Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant VP2 capsids for the detection of antibodies to Aleutian mink disease virus.
ABSTRACT: Aleutian disease (AD), a common infectious disease in farmed minks worldwide, is caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Serodiagnosis of AD in minks has been based on detection of AMDV antibodies by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) since the 1980s. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for identifying AMDV antibodies from mink sera. AMDV capsid protein (VP2) of a Finnish wild-type strain was expressed by the baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 insect cells and was shown to self-assemble to VLPs (with an ultrastructure similar to that of the actual virion). A direct immunoglobulin G ELISA was established using purified recombinant AMDV VP2 VLPs as an antigen. Sera from farmed minks were collected to evaluate the AMDV VP2 ELISA (n = 316) and CIE (n = 209) based on AMDV VP2 recombinant antigen in parallel with CIE performed using a commercially available traditional antigen. CIE performed with the recombinant antigen had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and ELISA a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 97%, with reference to CIE performed with the commercial antigen. The results show that the recombinant AMDV VP2 VLPs are antigenic and that AMDV VP2 ELISA is sensitive and specific and encourage further development of the method for high-throughput diagnostics, involving hundreds of thousands of samples in Finland annually.
Project description:Aleutian disease (AD) is a common immunosuppressive disease in mink farms world-wide. Since the 1980s, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has been the main detection method for infection with the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV). In this study, six peptides derived from the AMDV structural protein VP2 were designed, synthesized, and used as ELISA antigens to detect anti-AMDV antibodies in the sera of infected minks. Serum samples were collected from 764 minks in farms from five different provinces, and analyzed by both CIEP (a gold standard) and peptide ELISA. A peptide designated P1 (415 aa-433 aa) exhibited good antigenicity. A novel ELISA was developed using ovalbumin-linked peptide P1 to detect anti-AMDV antibodies in mink sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the peptide ELISA was 98.0% and 97.5%, respectively. Moreover, the ELISA also detected 342 early-stage infected samples (negative by CIEP and positive by PCR), of which 43.6% (149/342) were true positives. These results showed that the peptide ELISA had better sensitivity compared with CIEP, and therefore could be preferable over CIEP for detecting anti-AMDV antibodies in serological screening.
Project description:For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) causes Aleutian mink disease (AMD), which is a serious infectious disease of mink. The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in northeast China to control and prevent AMD from further spreading. This study for the first time isolated AMDV from fecal swab samples of mink in China.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 157/291 (54.0%) of the fecal swab samples were positive for AMDV. Of these, 23 AMDV positive samples were randomly selected for sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the acquired partial fragments of VP2 gene with the hypervariable region. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of 23 AMDV isolates with a reference nonpathogenic (AMDV-G) strain revealed 8.3% difference in partial VP2 nucleotide sequences. Amino acid alignment indicated the presence of several genetic variants, as well as one single amino acid residue deletion. The most concentrated area of variation was located in the hypervariable region of VP2 protein. According to phylogenetic analysis, the Chinese AMDV strains and the other reference AMDV strains from different countries clustered into three groups (clades A, B and C). Most of the newly sequenced strains were found to form a Chinese-specific group, which solely consisted of Chinese AMDV strains.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings indicated that a high genetic diversity was found in Chinese AMDV strains and the virus distribution were not dependent on geographical origin. Both local and imported AMDV positive species were prevalent in the Chinese mink farming population. The genetic evidence of AMDV variety and epidemic isolates have importance in mink farming practice.
Project description:Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus' molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild.
Project description:Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), which causes Aleutian disease, is widely spread both in farmed mink and wild mustelids. However, only limited data are available on the role of wild animals in AMDV transmission and spread. Our aim was to shed light on AMDV transmission among wild mustelids and estimate the effect of intense farming practices on the virus circulation by studying AMDV prevalence and genetic diversity among wild mustelids in Poland. We compared AMDV seroprevalence and proportion of PCR-positive individuals in American mink, polecats, otters, stone martens, and pine martens and used the phylogenetic analysis of the NS1 region to study transmission. In addition, we used a metagenomic approach to sequence complete AMDV genomes from tissue samples. In eastern Poland, AMDV seroprevalence in wild mustelids varied from 22 per cent in otters to 62 per cent and 64 per cent in stone martens and feral mink, respectively. All studied antibody-positive mink were also PCR positive, whereas only 10, 15, and 18 per cent of antibody-positive polecats, pine martens, and stone martens, respectively, were PCR positive, suggesting lower virus persistence among these animal species as compared to feral mink. In phylogenetic analysis, most sequences from feral mink formed region-specific clusters that have most likely emerged through multiple introductions of AMDV to feral mink population over decades. However, virus spread between regions was also observed. Virus sequences derived from farmed and wild animals formed separate subclusters in the phylogenetic tree, and no signs of recent virus transmission between farmed and wild animals were observed despite the frequent inflow of farmed mink escapees to wild populations. These results provide new information about the role of different mustelid species in AMDV transmission and about virus circulation among the wild mustelids. In addition, we pinpoint gaps of knowledge, where more studies are needed to achieve a comprehensive picture of AMDV transmission.
Project description:Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) is the only virus in the genus Amdovirus of family Parvoviridae. In adult mink, AMDV causes a persistent infection associated with severe dysfunction of the immune system. Cleavage of AMDV capsid proteins has been previously shown to play a role in regulating progeny virus production (Fang Cheng et al., J. Virol. 84:2687-2696, 2010). The present study shows that AMDV has evolved a second strategy to limit expression of capsid proteins by preventing processing of the full-length capsid protein-encoding mRNA transcripts. Characterization of the cis-elements of the proximal polyadenylation site [(pA)p] in the infectious clone of AMDV revealed that polyadenylation at the (pA)p site is controlled by an upstream element (USE) of 200 nts in length, the AAUAAA signal, and a downstream element (DSE) of 40 nts. A decrease in polyadenylation at the (pA)p site, either by mutating the AAUAAA signal or the DSE, which does not affect the encoding of amino acids in the infectious clone, increased the expression of capsid protein VP1/VP2 and thereby increased progeny virus production approximately 2-3-fold. This increase was accompanied by enhanced replication of the AMDV genome. Thus, this study reveals correlations among internal polyadenylation, capsid production, viral DNA replication and progeny virus production of AMDV, indicating that internal polyadenylation is a limiting step for parvovirus replication and progeny virus production.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes major economic losses in fur-bearing animal production. The control of most AMDV outbreaks is complex due to the difficulties of establishing the source of infection based only on the available on-farm epidemiological data. In this sense, phylogenetic analysis of the strains present in a farm may help elucidate the origin of the infection and improve the control and biosecurity measures. OBJECTIVES:This study had the following aims: characterize the AMDV strains from most outbreaks produced at Spanish farms between 2012-2019 at the molecular level, and assess the utility of the combined use of molecular and epidemiological data to track the possible routes of infection. METHODS:Thirty-seven strains from 17 farms were partially sequenced for the NS1 and VP2 genes and analyzed phylogenetically with other strains described worldwide. RESULTS:Spanish AMDV strains are clustered in four major clades that generally show a good geographical correlation, confirming that most had been established in Spain a long time ago. The combined study of phylogenetic results and epidemiological information of each farm suggests that most of the AMDV outbreaks since 2012 had been produced by within-farm reservoirs, while a few of them may have been due to the introduction of the virus through international trade. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of phylogenetic inference, together with epidemiological data, helps assess the possible origin of AMDV infections in mink farms and improving the control and prevention of this disease.
Project description:A reevaluation of the transcription profile of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV)-infected CRFK cells at either 32 degrees C or 37 degrees C has determined that strain AMDV-G encodes six species of mRNAs produced by alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of a pre-mRNA generated by a single promoter at the left end of the genome. Three different splicing patterns are used, and each type is found polyadenylated at either the 3' end of the genome (the distal site) or at a site in the center of the genome (the proximal site). All spliced species accumulate similarly over the course of infection, with the R2 RNA predominant throughout. The R2 RNA, which contains and can express the NS2 coding region, encodes the viral capsid proteins VP1 and VP2.
Project description:Mink enteritis virus (MEV) causes mink viral enteritis, an acute and highly contagious disease whose symptoms include violent diarrhea, and which is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoPCR) is a recently developed technique for the rapid detection of bacterial and viral DNA. Here we describe a novel nanoPCR assay for the clinical detection and epidemiological characterization of MEV.This assay is based upon primers specific for the conserved region of the MEV NS1 gene, which encodes nonstructural protein 1. Under optimized conditions, the MEV nanoPCR assay had a detection limit of 8.75?×?10(1) copies recombinant plasmids per reaction, compared with 8.75?×?10(3) copies for conventional PCR analysis. Moreover, of 246 clinical mink samples collected from five provinces in North-Eastern China, 50.8% were scored MEV positive by our nanoPCR assay, compared with 32.5% for conventional PCR. Furthermore no cross reactivity was observed for the nanoPCR assay with respect to related viruses, including canine distemper virus (CDV) and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV). Phylogenetic analysis of four Chinese wild type MEV isolates using the nanoPCR assay indicated that they belonged to a small MEV clade, named "China type", in the MEV/FPLV cluster, and were closely clustered in the same location.Our results indicate that the MEV China type clade is currently circulating in domestic minks in China. We anticipate that the nanoPCR assay we have described here will be useful for the detection and epidemiological and pathological characterization of MEV.
Project description:Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.