunit gene (GABRB2) was associated with SCZ. Other studies reported a negative association. Moreover, the results of two previous meta-analyses of GABRB2 with SCZ were inconsistent and the sample sizes were limited. Therefore, an updated meta-analysis combined with genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of the Han Chinese population and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) was performed. Available case-control and family-based genetic data were extracted from association studies, and the GWAS data were included. The findings showed no association between six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of GABRB2 (rs6556547, rs1816071, rs1816072, rs194072, rs252944, and rs187269) and SCZ in a total of 51,491 patients and 74,667 controls. The ethnic subgroup analysis revealed no significant association in Asian populations. Since the PGC data of SCZ (SCZ-PGC, 2014) contained 3 studies of Asian populations (1866 patients and 3418 controls), only the data of European samples in SCZ-PGC were used for the meta-analysis of the Caucasian population in the present study. The result still showed no association in the Caucasian population. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis on combined data from GWASs of the Han Chinese population and PGC suggested that GABRB2 polymorphisms might not be associated with SCZ.
Project description:The occurrence of positive selection in schizophrenia-associated GABRB2 suggests a broader impact of the gene product on population fitness. The present study considered the possibility of cognition-related GABRB2 involvement by examining the association of GABRB2 with psychosis and altruism, respectively representing psychiatric and psychological facets of social cognition. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped for quantitative trait analyses and population-based association studies. Psychosis was measured by either the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) or antipsychotics dosage, and altruism was based on a self-report altruism scale. The minor alleles of SNPs rs6556547, rs1816071 and rs187269 in GABRB2 were correlated with high PANSS score for positive symptoms in a Han Chinese schizophrenic cohort, whereas those of rs1816071 and rs1816072 were associated with high antipsychotics dosage in a US Caucasian schizophrenic cohort. Moreover, strongly significant GABRB2-disease associations were found among schizophrenics with severe psychosis based on high PANSS positive score, but no significant association was observed for schizophrenics with only mild psychosis. Interestingly, in addition to association with psychosis in schizophrenics, rs187269 was also associated with altruism in healthy Han Chinese. Furthermore, parallel to correlation with severe psychosis, its minor allele was correlated with high altruism scores. These findings revealed that GABRB2 is associated with psychosis, the core symptom and an endophenotype of schizophrenia. Importantly, the association was found across the breadth of the psychiatric (psychosis) to psychological (altruism) spectrum of social cognition suggesting GABRB2 involvement in human cognition.
Project description:The primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy. However, resistance to radiotherapy is not uncommon. The aim of the present study was to establish a radioresistant NPC cell line to study the molecular mechanisms of radioresistance by measuring the expression of cell cycle control proteins src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP)-1/2, p16, CDK4 and cyclin D1. Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE‑2 cells were cultured, divided into two groups (CNE-2S1 and CNE-2S2) and irradiated with a dose of 6 Gy x5 or 2 Gy x15, respectively. The cells were subcultured between doses of irradiation. The surviving sublines (CNE-2S1 and CNE-2S2 clones) were then passaged for three months and their radiosensitivity was determined. The cell cycle distribution and protein expression of SHP-1/2, p16, CDK4 and cyclin D1 in parental and progenitor cell lines were measured. Small interfering (si)RNA-mediated knockdown of SHP-1 and SHP‑2 in the NPC cells was used to further examine their roles in radiosensitivity and cell cycle distribution. CNE-2S1, a radio‑resistant cell line, had a significantly higher percentage of cells in S phase and a lower percentage of cells in G1 phase, enhanced expression levels of SHP-1, CDK4 and cyclin D1, and reduced expression of p16, respectively, as compared with the parent cells. Stable suppression of SHP-1 mRNA in CNE‑2 cells resulted in increased radiosensitivity compared with the parental cells, a decrease in the number of cells in S phase and an increase in the expression of p16. The results suggested that the SHP‑1/p16/cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway may have a role in regulating radiosensitivity and cell cycle distribution in nasopharyngeal cells.
Project description:We use polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) to predict smoking, and addiction to nicotine, alcohol or drugs in individuals not diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Using PRSs for 144 609 subjects, including 10 036 individuals admitted for in-patient addiction treatment and 35 754 smokers, we find that diagnoses of various substance use disorders and smoking associate strongly with PRSs for SCZ (P = 5.3 × 10-50 -1.4 × 10-6 ) and BPD (P = 1.7 × 10-9 -1.9 × 10-3 ), showing shared genetic etiology between psychosis and addiction. Using standardized scores for SCZ and BPD scaled to a unit increase doubling the risk of the corresponding disorder, the odds ratios for alcohol and substance use disorders range from 1.19 to 1.31 for the SCZ-PRS, and from 1.07 to 1.29 for the BPD-PRS. Furthermore, we show that as regular smoking becomes more stigmatized and less prevalent, these biological risk factors gain importance as determinants of the behavior.
Project description:The gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABA(A)) receptor plays a major role in inhibitory neurotransmissions. Intronic SNPs and haplotypes in GABRB2, the gene for GABA(A) receptor beta(2) subunit, are associated with schizophrenia and correlated with the expression of two alternatively spliced beta(2) isoforms. In the present study, using chimpanzee as an ancestral reference, high frequencies were observed for the derived (D) alleles of the four SNPs rs6556547, rs187269, rs1816071 and rs1816072 in GABRB2, suggesting the occurrence of positive selection for these derived alleles. Coalescence-based simulation showed that the population frequency spectra and the frequencies of H56, the haplotype having all four D alleles, significantly deviated from neutral-evolution expectation in various demographic models. Haplotypes containing the derived allele of rs1816072 displayed significantly less diversity compared to haplotypes containing its ancestral allele, further supporting positive selection. The variations in DD-genotype frequencies in five human populations provided a snapshot of the evolutionary history, which suggested that the positive selections of the D alleles are recent and likely ongoing. The divergence between the DD-genotype profiles of schizophrenic and control samples pointed to the schizophrenia-relevance of positive selections, with the schizophrenic samples showing weakened selections compared to the controls. These DD-genotypes were previously found to increase the expression of beta(2), especially its long isoform. Electrophysiological analysis showed that this long beta(2) isoform favored by the positive selections is more sensitive than the short isoform to the inhibition of GABA(A) receptor function by energy depletion. These findings represent the first demonstration of positive selection in a schizophrenia-associated gene.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are severe mental disorders with high heritability. Clinicians have long noticed the similarities of clinic symptoms between these disorders. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicates some shared genetic liabilities. However, what is shared remains elusive. In this study, we conducted whole transcriptome analysis of post-mortem brain tissues (cingulate cortex) from SCZ, BPD and control subjects, and identified differentially expressed genes in these disorders. We found 105 and 153 genes differentially expressed in SCZ and BPD, respectively. By comparing the t-test scores, we found that many of the genes differentially expressed in SCZ and BPD are concordant in their expression level (q?0.01, 53 genes; q?0.05, 213 genes; q?0.1, 885 genes). Using genome-wide association data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, we found that these differentially and concordantly expressed genes were enriched in association signals for both SCZ (P<10(-7)) and BPD (P=0.029). To our knowledge, this is the first time that a substantially large number of genes show concordant expression and association for both SCZ and BPD. Pathway analyses of these genes indicated that they are involved in the lysosome, Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways, along with several cancer pathways. Functional analyses of these genes revealed an interconnected pathway network centered on lysosomal function and the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. These pathways and their interacting network were principally confirmed by an independent transcriptome sequencing data set of the hippocampus. Dysregulation of lysosomal function and cytoskeleton remodeling has direct impacts on endocytosis, phagocytosis, exocytosis, vesicle trafficking, neuronal maturation and migration, neurite outgrowth and synaptic density and plasticity, and different aspects of these processes have been implicated in SCZ and BPD.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are polygenic disorders with many genes contributing to their etiologies. The aim of this investigation was to search for dysregulated molecular and cellular pathways for these disorders as well as psychosis. We conducted a blood-based microarray investigation in two independent samples with SCZ and BPD from San Diego (SCZ=13, BPD=9, control=8) and Taiwan [data not included](SCZ=11, BPD=14, control=16). Diagnostic groups were compared to controls, and subjects with a history of psychosis [PSYCH(+): San Diego (n=6), Taiwan (n=14)] were compared to subjects without such history [PSYCH(-): San Diego (n=11), Taiwan (n=14)]. Analyses of covariance comparing mean expression levels on a gene-by-gene basis were conducted to generate the top 100 significantly dysregulated gene lists for both samples by each diagnostic group. Gene lists were imported into Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Results showed the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPS) was listed in the top ten canonical pathways for BPD and psychosis diagnostic groups across both samples with a considerably low likelihood of a chance occurrence (p = .001). No overlap in dysregulated genes populating these pathways was observed between the two independent samples. Findings provide preliminary evidence of UPS dysregulation in BPD and psychosis as well as support further investigation of the UPS and other molecular and cellular pathways for potential biomarkers for SCZ, BPD, and/or psychosis. The aim of this investigation was to search for dysregulated molecular and cellular pathways for these disorders as well as psychosis. Overall design: Blood-based microarray investigation in two independent samples with SCZ and BPD from San Diego (SCZ=13, BPD=9, control=8).
Project description:Individuals affected with different neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism (AUT), schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD), may share similar clinical manifestations, suggesting shared genetic influences and common biological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Using brain transcriptome data gathered from postmortem donors affected with AUT, SCZ and BPD, it is now possible to identify shared dysregulated gene sets, i.e., those abnormally expressed in brains of neuropsychiatric patients, compared to non-psychiatric controls. Here, we apply a novel aberrant gene expression analysis method, coupled with consensus co-expression network analysis, to identify gene sets with shared dysregulated expression in cortical brains of individuals affected with AUT, SCZ and BPD. We identify eight gene sets with dysregulated expression shared by AUT, SCZ and BPD, 23 by AUT and SCZ, four by AUT and BPD, and two by SCZ and BPD. The identified genes are enriched with functions relevant to amino acid transport, synapse, neurotransmitter release, oxidative stress, nitric oxide synthase biosynthesis, immune response, protein folding, lysophosphatidic acid-mediated signaling and glycolysis. Our method has been proven to be effective in discovering and revealing multigene sets with dysregulated expression shared by different neuropsychiatric disorders. Our findings provide new insights into the common molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and progression of AUT, SCZ and BPD, contributing to the study of etiological overlap between these neuropsychiatric disorders.
Project description:Structural abnormalities in temporal lobe, including the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and planum temporale (PT), have been reported in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients. While most MRI studies have suggested gray matter volume and surface area reduction in temporal lobe regions, few have explored changes in laminar thickness in PT and STG in SCZ and BPD. ROI subvolumes of the STG from 94 subjects were used to yield gray matter volume, gray/white surface area and laminar thickness for STG and PT cortical regions. Morphometric analysis suggests that there may be gender and laterality effects on the size and shape of the PT in BPD (n=36) and SCZ (n=31) with reduced laterality in PT in subjects with SCZ but not in BPD. In addition, PT surface area was seen to be larger in males, and asymmetry in PT surface area was larger in BPD. Subjects with SCZ had reduced thickness and smaller asymmetry in PT volume. Thus, the PT probably plays a more sensitive role than the STG in structural abnormalities seen in SCZ.
Project description:Autism (AUT), schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are three highly heritable neuropsychiatric conditions. Clinical similarities and genetic overlap between the three disorders have been reported; however, the causes and the downstream effects of this overlap remain elusive. By analyzing transcriptomic RNA-sequencing data generated from post-mortem cortical brain tissues from AUT, SCZ, BPD and control subjects, we have begun to characterize the extent of gene expression overlap between these disorders. We report that the AUT and SCZ transcriptomes are significantly correlated (P<0.001), whereas the other two cross-disorder comparisons (AUT-BPD and SCZ-BPD) are not. Among AUT and SCZ, we find that the genes differentially expressed across disorders are involved in neurotransmission and synapse regulation. Despite the lack of global transcriptomic overlap across all three disorders, we highlight two genes, IQSEC3 and COPS7A, which are significantly downregulated compared with controls across all three disorders, suggesting either shared etiology or compensatory changes across these neuropsychiatric conditions. Finally, we tested for enrichment of genes differentially expressed across disorders in genetic association signals in AUT, SCZ or BPD, reporting lack of signal in any of the previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS). Together, these studies highlight the importance of examining gene expression from the primary tissue involved in neuropsychiatric conditions-the cortical brain. We identify a shared role for altered neurotransmission and synapse regulation in AUT and SCZ, in addition to two genes that may more generally contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions.