G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression and activity are associated with blood pressure in black Americans.
ABSTRACT: Hypertension occurs with higher prevalence and morbidity in black Americans compared with other groups. Alterations in the signal transduction pathways of 7-transmembrane spanning receptors are found in hypertensive patients. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) play an important role in regulating this receptor signaling. The 2 most abundantly expressed GRKs in the cardiovascular system are GRK2 and GRK5, and each has unique substrates. Understanding changes in expression may give us insight into activated receptors in the pathophysiological progression of hypertension. In heart failure and white hypertensives, increased GRK2 expression arises because of neurohormonal stimulation of particular receptors. GRK2 subsequently desensitizes specific receptors, including beta-adrenergic receptors. In blood pressure control, beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization could lead to increased blood pressure. GRK2 and GRK5 mRNA were evaluated in lymphocytes of black Americans via quantitative real-time PCR. GRK2 mRNA expression directly correlated with systolic blood pressure and norepinephrine levels. GRK2 was elevated >30% among those with systolic blood pressure > or =130 mm Hg. No significant correlation between GRK5 mRNA expression and blood pressure or catecholamines was observed. Diabetic status, age, sex, and body mass index were also compared with GRK2 expression using univariate and multivariate analyses. GRK2 protein expression was elevated 2-fold in subjects with higher blood pressure, and GRK activity was increased >40%. Our data suggest that GRK2, but not GRK5, is correlated with increasing blood pressure in black Americans. Understanding the receptors stimulated by increased neurohormonal activation may give insight into the pathophysiology of hypertension in this at-risk population.
Project description:G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) regulate adult hearts by modulating inotropic, chronotropic and hypertrophic signaling of 7-transmembrane spanning neurohormone receptors. GRK-mediated desensitization and downregulation of ?-adrenergic receptors has been implicated in adult heart failure; GRKs are therefore a promising therapeutic target. However, germ-line (but not cardiomyocyte-specific) GRK2 deletion provoked lethal fetal heart defects, suggesting an unexplained role for GRKs in heart development. Here we undertook to better understand the consequences of GRK deficiency on fetal heart development by creating mice and cultured murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) having floxed GRK2 and GRK5 alleles on the GRK6 null background; simultaneous conditional deletion of these 3 GRK genes was achieved using Nkx2-5 Cre or adenoviral Cre, respectively. Phenotypes were related to GRK-modulated gene expression using whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing, RT-qPCR, and luciferase reporter assays. In cultured MEFs the atypical 7-transmembrane spanning protein and GRK2 substrate Smoothened (Smo) stimulated Gli-mediated transcriptional activity, which was interrupted by deleting GRK2/5/6. Mice with Nkx2-5 Cre mediated GRK2/5/6 ablation died between E15.5 and E16.5, whereas mice expressing any one of these 3 GRKs (i.e. GRK2/5, GRK2/6 or GRK5/6 deleted) were developmentally normal. GRK2/5/6 triple null mice at E14.5 exhibited left and right heart blood intermixing through single atrioventricular valves or large membranous ventricular septal defects. Hedgehog and GATA pathway gene expression promoted by Smo/Gli was suppressed in GRK2/5/6 deficient fetal hearts and MEFs. These data indicate that GRK2, GRK5 and GRK6 redundantly modulate Smo-GATA crosstalk in fetal mouse hearts, orchestrating transcriptional pathways previously linked to clinical and experimental atrioventricular canal defects. GRK modulation of Smo reflects convergence of conventional neurohormonal signaling and transcriptional regulation pathways, comprising an unanticipated mechanism for spatiotemporal orchestration of developmental gene expression in the heart.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) play an important role in the desensitization of G protein-mediated signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The level of interest in mapping their phosphorylation sites has increased because recent studies suggest that the differential pattern of receptor phosphorylation has distinct biological consequences. In vitro phosphorylation experiments using well-controlled systems are useful for deciphering the complexity of these physiological reactions and understanding the targeted event. Here, we report on the phosphorylation of the class A GPCR neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) by GRKs under defined experimental conditions afforded by nanodisc technology. Phosphorylation of NTSR1 by GRK2 was agonist-dependent, whereas phosphorylation by GRK5 occurred in an activation-independent manner. In addition, the negatively charged lipids in the immediate vicinity of NTSR1 directly affect phosphorylation by GRKs. Identification of phosphorylation sites in agonist-activated NTSR1 revealed that GRK2 and GRK5 target different residues located on the intracellular receptor elements. GRK2 phosphorylates only the C-terminal Ser residues, whereas GRK5 phosphorylates Ser and Thr residues located in intracellular loop 3 and the C-terminus. Interestingly, phosphorylation assays using a series of NTSR1 mutants show that GRK2 does not require acidic residues upstream of the phospho-acceptors for site-specific phosphorylation, in contrast to the ?2-adrenergic and ?-opioid receptors. Differential phosphorylation of GPCRs by GRKs is thought to encode a particular signaling outcome, and our in vitro study revealed NTSR1 differential phosphorylation by GRK2 and GRK5.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are critical regulators of cellular signaling and function. In cardiomyocytes, GRK2 and GRK5 are two GRKs important for myocardial regulation, and both have been shown to be up-regulated in the dysfunctional heart. We report that increased levels and activity of GRK5 in failing myocardium may have unique significance due to its nuclear localization, a property not shared by GRK2. We find that transgenic mice with elevated cardiac GRK5 levels have exaggerated hypertrophy and early heart failure compared with control mice after pressure overload. This pathology is not present in cardiac GRK2-overexpressing mice or in mice with overexpression of a mutant GRK5 that is excluded from the nucleus. Nuclear accumulation of GRK5 is enhanced in myocytes after aortic banding in vivo and in vitro in myocytes after increased G alpha q activity, the trigger for pressure-overload hypertrophy. GRK5 enhances activation of MEF2 in concert with Gq signals, demonstrating that nuclear localized GRK5 regulates gene transcription via a pathway critically linked to myocardial hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we show that this is due to GRK5 acting, in a non-GPCR manner, as a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) kinase because it can associate with and phosphorylate the myocyte enhancer factor-2 repressor, HDAC5. Moreover, significant HDAC activity can be found with GRK5 in the heart. Our data show that GRK5 is a nuclear HDAC kinase that plays a key role in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy apparently independent of any action directly on GPCRs.
Project description:Beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) blockade is a standard therapy for cardiac failure and ischemia. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) desensitize betaARs, suggesting that genetic GRK variants might modify outcomes in these syndromes. Re-sequencing of GRK2 and GRK5 revealed a nonsynonymous polymorphism of GRK5, common in African Americans, in which leucine is substituted for glutamine at position 41. GRK5-Leu41 uncoupled isoproterenol-stimulated responses more effectively than did GRK5-Gln41 in transfected cells and transgenic mice, and, like pharmacological betaAR blockade, GRK5-Leu41 protected against experimental catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Human association studies showed a pharmacogenomic interaction between GRK5-Leu41 and beta-blocker treatment, in which the presence of the GRK5-Leu41 polymorphism was associated with decreased mortality in African Americans with heart failure or cardiac ischemia. In 375 prospectively followed African-American subjects with heart failure, GRK5-Leu41 protected against death or cardiac transplantation. Enhanced betaAR desensitization of excessive catecholamine signaling by GRK5-Leu41 provides a 'genetic beta-blockade' that improves survival in African Americans with heart failure, suggesting a reason for conflicting results of beta-blocker clinical trials in this population.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) acting in the cardiomyocyte regulate important signaling events that control cardiac function. Both GRK2 and GRK5, the predominant GRKs expressed in the heart, have been shown to be upregulated in failing human myocardium. Although the canonical role of GRKs is to desensitize G protein-coupled receptors via phosphorylation, it has been demonstrated that GRK5, unlike GRK2, can reside in the nucleus of myocytes and exert G protein-coupled receptor-independent effects that promote maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.To explore novel mechanisms by which GRK5 acting in the nucleus of cardiomyocytes participates in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.In this study, we have found that GRK5-mediated pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) because GRK5 causes enhancement of NFAT-mediated hypertrophic gene transcription. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific GRK5 overexpression activate an NFAT-reporter in mice basally and after hypertrophic stimulation, including transverse aortic constriction and phenylephrine treatment. Complimentary to this, GRK5 null mice exhibit less NFAT transcriptional activity after transverse aortic constriction. Furthermore, the loss of NFATc3 expression in the heart protected GRK5 overexpressing transgenic mice from the exaggerated hypertrophy and early progression to heart failure seen after transverse aortic constriction. Molecular studies suggest that GRK5 acts in concert with NFAT to increase hypertrophic gene transcription in the nucleus via GRK5's ability to bind DNA directly without a phosphorylation event.GRK5, acting in a kinase independent manner, is a facilitator of NFAT activity and part of a DNA-binding complex responsible for pathological hypertrophic gene transcription.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) regulate the desensitization and internalization of GPCRs. Two of these, GRK2 and GRK5, are upregulated in heart failure and are promising targets for heart failure treatment. Although there have been several reports of potent and selective inhibitors of GRK2 there are few for GRK5. Herein, we describe a ligand docking approach utilizing the crystal structures of the GRK2-G??·GSK180736A and GRK5·CCG215022 complexes to search for amide substituents predicted to confer GRK2 and/or GRK5 potency and selectivity. From this campaign, we successfully generated two new potent GRK5 inhibitors, although neither exhibited selectivity over GRK2.
Project description:Combined ablation of all 3 cardiac-expressed GRKs in the developing mouse heart impaired Hedgehog/Smoothened and GATA signaling, recapitulating heart abnormalities of human Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect. Overall design: Cardiac transcriptomes from mouse E13.5 hearts (8 wt, 8 haploinsufficient GRK2+/-GRK5-/-GRK6-/- and 7 GRK-triple knockout GRK2-/-GRK5-/-GRK6-/-) were generated via Illumina RiboZeroGold rRNA depletion and subsequent single-end 50 nt sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2500
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) regulate cell signaling by initiating the desensitization of active G protein-coupled receptors. The two most widely expressed GRKs (GRK2 and GRK5) play a role in cardiovascular disease and thus represent important targets for the development of novel therapeutic drugs. In the course of a GRK2 structure-based drug design campaign, one inhibitor (CCG215022) exhibited nanomolar IC50 values against both GRK2 and GRK5 and good selectivity against other closely related kinases such as GRK1 and PKA. Treatment of murine cardiomyocytes with CCG215022 resulted in significantly increased contractility at 20-fold lower concentrations than paroxetine, an inhibitor with more modest selectivity for GRK2. A 2.4 Å crystal structure of the GRK5·CCG215022 complex was determined and revealed that the inhibitor binds in the active site similarly to its parent compound GSK180736A. As designed, its 2-pyridylmethyl amide side chain occupies the hydrophobic subsite of the active site where it forms three additional hydrogen bonds, including one with the catalytic lysine. The overall conformation of the GRK5 kinase domain is similar to that of a previously determined structure of GRK6 in what is proposed to be its active state, but the C-terminal region of the enzyme adopts a distinct conformation. The kinetic properties of site-directed mutants in this region are consistent with the hypothesis that this novel C-terminal structure is representative of the membrane-bound conformation of the enzyme.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) GRK2 and GRK5 are important regulators of ?-adrenergic signaling. This study characterized single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GRK2 gene (ADRBK1) and determined if these and a GRK5 Gln41Leu polymorphism affect the blood pressure (BP) response to atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide or adverse cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensives. METHODS:ADRBK1 regions were sequenced for 48 individuals. Putative functional SNPs were tested for mRNA expression differences in 96 lymphoblastoid cell line samples and 12 leukocyte samples from hypertensives. BP response to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide by ADRBK1 SNPs and GRK5 Gln41Leu was tested in 418 patients from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study using linear regression. The influence of ADRBK1 SNPs and GRK5 Gln41Leu on death, myocardial infarction or stroke in treated hypertensives was evaluated in a case-control cohort (1 : 3) of the International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril Study GENEtic Substudy using logistic regression models. RESULTS:A novel ADRBK1 promoter SNP was not associated with differential GRK2 expression. GRK5 Leu41 decreased the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes independent of treatment strategy (adjusted odds ratio 0.535, 95% confidence interval: 0.313-0.951, P=0.0222), but was not associated with BP response to antihypertensive medication. An ADRBK1 SNP (rs1894111 G>A) showed a signal for association with systolic and diastolic BP response to hydrochlorothiazide in Whites [diastolic BP: -11.29±3.74 (G/A) versus -4.26±4.79 mmHg (G/G), P=0.0034 and systolic BP: -18.37±14.90 (G/A), -8.11±7.55 mmHg (G/G), P=0.0191]. CONCLUSION:The GRK5 Leu41 allele protects from adverse cardiovascular outcomes in treated hypertensives.
Project description:Aldosterone (Aldo), when overproduced, is a cardiotoxic hormone underlying heart failure and hypertension. Aldo exerts damaging effects via the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) but also activates the antiapoptotic G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in the heart. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-kinase (GRK)-2 and -5 are the most abundant cardiac GRKs and phosphorylate GPCRs as well as non-GPCR substrates. Herein, we investigated whether they phosphorylate and regulate cardiac MR and GPER. To this end, we used the cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 and adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs), in which we manipulated GRK5 protein levels via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 and GRK2 activity via pharmacological inhibition. We report that GRK5 phosphorylates and inhibits the cardiac MR whereas GRK2 phosphorylates and desensitizes GPER. In H9c2 cardiomyocytes, GRK5 interacts with and phosphorylates the MR upon ?2-adrenergic receptor (AR) activation. In contrast, GRK2 opposes agonist-activated GPER signaling. Importantly, GRK5-dependent MR phosphorylation of the MR inhibits transcriptional activity, since aldosterone-induced gene transcription is markedly suppressed in GRK5-overexpressing cardiomyocytes. Conversely, GRK5 gene deletion augments cardiac MR transcriptional activity. ?2AR-stimulated GRK5 phosphorylates and inhibits the MR also in ARVMs. Additionally, GRK5 is necessary for the protective effects of the MR antagonist drug eplerenone against Aldo-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in ARVMs. In conclusion, GRK5 blocks the cardiotoxic MR-dependent effects of Aldo in the heart, whereas GRK2 may hinder beneficial effects of Aldo through GPER. Thus, cardiac GRK5 stimulation (e.g., via ?2AR activation) might be of therapeutic value for heart disease treatment via boosting the efficacy of MR antagonists against Aldo-mediated cardiac injury.