Intact signal peptide of CD18, the beta-subunit of beta2-integrins, renders ruminants susceptible to Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin.
ABSTRACT: Signal peptides of membrane proteins are cleaved by endoplasmic reticulum-resident signal peptidase, and thus, are not present on mature membrane proteins. Here, we report that, contrary to the paradigm, the signal peptide of ruminant CD18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, is not cleaved. Intriguingly, the intact signal peptide of CD18 is responsible for the susceptibility of ruminant leukocytes to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica leukotoxin (Lkt). Inhibition of Lkt-induced cytolysis of ruminant leukocytes by CD18 peptide analogs revealed that the Lkt-binding site is formed by amino acids 5-17 of CD18, which, surprisingly, comprise most of the signal sequence. Flow cytometric analysis of ruminant leukocytes indicated the presence of the signal peptide on mature CD18 molecules expressed on the cell surface. Analysis of transfectants expressing CD18 containing the FLAG epitope at the putative cleavage site confirmed that the signal peptide of bovine CD18 is not cleaved. Analysis of the signal sequence of CD18 of eight ruminants and five nonruminants revealed that the signal sequence of CD18 of ruminants contains "cleavage-inhibiting" Q, whereas that of nonruminants contains "cleavage-conducive" G at position -5 relative to the cleavage site. Site-directed mutagenesis of Q to G at position -5 of the signal peptide of bovine CD18 resulted in the cleavage of the signal peptide and abrogation of cytolysis of transfectants expressing bovine CD18 carrying the Q(-5)G mutation. We propose that engineering cattle and other ruminants to contain this mutation would provide a novel technology to render them less susceptible to pneumonic pasteurellosis and concomitant economic losses.
Project description:Background: Mannheimia haemolytica is the major bacterial infectious agent of bovine respiratory disease complex and causes severe morbidity and mortality during lung infections. M. haemolytica secretes a protein leukotoxin (Lkt) that binds to the CD18 receptor on leukocytes, initiates lysis, induces inflammation, and causes acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Lkt binds the 22-amino acid CD18 signal peptide domain, which remains uncleaved in ruminant species. Our aim was to identify missense variation in the bovine CD18 signal peptide and measure the effects on Lkt binding. Methods: Missense variants in the integrin beta 2 gene ( ITGB2) encoding CD18 were identified by whole genome sequencing of 96 cattle from 19 breeds, and targeted Sanger sequencing of 1238 cattle from 46 breeds. The ability of different CD18 signal peptide variants to bind Lkt was evaluated by preincubating the toxin with synthetic peptides and applying the mixture to susceptible bovine cell cultures in cytotoxicity-blocking assays. Results: We identified 14 missense variants encoded on 15 predicted haplotypes, including a rare signal peptide variant with a cysteine at position 5 (C 5) instead of arginine (R 5). Preincubating Lkt with synthetic signal peptides with C 5 blocked cytotoxicity significantly better than those with R 5. The most potent synthetic peptide (C 5PQLLLLAGLLA) had 30-fold more binding activity compared to that with R 5. Conclusions: The results suggest that missense variants in the CD18 signal peptide affect Lkt binding, and animals carrying the C 5 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of Lkt. The results also identify a potent class of non-antibiotic Lkt inhibitors that could potentially protect cattle from cytotoxic effects during acute lung infections.
Project description:Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica A1 produces several virulence factors that play an important role in the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Foremost among these is a leukotoxin (LKT) that specifically kills ruminant leukocytes. Recent evidence suggests that M. haemolytica LKT binding to bovine leukocytes is mediated by the beta(2)-integrin CD11a/CD18 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]), which subsequently induces activation and cytolysis of these cells. Inflammatory cytokines, which are released during viral and bacterial infection, are reported to increase LFA-1 expression and conformational activation. We investigated the effects of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) on the interaction of M. haemolytica LKT with bovine peripheral blood neutrophils (PMNs). In this study we demonstrated, by flow cytometry, that bovine PMNs increased their binding to an anti-bovine LFA-1 monoclonal antibody (BAT75A) following in vitro incubation with IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, or IFN-gamma. Incubation with cytokines also increased CD18 expression, as assessed by real-time PCR and by Western blotting. Increased LFA-1 expression by PMNs exposed to cytokines was associated with increased LKT binding and cytotoxicity. The latter represented, at least in part, enhanced PMN apoptosis, as assessed by propidium iodine staining and caspase-3 activation. The results of this study suggest that inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in enhancing the biological response of bovine PMNs to M. haemolytica LKT.
Project description:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, produces Apx toxins that are recognized as major virulence factors. Recently, we showed that ApxIIIA-cytotoxic activity specifically targets Sus scrofa leukocytes. Since both LtxA from Aggregatibacter actinomycetem comitans (aggressive periodontitis in humans) and LktA from Mannheimia haemolytica (pneumonia in ruminants) share this characteristic, respectively towards human and ruminant leukocytes, and because both use the CD18 subunit to interact with their respective LFA-1, we hypothesized that ApxIIIA was likely to bind porcine CD18 to exercise its deleterious effects on pig leukocytes. A beta(2)-integrin-deficient ApxIIIA-resistant human erythroleukemic cell line was transfected either with homologous or heterologous CD11a/ CD18 heterodimers using a set of plasmids coding for human (ApxIIIA-resistant), bovine (-resistant) and porcine (-susceptible) CD11a and CD18 subunits. Cell preparations that switched from ApxIIIA-resistance to -susceptibility were then sought to identify the LFA-1 subunit involved. The results showed that the ApxIIIA-resistant recipient cell line was rendered susceptible only if the CD18 partner within the LFA-1 heterodimer was that of the pig. It is concluded that porcine CD18 is necessary to mediate A. pleuropneumoniae ApxIIIA toxin-induced leukolysis.
Project description:Exotoxins which belong to the family containing the RTX toxins (repeats in toxin) contribute to a variety of important human and animal diseases. One example of such a toxin is the potent leukotoxin (LKT) produced by the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica. LKT binds to CD18, resulting in the death of bovine leukocytes. In this study, we showed that internalized LKT binds to the outer mitochondrial membrane, which results in the release of cytochrome c and collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (psi(m)). Incubation of bovine lymphoblastoid cells (BL-3 cells) with the mitochondrial membrane-stabilizing agent cyclosporine (CSA) reduced LKT-mediated cytotoxicity, cytochrome c release, and collapse of the psi(m). Coimmunoprecipitation and intracellular binding studies suggested that LKT binds to the mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D. We also demonstrated that LKT mobilizes the vesicle scission protein dynamin-2 from mitochondria to the cell membrane. Incubation with CSA depleted mitochondrial dynamin-2 in BL-3 cells, making it unavailable for vesicle scission and LKT internalization. The results of this study show that LKT trafficking and LKT-mediated cell death involve dynamin-2 and cyclophilin D, in a process that can be prevented by the mitochondrial membrane-protecting function of CSA.
Project description:The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.
Project description:1. The incorporation of labelled glucose into lipid by liver slices from sheep and cows is considerably less than that by liver slices from the rat, although oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs to a similar extent. ATP citrate lyase and NADP malate dehydrogenase are inactive in both sheep and cow liver but active in rat liver. The absence of the citrate-cleavage pathway of lipogenesis in ruminant liver has been confirmed by the negligible amounts of C-3 of aspartate incorporated into fatty acids. 2. Considerable amounts of [(14)C]acetate are incorporated into fatty acids and non-saponifiable lipid in rat and ruminant liver. Acetyl-CoA synthetase, the initial enzyme in the metabolism of acetate, has a high activity in liver from rat and ruminants. 3. In adipose tissue from ruminants more acetate than glucose is converted into lipids, whereas the converse is true in rat adipose tissue. The greater incorporation of [(14)C]acetate into fatty acids in adipose tissue from the ruminant as compared with the non-ruminant may be caused, in part, by the higher activity of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity in the ruminant. 4. The results suggest that, in both liver and adipose tissue from ruminants, acetate is a more important source of lipid than glucose. 5. Two enzymes of the hexose monophosphate shunt, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, are active in both tissues and from the three species.
Project description:A signal peptide (SP) is cleaved off from presecretory proteins by signal peptidase during or immediately after insertion into the membrane. In metazoan cells, the cleaved SP then receives proteolysis by signal peptide peptidase, an intramembrane-cleaving protease (I-CLiP). However, bacteria lack any signal peptide peptidase member I-CLiP, and little is known about the metabolic fate of bacterial SPs. Here we show that Escherichia coli RseP, an site-2 protease (S2P) family I-CLiP, introduces a cleavage into SPs after their signal peptidase-mediated liberation from preproteins. A Bacillus subtilis S2P protease, RasP, is also shown to be involved in SP cleavage. These results uncover a physiological role of bacterial S2P proteases and update the basic knowledge about the fate of signal peptides in bacterial cells.
Project description:Production of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein requires the cleavages of polyprotein by signal peptidase and signal peptide peptidase (SPP). Cleavage of signal peptide at the C-terminus of HCV core protein by SPP was characterized in this study. The spko mutant (mutate a.a. 189-193 from ASAYQ to PPFPF) is more efficient than the A/F mutant (mutate a.a 189 and 191 from A to F) in blocking the cleavage of signal peptide by signal peptidase. The cleavage efficiency of SPP is inversely proportional to the length of C-terminal extension of the signal peptide: the longer the extension, the less efficiency the cleavage is. Thus, reducing the length of C-terminal extension of signal peptide by signal peptidase cleavage could facilitate further cleavage by SPP. The recombinant core protein fused with signal peptide from the C-terminus of p7 protein, but not those from the C-termini of E1 and E2, could be cleaved by SPP. Therefore, the sequence of the signal peptide is important but not the sole determinant for its cleavage by SPP. Replacement of the HCV core protein E.R.-associated domain (a.a. 120-150) with the E.R.-associated domain (a.a.1-50) of SARS-CoV membrane protein results in the failure of cleavage of this recombinant protein by SPP, though this protein still is E.R.-associated. This result suggests that not only E.R.-association but also specific protein sequence is important for the HCV core protein signal peptide cleavage by SPP. Thus, our results suggest that both sequences of the signal peptide and the E.R.-associated domain are important for the signal peptide cleavage of HCV core protein by SPP.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the major pathogen in the pig industry. Variability of the antigens and persistence are the biggest challenges for successful control and elimination of the disease. GP5, the major glycoprotein of PRRSV, is considered an important target of neutralizing antibodies, which however appear only late in infection. This was attributed to the presence of a "decoy epitope" located near a hypervariable region of GP5. This region also harbors the predicted signal peptide cleavage sites and (dependent on the virus strain) a variable number of potential N-glycosylation sites. Molecular processing of GP5 has not been addressed experimentally so far: whether and where the signal peptide is cleaved and (as a consequence) whether the "decoy epitope" is present in virus particles. We show that the signal peptide of GP5 from the American type 2 reference strain VR-2332 is cleaved, both during in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes and in transfected cells. This was found to be independent of neighboring glycosylation sites and occurred in a variety of porcine cells for GP5 sequences derived from various type 2 strains. The exact signal peptide cleavage site was elucidated by mass spectrometry of virus-derived and recombinant GP5. The results revealed that the signal peptide of GP5 is cleaved at two sites. As a result, a mixture of GP5 proteins exists in virus particles, some of which still contain the "decoy epitope" sequence. Heterogeneity was also observed for the use of glycosylation sites in the hypervariable region. Lastly, GP5 mutants were engineered where one of the signal peptide cleavage sites was blocked. Wildtype GP5 exhibited exactly the same SDS-PAGE mobility as the mutant that is cleavable at site 2 only. This indicates that the overwhelming majority of all GP5 molecules does not contain the "decoy epitope".
Project description:Ruminants are critical as prey in transferring solar energy fixed by plants into carnivorous species, yet the genetic signature of the driving forces leading to the evolutionary success of the huge number of ruminant species remains largely unknown. Here we report a complete DNA map of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the addax (Addax nasomaculatus) genome by sequencing a total of 47 overlapping BAC clones previously mapped to cover the MHC region. The addax MHC is composed of 3,224,151 nucleotides, harboring a total of 150 coding genes, 50 tRNA genes, and 14 non-coding RNA genes. The organization of addax MHC was found to be highly conserved to those of sheep and cattle, highlighted by a large piece of chromosome inversion that divided the MHC class II into IIa and IIb subregions. It is now highly possible that all of the ruminant species in the family of Bovidae carry the same chromosome inversion in the MHC region, inherited from a common ancestor of ruminants. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DY, a ruminant-specific gene located at the boundary of the inversion and highly expressed in dendritic cells, was possibly evolved from DQ, with an estimated divergence time ~140 million years ago. Homology modeling showed that the overall predicted structure of addax DY was similar to that of HLA-DQ2. However, the pocket properties of P1, P4, P6, and P9, which were critical for antigen binding in the addax DY, showed certain distinctive features. Structural analysis suggested that the populations of peptide antigens presented by addax DY and HLA-DQ2 were quite diverse, which in theory could serve to promote microbial regulation in the rumen by ruminant species, contributing to enhanced grass utilization ability. In summary, the results of our study helped to enhance our understanding of the MHC evolution and provided additional supportive evidence to our previous hypothesis that an ancient chromosome inversion in the MHC region of the last common ancestor of ruminants may have contributed to the evolutionary success of current ruminants on our planet.