Tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin-alpha polymorphisms and severe malaria in African populations.
ABSTRACT: The tumor necrosis factor gene (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha gene (LTA) have long attracted attention as candidate genes for susceptibility traits for malaria, and several of their polymorphisms have been found to be associated with severe malaria (SM) phenotypes. In a large study involving >10,000 individuals and encompassing 3 African populations, we found evidence to support the reported associations between the TNF -238 polymorphism and SM in The Gambia. However, no TNF/LTA polymorphisms were found to be associated with SM in cohorts in Kenya and Malawi. It has been suggested that the causal polymorphisms regulating the TNF and LTA responses may be located some distance from the genes. Therefore, more-detailed mapping of variants across TNF/LTA genes and their flanking regions in the Gambian and allied populations may need to be undertaken to find any causal polymorphisms.
Project description:Severe malaria (SM) syndromes caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection result in major morbidity and mortality each year. However, only a fraction of P. falciparum infections develop into SM, implicating host genetic factors as important determinants of disease outcome. Previous studies indicate that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin alpha (LT?) may be important for the development of cerebral malaria (CM) and other SM syndromes.An extensive analysis was conducted of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF, LTA and LTB genes in highland Papuan children and adults, a population historically unexposed to malaria that has migrated to a malaria endemic region. Generated P-values for SNPs spanning the LTA/TNF/LTB locus were corrected for multiple testing of all the SNPs and haplotype blocks within the region tested through 10,000 permutations. A global P-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.No associations between SNPs in the TNF/LTA/LTB locus and susceptibility to SM in highland Papuan children and adults were found.These results support the notion that unique selective pressure on the TNF/LTA/LTB locus in different populations has influenced the contribution of the gene products from this region to SM susceptibility.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) are cytokines with a wide range of inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of polymorphisms in the TNF/LTA gene region with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. We investigated 11 TNF/LTA tag polymorphisms, designed to capture the majority of common variation in the region, in 160 trio families from South Croatia. We observed overtransmission of alleles from parents to affected child at five variants: (rs909253, allele C, p = 1.2x10(-4); rs1041981, allele A, p = 1.1x10(-4); rs1800629 (G-308A), allele A, p = 1.2x10(-4); rs361525 (G-238A), allele G, p = 8.2x10(-3) and rs3093668, allele G, p = 0.014). We also identified overtransmission of the rs1800629(G-308A)-rs361525(G-238A) A-G haplotype, p = 2.384x10(-5). The present study found an association of the TNF/LTA gene region with type 1 diabetes. A careful assessment of TNF/LTA variants adjusted for linkage disequilibrium with HLA loci is needed to further clarify the role of these genes in type 1 diabetes susceptibility in the population of South Croatia.
Project description:In an International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium pooled analysis, polymorphisms in 2 immune-system-related genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-10 (IL10), were associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. Here, 8,847 participants were added to previous data (patients diagnosed from 1989 to 2005 in 14 case-control studies; 7,999 cases, 8,452 controls) for testing of polymorphisms in the TNF -308G>A (rs1800629), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) 252A>G (rs909253), IL10 -3575T>A (rs1800890, rs1800896), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) 3020insC (rs2066847) genes. Odds ratios were estimated for non-Hispanic whites and several ethnic subgroups using 2-sided tests. Consistent with previous findings, odds ratios were increased for "new" participant TNF -308A carriers (NHL: per-allele odds ratio (OR(allelic)) = 1.10, P(trend) = 0.001; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): OR(allelic) = 1.23, P(trend) = 0.004). In the combined population, odds ratios were increased for TNF -308A carriers (NHL: OR(allelic) = 1.13, P(trend) = 0.0001; DLBCL: OR(allelic) = 1.25, P(trend) = 3.7 x 10(-6); marginal zone lymphoma: OR(allelic) = 1.35, P(trend) = 0.004) and LTA 252G carriers (DLBCL: OR(allelic) = 1.12, P(trend) = 0.006; mycosis fungoides: OR(allelic) = 1.44, P(trend) = 0.015). The LTA 252A>G/TNF -308G>A haplotype containing the LTA/TNF variant alleles was strongly associated with DLBCL (P = 2.9 x 10(-8)). Results suggested associations between IL10 -3575T>A and DLBCL (P(trend) = 0.02) and IL10 -1082A>G and mantle cell lymphoma (P(trend) = 0.04). These findings strengthen previous results for DLBCL and the LTA 252A>G/TNF -308A locus and provide robust evidence that these TNF/LTA gene variants, or others in linkage disequilibrium, are involved in NHL etiology.
Project description:The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) gene and other genes flanking it in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region are potentially important mediators of both immunity and pathogenesis of malaria. We investigated the association of severe malaria with 11 haplotype tagging-polymorphisms for 11 MHC class III candidate genes, including TNF, lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF1), and HLA-B associated transcript 2 (BAT2). An analysis of 2,162 case-controls demonstrated the first evidence of association between a BAT2 polymorphism (rs1046089) and severe malaria.
Project description:Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the immune system and local inflammatory response. LTA is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Polymorphisms in the gene encoding lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) on Chromosome 6p21 have been associated with susceptibility to CHD, but results in different studies appear to be conflicting. We examined the association of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the LTA gene, and their related haplotypes, with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS) case-control study involving 6,928 non-fatal MI cases and 2,712 unrelated controls. The seven SNPs (including the rs909253 and rs1041981 SNPs previously implicated in the risk of CHD) were in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other and contributed to six common haplotypes. Some of the haplotypes for LTA were associated with higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (p = 0.004) and lower concentrations of albumin (p = 0.023). However, none of the SNPs or related haplotypes were significantly associated with risk of MI. The results of the ISIS study were considered in the context of six previously published studies that had assessed this association, and this meta-analysis found no significant association with CHD risk using a recessive model and only a modest association using a dominant model (with narrow confidence intervals around these risk estimates). Overall, these studies provide reliable evidence that these common polymorphisms for the LTA gene are not strongly associated with susceptibility to coronary disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To understand the causal basis of TNF associations with disease, it is necessary to understand the haplotypic structure of this locus. We genotyped 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed over 4.3 kilobases in 296 healthy, unrelated Gambian and Malawian adults. We generated 592 high-quality haplotypes by integrating family- and population-based reconstruction methods. RESULTS:We found 32 different haplotypes, of which 13 were shared between the two populations. Both populations were haplotypically diverse (gene diversity = 0.80, Gambia; 0.85, Malawi) and significantly differentiated (p < 10-5 by exact test). More than a quarter of marker pairs showed evidence of intragenic recombination (29% Gambia; 27% Malawi). We applied two new methods of analyzing haplotypic data: association efficiency analysis (AEA), which describes the ability of each SNP to detect every other SNP in a case-control scenario; and the entropy maximization method (EMM), which selects the subset of SNPs that most effectively dissects the underlying haplotypic structure. AEA revealed that many SNPs in TNF are poor markers of each other. The EMM showed that 8 of 12 SNPs (Gambia) and 7 of 12 SNPs (Malawi) are required to describe 95% of the haplotypic diversity. CONCLUSIONS:The TNF locus in the Gambian and Malawi sample is haplotypically diverse and has a rich history of intragenic recombination. As a consequence, a large proportion of TNF SNPs must be typed to detect a disease-modifying SNP at this locus. The most informative subset of SNPs to genotype differs between the two populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-tumor activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether LTA polymorphisms influence the presence of cancer. METHODS: LTA polymorphisms C804A (rs1041981, T60N) and T495C (rs2229094, C13R) were determined in 1,536 consecutive autopsy cases and were registered in the Japanese single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for geriatric research (JG-SNP) Internet database. Tumors were systematically reviewed, pathologically confirmed, and assessed in relation to LTA genotype. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 827 males and 709 females, with a mean age of 80 years. Altogether, we studied 606 subjects without cancer and 930 subjects with cancer of the stomach (n = 183), lung (n = 164), colon or rectum (n = 143), or other sites. The presence of cancer was higher in males than in females. The C804A and T495C polymorphisms were associated with cancer in males (CA + AA: CC, adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53 - 0.99; TC + CC: TT, adjusted OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04 - 2.02; respectively) but not in females. In males, the C804A polymorphism was associated with lung cancer (CA + AA: CC, adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37 - 0.97), whereas the T495C polymorphism was associated with gastric cancer (TC + CC: TT, adjusted OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.06 - 2.65). CONCLUSION: We found some evidence of an association between LTA polymorphisms and cancer risk in elderly Japanese men. Further studies in larger populations should examine this hypothesis.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor is a proinflammatory cytokine found in increased concentrations in asthmatic airways. The TNF-alpha (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) genes belong to the TNF gene superfamily located within the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6p in a region repeatedly linked to asthma. The TNF position -308 and LTA NcoI polymorphisms are believed to influence TNF transcription and secretion, respectively.This study sought to determine whether polymorphisms in TNF or LTA, or in TNF-LTA haplotypes, are associated with asthma and asthma phenotypes.We genotyped the TNF -308 and LTA NcoI polymorphisms, and two other haplotype-tagging polymorphisms in the TNF and LTA genes, in 708 children with mild to moderate asthma enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Management Program and in their parents. Using an extension of the family-based association tests in the PBAT program, each polymorphism was tested for association with asthma, age at onset of asthma, and time series data on baseline FEV(1) % predicted, postbronchodilator FEV(1) % predicted, body mass index, and log of PC(20).Although no associations were found for the individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the haplotype analysis found the LTA NcoI_G/LTA 4371T/TNF -308G/TNF 1078G haplotype to be associated with asthma and with all five phenotype groups.We conclude that it is unlikely that the TNF -308 or LTA NcoI polymorphisms influence asthma susceptibility individually, but that this haplotype of variants may be functional or may be in linkage disequilibrium with other functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
Project description:Transcriptional regulation has a critical role in the coordinate and context-specific expression of a cluster of genes encoding members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily found at chromosome 6p21, comprising TNF, LTA (encoding lymphotoxin-?) and LTB (encoding lymphotoxin-?). This is important, as dysregulated expression of these genes is implicated in susceptibility to many autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases. We describe here a novel regulatory element in the fourth exon of LTB, which is highly conserved, localises to the only CpG island in the locus, and is associated with a DNase I hypersensitive site and specific histone modifications. We find evidence of binding by Yin Yang 1 (YY1), cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) to this region in Jurkat T cells, which is associated with transcriptional repression on reporter gene analysis. Chromatin conformation capture experiments show evidence of DNA looping, involving interaction of this element with the LTB promoter, LTA promoter and TNF 3' untranslated region (UTR). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments demonstrate a functional role for YY1 and CREB in LTB expression. Our findings provide evidence of additional complexity in the transcriptional regulation of LTB with implications for coordinate expression of genes in this important genomic locus.
Project description:The study was designed to reveal the genetic relationship of lymphotoxin-? (LTA) polymorphisms with risk of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Chinese Han population.LTA polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing (PCR-DS) in 138 AS patients and 141 healthy controls. The genotype distribution in control group was checked the status of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) calculated by ? test was used to show effects of LTA polymorphisms on AS risk. Logistic regressive analysis was used to calculate the adjusted OR values. Additionally, the linkage disequilibrium of LTA polymorphisms was examined by Haploview.G allele of rs909253 was significantly higher frequency in AS patients (P?=?.02), which was associated with the increased risk of AS (OR?=?1.53, 95%CI?=?1.07-2.18). The carriages of GG genotype in rs909253 showed a high risk of AS occurrence, compared with AA genotype carriers (OR?=?2.46, 95%CI?=?1.13-5.35). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the G allele (OR?=?1.52, 95%CI?=?1.05-2.15) and GG genotype (OR?=?2.36, 95%CI?=?1.06-5.24) of rs909253 were still positively associated with AS susceptibility. However, there was no significant association between AS risk and rs2239704 or rs2229094.LTA rs909253 polymorphism contributes to the occurrence of AS.