Farnesylation of pex19p is required for its structural integrity and function in peroxisome biogenesis.
ABSTRACT: The conserved CaaX box peroxin Pex19p is known to be modified by farnesylation. The possible involvement of this lipid modification in peroxisome biogenesis, the degree to which Pex19p is farnesylated, and its molecular function are unknown or controversial. We resolve these issues by first showing that the complete pool of Pex19p is processed by farnesyltransferase in vivo and that this modification is independent of peroxisome induction or the Pex19p membrane anchor Pex3p. Furthermore, genomic mutations of PEX19 prove that farnesylation is essential for proper matrix protein import into peroxisomes, which is supposed to be caused indirectly by a defect in peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP) targeting or stability. This assumption is corroborated by the observation that mutants defective in Pex19p farnesylation are characterized by a significantly reduced steady-state concentration of prominent PMPs (Pex11p, Ant1p) but also of essential components of the peroxisomal import machinery, especially the RING peroxins, which were almost depleted from the importomer. In vivo and in vitro, PMP recognition is only efficient when Pex19p is farnesylated with affinities differing by a factor of 10 between the non-modified and wild-type forms of Pex19p. Farnesylation is likely to induce a conformational change in Pex19p. Thus, isoprenylation of Pex19p contributes to substrate membrane protein recognition for the topogenesis of PMPs, and our results highlight the importance of lipid modifications in protein-protein interactions.
Project description:Targeting of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) is a multistep process that requires not only recognition of PMPs in the cytosol but also their insertion into the peroxisomal membrane. As a consequence, targeting signals of PMPs (mPTS) are rather complex. A candidate protein for the PMP recognition event is Pex19p, which interacts with most PMPs. However, the respective Pex19p-binding sites are ill-defined and it is currently disputed whether these sites are contained within mPTS. By using synthetic peptide scans and yeast two-hybrid analyses, we determined and characterized Pex19p-binding sites in Pex11p and Pex13p, two PMPs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sites turned out to be composed of a short helical motif with a minimal length of 11 amino acids. With the acquired data, it proved possible to predict and experimentally verify Pex19p-binding sites in several other PMPs by applying a pattern search and a prediction matrix. A peroxisomally targeted Pex13p fragment became mislocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum in the absence of its Pex19p-binding site. By adding the heterologous binding site of Pex11p, peroxisomal targeting of the Pex13p fragment was restored. We conclude that Pex19p-binding sites are well-defined entities that represent an essential part of the mPTS.
Project description:We report the identification and molecular characterization of Pex19p, an oleic acid-inducible, farnesylated protein of 39.7 kDa that is essential for peroxisome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells lacking Pex19p are characterized by the absence of morphologically detectable peroxisomes and mislocalization of peroxisomal matrix proteins to the cytosol. The human HK33 gene product was identified as the putative human ortholog of Pex19p. Evidence is provided that farnesylation of Pex19p takes place at the cysteine of the C-terminal CKQQ amino acid sequence. Farnesylation of Pex19p was shown to be essential for the proper function of the protein in peroxisome biogenesis. Pex19p was shown to interact with Pex3p in vivo, and this interaction required farnesylation of Pex19p.
Project description:Pichia pastoris PEX17 was cloned by complementation of a peroxisome-deficient strain obtained from a novel screen for mutants disrupted in the localization of a peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP) reporter. PEX17 encodes a 267-amino-acid protein with low identity (18%) to the previously characterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex17p. Like ScPex17p, PpPex17p contains a putative transmembrane domain near the amino terminus and two carboxyl-terminal coiled-coil regions. PpPex17p behaves as an integral PMP with a cytosolic carboxyl-terminal domain. pex17Delta mutants accumulate peroxisomal matrix proteins and certain integral PMPs in the cytosol, suggesting a critical role for Pex17p in their localization. Peroxisome remnants were observed in the pex17Delta mutant by morphological and biochemical means, suggesting that Pex17p is not absolutely required for remnant formation. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that the carboxyl terminus of Pex19p was required for interaction with Pex17p lacking the carboxyl-terminal coiled-coil domains. Biochemical evidence confirmed the interaction between Pex19p and Pex17p. Additionally, Pex17p cross-linked to components of the peroxisome targeting signal-receptor docking complex, which unexpectedly contained Pex3p. Our evidence suggests the existence of distinct subcomplexes that contain separable pools of Pex3p, Pex19p, Pex17p, Pex14p, and the peroxisome targeting signal receptors. These distinct pools may serve different purposes for the import of matrix proteins or PMPs.
Project description:We report the cloning and characterization of Pichia pastoris PEX19 by complementation of a peroxisome-deficient mutant strain. Import of peroxisomal targeting signal 1- and 2-containing peroxisomal matrix proteins is defective in pex19 mutants. PEX19 encodes a hydrophilic 299-amino acid protein with sequence similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex19p and human and Chinese hamster PxF, all farnesylated proteins, as well as hypothetical proteins from Caenorhabditis elegans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The farnesylation consensus is conserved in PpPex19p but dispensable for function and appears unmodified under the conditions tested. Pex19p localizes predominantly to the cytosolic fraction. Biochemical and two-hybrid analyses confirmed that Pex19p interacts with Pex3p, as seen in S. cerevisiae, but unexpectedly also with Pex10p. Two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that the amino-terminal 42 amino acids of Pex19p interact with the carboxyl-terminal 335 amino acids of Pex3p. In addition, the extreme carboxyl terminus of Pex19p (67 amino acids) is required for interaction with the amino-terminal 380 amino acids of Pex10p. Biochemical and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of pex19Delta cells identified the membrane protein Pex3p in peroxisome remnants that were not previously observed in S. cerevisiae. These small vesicular and tubular (early) remnants are morphologically distinct from other Pppex mutant (late) remnants, suggesting that Pex19p functions at an early stage of peroxisome biogenesis.
Project description:The transport of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) requires the soluble PEX19 protein as chaperone and import receptor. Recognition of cargo PMPs by the C-terminal domain (CTD) of PEX19 is required for peroxisome biogenesis in vivo. Farnesylation at a C-terminal CaaX motif in PEX19 enhances the PMP interaction, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report the NMR-derived structure of the farnesylated human PEX19 CTD, which reveals that the farnesyl moiety is buried in an internal hydrophobic cavity. This induces substantial conformational changes that allosterically reshape the PEX19 surface to form two hydrophobic pockets for the recognition of conserved aromatic/aliphatic side chains in PMPs. Mutations of PEX19 residues that either mediate farnesyl contacts or are directly involved in PMP recognition abolish cargo binding and cannot complement a ?PEX19 phenotype in human Zellweger patient fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate an allosteric mechanism for the modulation of protein function by farnesylation.
Project description:Peroxisomes require peroxin (Pex) proteins for their biogenesis. The interaction between Pex3p, which resides on the peroxisomal membrane, and Pex19p, which resides in the cytosol, is crucial for peroxisome formation and the post-translational targeting of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). It is not known how Pex3p promotes the specific interaction with Pex19p for the purpose of PMP translocation. Here, we present the three-dimensional structure of the complex between a cytosolic domain of Pex3p and the binding-region peptide of Pex19p. The overall shape of Pex3p is a prolate spheroid with a novel fold, the 'twisted six-helix bundle.' The Pex19p-binding site is at an apex of the Pex3p spheroid. A 16-residue region of the Pex19p peptide forms an ?-helix and makes a contact with Pex3p; this helix is disordered in the unbound state. The Pex19p peptide contains a characteristic motif, consisting of the leucine triad (Leu18, Leu21, Leu22), and Phe29, which are critical for the Pex3p binding and peroxisome biogenesis.
Project description:Several yeast and mammalian peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) are delivered to peroxisomes via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fluorescence microscopy showed a focused assembly of PMPs in a specialized domain of the ER, referred to as the preperoxisomal ER. It is proposed that preperoxisomal vesicles containing PMPs bud from this domain to either fuse with preexisting peroxisomes or to mature into functional peroxisomes by uptake of peroxisomal membrane and matrix proteins. However, such vesicular entities are not identified nor are the biochemical requirements for the budding process known. We developed an in vitro cell-free ER-budding assay using Pichia pastoris and followed two endogenous PMPs, Pex11p and Pex3p during their ER exit. Both the PMPs were copackaged in the ER-budded vesicles that float on a Nycodenz gradient. PMP budding from the ER was dependent on ATP, temperature, cytosol, and Pex19p and generated preperoxisomal vesicles with an incomplete complement of PMPs. Surprisingly, Pex11p budding was independent of Pex3p; however, the budded vesicles were devoid of most of the PMPs otherwise present in the wild-type vesicles and might represent peroxisomal remnants. Our findings provide a biochemical platform to uncover the mechanism of PMP budding from the ER.
Project description:The protein Pex19p functions as a receptor and chaperone of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). The crystal structure of the folded C-terminal part of the receptor reveals a globular domain that displays a bundle of three long helices in an antiparallel arrangement. Complementary functional experiments, using a range of truncated Pex19p constructs, show that the structured alpha-helical domain binds PMP-targeting signal (mPTS) sequences with about 10 muM affinity. Removal of a conserved N-terminal helical segment from the mPTS recognition domain impairs the ability for mPTS binding, indicating that it forms part of the mPTS-binding site. Pex19p variants with mutations in the same sequence segment abolish correct cargo import. Our data indicate a divided N-terminal and C-terminal structural arrangement in Pex19p, which is reminiscent of a similar division in the Pex5p receptor, to allow separation of cargo-targeting signal recognition and additional functions.
Project description:Two distinct pathways have recently been proposed for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs): a Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I pathway and a Pex19p- and Pex3p-independent class II pathway. We show here that Pex19p plays an essential role as the chaperone for full-length Pex3p in the cytosol. Pex19p forms a soluble complex with newly synthesized Pex3p in the cytosol and directly translocates it to peroxisomes. Knockdown of Pex19p inhibits peroxisomal targeting of newly synthesized full-length Pex3p and results in failure of the peroxisomal localization of Pex3p. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pex16p functions as the Pex3p-docking site and serves as the peroxisomal membrane receptor that is specific to the Pex3p-Pex19p complexes. Based on these novel findings, we suggest a model for the import of PMPs that provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of peroxisomes and its regulation involving Pex3p, Pex19p, and Pex16p.
Project description:The processes of peroxisome formation and proliferation are still a matter of debate. We have previously shown that peroxisomes share some components of their division machinery with mitochondria. hFis1, a tail-anchored membrane protein, regulates the membrane fission of both organelles by DLP1/Drp1 recruitment, but nothing is known about the mechanisms of the dual targeting of hFis1. Here we demonstrate for the first time that peroxisomal targeting of hFis1 depends on Pex19p, a peroxisomal membrane protein import factor. hFis1/Pex19p binding was demonstrated by expression and co-immunoprecipitation studies. Using mutated versions of hFis1 an essential binding region for Pex19p was located within the last 26 C-terminal amino acids of hFis1, which are required for proper targeting to both mitochondria and peroxisomes. The basic amino acids in the very C terminus are not essential for Pex19p binding and peroxisomal targeting, but are instead required for mitochondrial targeting. Silencing of Pex19p by small interference RNA reduced the targeting of hFis1 to peroxisomes, but not to mitochondria. In contrast, overexpression of Pex19p alone was not sufficient to shift the targeting of hFis1 to peroxisomes. Our findings indicate that targeting of hFis1 to peroxisomes and mitochondria are independent events and support a direct, Pex19p-dependent targeting of peroxisomal tail-anchored proteins.