Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in JAK3, STAT4, and STAT6 with new cardiovascular events in incident dialysis patients.
ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence supports a role for cell-mediated immunity in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in JAK3, STAT4, and STAT6 of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-Stat) signal transduction pathway were examined for association with time to new cardiovascular events in incident dialysis patients from the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for End-Stage Renal Disease Study.Prospective cohort study.764 white (n = 518) and black (n = 246) participants from 79 dialysis centers.SNPs in JAK3, STAT4, and STAT6 selected using a pairwise approach to identify a maximally informative set of tag SNPs for populations of European and African descent.Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident cardiovascular disease events after dialysis therapy initiation associated with each race-specific SNP.2 European tag SNPs (rs3212780 and rs3213409) in JAK3 were associated with new cardiovascular disease events in white patients with unadjusted HRs of 1.92 (P < 0.001) and 1.82 (P = 0.07), respectively. One dual-tag SNP (rs3212752) in JAK3 was associated with new cardiovascular events in white patients with an unadjusted HR of 2.09 (P < 0.001) and in black patients with an HR of 2.07 (P = 0.007). SNP rs3213409 codes for a valine to isoleucine change at amino acid 722, a potentially functional mutation. SNPs in STAT4 and STAT6 were not associated with cardiovascular events after the initiation of dialysis therapy.This study does not provide direct evidence for the mechanism of increased risk. Replication in independent cohorts is necessary.Genetic polymorphisms in the Jak-Stat signaling pathway are associated with an increased risk of new cardiovascular events in incident dialysis patients.
Project description:Impaired function of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway genes leads to immunodeficiency and various hematopoietic disorders. We evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 JAK/STAT pathway genes (JAK3, STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, STAT5b, STAT6, SCOS1, SCOS2, SCOS3, and SCOS4) and NHL risk in a population-based case-control study of Connecticut women. We identified three SNPs in STAT3 (rs12949918 and rs6503695) and STAT4 (rs932169) associated with NHL risk after adjustment for multiple comparison. Our results suggest that genetic variation in JAK/STAT pathway genes may play a role in lymphomagenesis and warrants further investigation.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality. JAK/STAT signalling pathway is involved in autoimmune diseases and in the atherosclerotic process. JAK3 is a highly promising target for immunomodulatory drugs and polymorphisms in JAK3 gene have been associated with CV events in incident dialysis patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential role of JAK3 polymorphisms in the development of CV disease in patients with RA. 2136 Spanish RA patients were genotyped for the rs3212780 and rs3212752 JAK3 gene polymorphisms by TaqMan assays. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated in 539 of these patients by carotid ultrasonography (US). No statistically significant differences were found when each polymorphism was assessed according to carotid intima-media thickness values and presence/absence of carotid plaques in RA, after adjusting the results for potential confounders. Moreover, no significant differences were obtained when RA patients were stratified according to the presence/absence of CV events after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, our results do not confirm association between JAK3 polymorphisms and CV disease in RA.
Project description:The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is involved in immune function and cell growth. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in JAK1 (10 SNPs), JAK2 (9 SNPs), TYK2 (5 SNPs), suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 (2 SNPs), SOCS2 (2 SNPs), STAT1 (16 SNPs), STAT2 (2 SNPs), STAT3 (6 SNPs), STAT4 (21 SNPs), STAT5A (2 SNPs), STAT5B (3 SNPs), STAT6 (4 SNPs) with risk of colorectal cancer. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n?=?1555 cases, 1,956 controls; rectal cancer n?=?754 cases, 959 controls). JAK2, SOCS2, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, and STAT6 were associated with colon cancer; STAT3, STAT4, STAT6, and TYK2 were associated with rectal cancer. Given the biological role of the JAK/STAT-signaling pathway and cytokines, we evaluated interaction with IFNG, TNF, and IL6; numerous statistically significant associations after adjustment for multiple comparisons were observed. The following statistically significant interactions were observed: TYK2 with aspirin/NSAID use; STAT1, STAT4, and TYK2 with estrogen status; and JAK2, STAT2, STAT4, STAT5A, STAT5B, and STAT6 with smoking status and colon cancer risk; JAK2, STAT6, and TYK2 with aspirin/NSAID use; JAK1 with estrogen status; STAT2 with cigarette smoking and rectal cancer. JAK2, SOCS1, STAT3, STAT5, and TYK2 were associated with colon cancer survival (hazard rate ratio (HRR) of 3.3 95% CI 2.01,5.42 for high mutational load). JAK2, SOCS1, STAT1, STAT4, and TYK2 were associated with rectal cancer survival (HRR 2.80 95% CI 1.63,4.80). These data support the importance of the JAK/STAT-signaling pathway in colorectal cancer and suggest targets for intervention.
Project description:Dialysis patients have high cardiovascular mortality risk. This study aimed to investigate the association between SNPs of genes involved in vascular processes and mortality in dialysis patients.Forty two SNPs in 25 genes involved in endothelial function, vascular remodeling, cell proliferation, inflammation, coagulation and calcium/phosphate metabolism were genotyped in 1330 incident dialysis patients. The effect of SNPs on 5-years cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality was investigated.The mortality rate was 114/1000 person-years and 49.4% of total mortality was cardiovascular. After correction for multiple testing, VEGF rs699947 was associated with all-cause mortality (HR1.48, 95% CI 1.14-1.92). The other SNPs were not associated with mortality.This study provides further evidence that a SNP in the VEGF gene may contribute to the comorbid conditions of dialysis patients. Future studies should unravel the underlying mechanisms responsible for the increase in mortality in these patients.
Project description:Deregulation of STAT signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis for a variety of cancers, including CTCL. Recent reports indicate that loss of STAT4 expression is an important prognostic marker for CTCL progression and is associated with the acquisition of T helper 2 cell phenotype by malignant cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism behind the downregulation of STAT4 in this cancer. In the current work we test the expression of STAT4 and STAT6 via RT-PCR and/or Western Blot in CTCL lesional skin samples and in immortalized patient-derived cell lines. In these malignant cell lines we correlate the expression of STAT4 and STAT6 with the T helper (Th) phenotype markers and test the effect of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and siRNA-mediated knock down of miR-155 on STAT4 expression. Our findings demonstrate that STAT4 expression correlates with Th1 phenotype, while STAT6 is associated with the Th2 phenotype. Our results further document that STAT4 and STAT6 genes are inversely regulated in CTCL. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors upregulates STAT4 expression, while at the same time decreases STAT6 expression in MyLa cells. Also, siRNA-mediated knock down of miR-155 leads to upregulation in STAT4 expression in MyLa cells. In summary, our results suggest that loss of STAT4 expression and associated switch to Th2 phenotype during Mycosis Fungoides progression may be driven via aberrant histone acetylation and/or upregulation of oncogenic miR-155 microRNA.
Project description:Cigarette smoking is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population, but the effect of smoking on these outcomes in the dialysis population is less well studied.Systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.Adults treated with long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR INCLUDED STUDIES: Cohort studies of unselected dialysis patients reporting the association between smoking status and cardiovascular morbidity and/or mortality.Smoking status (determined using patient report).(1) All-cause or cardiovascular mortality; (2) incident cardiovascular events.We identified 34 studies that fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Of these, 26 studies provided data for smoking and mortality and 10 (n = 6,538) were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled HR for all-cause mortality in smokers compared with nonsmokers was 1.65 (95% CI, 1.26-2.14; P < 0.001). 11 studies provided data for smoking and incident cardiovascular events; 5 (pooled n = 845) were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled HR for composite cardiovascular events in smokers compared with nonsmokers was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.98-1.05; P = 0.4).Data for these meta-analyses were heterogeneous. Few individual studies assessed smoking as the primary variable of interest.Active smoking is associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality in dialysis patients, although there was no corresponding increased risk of cardiovascular events.
Project description:Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and STAT6 are key factors in the specification of helper T cells; however, their direct roles in driving differentiation are not well understood. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and massive parallel sequencing, we quantitated the full complement of STAT-bound genes, concurrently assessing global STAT-dependent epigenetic modifications and gene transcription by using cells from cognate STAT-deficient mice. STAT4 and STAT6 each bound over 4000 genes with distinct binding motifs. Both played critical roles in maintaining chromatin configuration and transcription of a core subset of genes through the combination of different epigenetic patterns. Globally, STAT4 had a more dominant role in promoting active epigenetic marks, whereas STAT6 had a more prominent role in antagonizing repressive marks. Clusters of genes negatively regulated by STATs were also identified, highlighting previously unappreciated repressive roles of STATs. Therefore, STAT4 and STAT6 play wide regulatory roles in T helper cell specification.
Project description:To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5.30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in five new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analysed by 5'-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR.In the fine mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals, represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. Transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating the presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4, was also detected. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis.These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. The results also indicate that the genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase the risk for SLE.
Project description:We herein investigated the role of the STAT signaling cascade in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cisplatin ototoxicity. A significant hearing impairment caused by cisplatin injection was observed in Balb/c (wild type, WT) and STAT4(-/-), but not in STAT6(-/-) mice. Moreover, the expression levels of the protein and mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6, were markedly increased in the serum and cochlea of WT and STAT4(-/-), but not STAT6(-/-) mice. Organotypic culture revealed that the shape of stereocilia bundles and arrays of sensory hair cell layers in the organ of Corti from STAT6(-/-) mice were intact after treatment with cisplatin, whereas those from WT and STAT4(-/-) mice were highly distorted and disarrayed after the treatment. Cisplatin induced the phosphorylation of STAT6 in HEI-OC1 auditory cells, and the knockdown of STAT6 by STAT6-specific siRNA significantly protected HEI-OC1 auditory cells from cisplatin-induced cell death and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We further demonstrated that IL-4 and IL-13 induced by cisplatin modulated the phosphorylation of STAT6 by binding with IL-4 receptor alpha and IL-13R?1. These findings suggest that STAT6 signaling plays a pivotal role in cisplatin-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ototoxicity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Recent molecular and genetic investigations have suggested that the current nosology for major psychiatric disorders, based on the "two-entities-principal" is not accurate with respect to clinical observations; patient groups that do not fit to the current operative diagnostic boundaries are readily identified. We aimed to perform an investigation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) gene (located on 12q13), which has an important role in the apoptotic cascade, with patients suffering from periodic psychosis. METHODS:Genetic association study has been employed for the current work. Investigated six tag-SNPs were chosen from Hapmap database. RESULTS:Among six tag-SNPs, one marker (rs10783813), located in the STAT6 gene, showed modest association (p<0.05), although no marker or haplotype block showed association after Bonferroni's correction. CONCLUSION:Future studies will reveal the etiological role of STAT6, and of other genes of the apoptotic cascade, in major psychiatric disorders.