Cyclic tensile strain triggers a sequence of autocrine and paracrine signaling to regulate angiogenic sprouting in human vascular cells.
ABSTRACT: Mechanical signals regulate blood vessel development in vivo, and have been demonstrated to regulate signal transduction of endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype in vitro. However, it is unclear how the complex process of angiogenesis, which involves multiple cell types and growth factors that act in a spatiotemporally regulated manner, is triggered by a mechanical input. Here, we describe a mechanism for modulating vascular cells during sequential stages of an in vitro model of early angiogenesis by applying cyclic tensile strain. Cyclic strain of human umbilical vein (HUV)ECs up-regulated the secretion of angiopoietin (Ang)-2 and PDGF-betabeta, and enhanced endothelial migration and sprout formation, whereas effects were eliminated with shRNA knockdown of endogenous Ang-2. Applying strain to colonies of HUVEC, cocultured on the same micropatterned substrate with nonstrained human aortic (HA)SMCs, led to a directed migration of the HASMC toward migrating HUVECs, with diminished recruitment when PDGF receptors were neutralized. These results demonstrate that a singular mechanical cue (cyclic tensile strain) can trigger a cascade of autocrine and paracrine signaling events between ECs and SMCs critical to the angiogenic process.
Project description:Development and maintenance of a vascular network are critical for bone growth and homeostasis; strategies that promote vascular function are critical for clinical success of tissue-engineered bone constructs. Co-culture of endothelial cells (ECs) with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and exposure to 10% cyclic tensile strain have both been shown to regulate osteogenesis in isolation, but potential synergistic effects have yet to be explored. The objective of this study was to expose an MSC-EC co-culture to 10% cyclic tensile strain to examine the role of this mechanical stimulus on MSC-EC behavior. We hypothesized that paracrine signaling from ECs would stimulate osteogenesis of MSCs, and exposure to 10% cyclic tensile strain would enhance this anabolic signal. Human umbilical vein ECs and human bone marrow-derived MSCs were either monocultured or co-cultured at a 1:1 ratio in a mixed osteo/angiogenic medium, exposed to 10% cyclic tensile strain at 1?Hz for 4?h/day for 2 weeks, and biochemically and histologically analyzed for endothelial and osteogenic markers. While neither 10% cyclic tensile strain nor co-culture alone had a significant effect on osteogenesis, the concurrent application of strain to an MSC-EC co-culture resulted in a significant increase in calcium accretion and mineral deposition, suggesting that co-culture and strain synergistically enhance osteogenesis. Neither co-culture, 10% cyclic tensile strain, nor a combination of these stimuli affected endothelial markers, indicating that the endothelial phenotype remained stable, but unresponsive to the stimuli evaluated in this study. This study is the first to investigate the role of cyclic tensile strain on the complex interplay between ECs and MSCs in co-culture. The results of this study provide key insights into the synergistic effects of 10% cyclic tensile strain and co-culture on osteogenesis. Understanding mechanobiological factors affecting MSC-EC crosstalk will help enhance strategies for creating vascularized tissues in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) have shown great potential for bone tissue engineering. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this potential are not yet known, in particular the separate and combined effects of three-dimensional (3D) culture and mechanical loading on hASC osteogenesis. Mechanical stimuli play a pivotal role in bone formation, remodeling, and fracture repair. To further understand hASC osteogenic differentiation and response to mechanical stimuli, gene expression profiles of proliferating or osteogenically induced hASC in 3D collagen I culture in the presence and absence of 10% uniaxial cyclic tensile strain were examined using microarray analysis. About 847 genes and 95 canonical pathways were affected during osteogenesis of hASC in 3D culture. Pathway analysis indicated the potential roles of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in hASC during osteogenic differentiation. Application of 10% uniaxial cyclic tensile strain suggested synergistic effects of strain with osteogenic differentiation media on hASC osteogenesis as indicated by significantly increased calcium accretion of hASC. There was no significant further alteration in the four major pathways (Wnt/?-catenin, BMP, PDGF, and IGF-1). However, 184 transcripts were affected by 10% cyclic tensile strain. Function and network analysis of these transcripts suggested that 10% cyclic tensile strain may play a role during hASC osteogenic differentiation by upregulating two crucial factors in bone regeneration: (1) proinflammatory cytokine regulators interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3; (2) known angiogenic inductors fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A. This is the first study to investigate the effects of both 3D culture and mechanical load on hASC osteogenic differentiation. A complete microarray analysis investigating both the separate effect of soluble osteogenic inductive factors and the combined effects of chemical and mechanical stimulation was performed on hASC undergoing osteogenic differentiation. We have identified specific genes and pathways associated with mechanical response and osteogenic potential of hASC, thus providing significant information toward improved understanding of our use of hASC for functional bone tissue engineering applications.
Project description:To investigate effects of excessive mechanical loading on chondrocytes. Overall design: Primary chondrocytes were isolated from 6-day-old C57BL/6J mice, and were subjected to cyclic tensile strain (0.5 Hz, 10% elongation) for 30 min. Total RNA was isolated from the mouse primary chondrocytes before and 24 hours after the cyclic tensile strain loading.
Project description:Our previous proteomic analysis revealed the expression of Rab28 in arteries of rats. However, the function of Rab28 in mammalian cells, and its role in vessels are still unknown. Coarctation of abdominal aorta above left kidney artery in rat was used as hypertensive animal model. FX-4000 cyclic strain loading system was used to mimic the mechanical condition on vascular cells during hypertension in vitro. Immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) were used to identify distribution and interaction of Rab28 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). Rab28 expression was significantly increased in carotid arteries of hypertensive rats. High cyclic strain induced Rab28 expression of endothelial cells (ECs) through a paracrine control of vascular smooth muscles cells (VSMCs), which at least partly via angiotensin II (Ang II). Rab28 knockdown decreased proliferation of ECs, while increased apoptosis and migration. Immunofluorescence revealed that Ang II stimulated the co-translocation of Rab28 and NF-?B from cytoplasm into nucleus. Knockdown of Rab28 attenuated NF-?B activation. Co-IP of NF-?B p65 and Rab28 indicated their interaction. Our results revealed that Rab28, as a novel regulator of NF-?B nuclear transport, might participate in the disturbance of EC homeostasis.
Project description:The initiation and/or progression of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is associated with cyclic tensile strain, but the pathomechanism of OPLL remains unclear. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and its related signaling are key factors in normal enchondral ossification. However, the relation of OPLL to Ihh is unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of mechanical strain to OPLL and the relation of Ihh to OPLL. Cultured posterior longitudinal ligament cells were subjected to 24 hours of cyclic tensile strain and then analyzed by microarray.
Project description:Analysis of sodium butyrate（NaBu） on angiotensin II（Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis at gene expression level. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that NaBu influence the balance of gene expression of Ang II-induce cardiac fibrosis. Results provide important information of the response of NaBu to cardiac fibrosis, such as specific genes, up- or down-regulated specific cardiac cellular functions. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from isolated tendon fascicles subjected to 1 or 24 hours in vitro cyclic tensile strain compared to unstrained control fascicles.
Project description:Meniscus injuries are highly prevalent and are linked to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). The inflammatory cytokine IL-1 is elevated in synovial fluid following knee injuries, causes degradation of meniscus tissue, and inhibits meniscus repair. Cyclic tensile stretch has been shown to modulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and degradative enzymes induced by IL-1; however, there remains a dearth of knowledge on global effects of loading on meniscus cell phenotype and transcriptomic profiles. In this study, we performed mRNA-Seq on meniscus cells isolated from inner and outer zone regions of porcine menisci subjected to cyclic tensile strain in the presence and absence of IL-1 to identify cellular responses to mechanical load, identify differences in response to load based on zonal characteristics, and identify IL-1 induced inflammatory responses modulated by load. Overall design: RNA-Seq of inner and outer zone porcine meniscus cells explants subjected to 5% cyclic tensile strain at 0.5Hz in the presence or absence of IL-1 (n=3/group)
Project description:As events triggering early osteoarthritis onset can be related to mechanical stress and proinflammatory signaling, we investigated the effect of different mechanical strain protocols on the expression of proinflammatory genes, as well as extracellular matrix remodelling in human synovial fibroblasts. Three distinct models of tensile stretching were applied: static isotropic tensile strain at 0 Hz, 16% tension for 48 h; short-term high-frequency cyclic tension at 1 Hz, 10% tension for 4 h; and dynamic tensile stretching for 48 h, consisting of two blocks of moderate stretching at 0.2 Hz, 2%, advanced stretching at 0.5 Hz, 15%, or a combination of both. General signs of inflammation were present after static isotropic tension, whereas short-term high-frequency cyclic tension showed increased levels of IL-6 paired with diminished levels of IL-1?. Reduced inflammatory effects of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? were observed when exposed to advanced stretching. Long-term tensile strain induced extracellular matrix remodelling at the gene and protein levels. While hyaluronan acid synthesis was increased with static tensile strain, dynamic tensile stretching had a reducing effect. Our study revealed that proinflammatory markers were activated by mechanical strain as seen in static isotropic tension and short-term high-frequency tensile strain, whereas long-term exposure induced extracellular matrix remodelling processes.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is a well-known smooth muscle (SM) cell (SMC) phenotypic modulator that signals by binding to PDGF alphaalpha-, alphabeta-, and betabeta-membrane receptors. PDGF-DD is a recently identified PDGF family member, and its role in SMC phenotypic modulation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that PDGF-DD inhibited expression of multiple SMC genes, including SM alpha-actin and SM myosin heavy chain, and upregulated expression of the potent SMC differentiation repressor gene Kruppel-like factor-4 at the mRNA and protein levels. On the basis of the results of promoter-reporter assays, changes in SMC gene expression were mediated, at least in part, at the level of transcription. Attenuation of the SMC phenotypic modulatory activity of PDGF-DD by pharmacological inhibitors of ERK phosphorylation and by a small interfering RNA to Kruppel-like factor-4 highlight the role of these two pathways in this process. PDGF-DD failed to repress SM alpha-actin and SM myosin heavy chain in mouse SMCs lacking a functional PDGF beta-receptor. Importantly, PDGF-DD expression was increased in neointimal lesions in the aortic arch region of apolipoprotein C-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Furthermore, human endothelial cells exposed to an atherosclerosis-prone flow pattern, as in vascular regions susceptible to the development of atherosclerosis, exhibited a significant increase in PDGF-DD expression. These findings demonstrate a novel activity for PDGF-DD in SMC biology and highlight the potential contribution of this molecule to SMC phenotypic modulation in the setting of disturbed blood flow.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Mechanical forces play critical roles in the development and remodelling process of bone. As an alternative cell source for bone engineering, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) should be fully investigated for their responses to mechanical stress and the mechanisms responsible for osteogenic induction in response to mechanical signals. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We hypothesized that appropriate application of uniaxial cyclic tensile strain to ASCs could increase bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression and improve osteogenesis of ASCs. To test our hypothesis, ASCs from the same flask of the same donor were subjected to tensile strain with different patterns in order to eliminate the difference of donor site and passage. After surface markers investigation, the osteo-induced ASCs were subjected to uniaxial cyclic tensile stretch with the following two loading patterns: long duration continuous pattern (6 h, 1 HZ, 2000 µ?) and short duration consecutive pattern (17 min every day for 10 consecutive days, 1 HZ, 2000 µ?). Then osteogenic related genes were analysed by real-time PCR. RESULTS:The ASCs were positive for the markers STRO-1, CD90 and CD44 and negative for CD34. Cyclic tensile strain of 6 continuous h' duration significantly increased gene expressions of BMP-2 and Runx2, and depressed OCN mRNA expression. In contrast, mechanical loading of 17 min every day did not significantly affect gene expression of BMP-2, Runx2, OCN or ALP. CONCLUSIONS:We indicate that ASCs may sense mechanical loading in a duration-dependent manner and cyclic tensile stretch may modulate the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs via the BMP-2 signalling pathway.