Mutation in Mpzl3, a novel [corrected] gene encoding a predicted [corrected] adhesion protein, in the rough coat (rc) mice with severe skin and hair abnormalities.
ABSTRACT: The rough coat (rc), an autosomal-recessive mutation, arose spontaneously in C57BL/6J mice. Homozygous rc mice develop severe skin and hair abnormalities, including cyclic and progressive hair loss and sebaceous gland hypertrophy. The rc locus was previously mapped to Chromosome 9. To elucidate the genetic basis underlying the rc phenotype development, we carried out positional cloning, and mapped the rc locus to a 246-kb interval. We identified a missense mutation within a novel open reading frame in the rc/rc mice, which is predicted to encode a cell adhesion molecule with the highest homology to myelin protein zero (MPZ) and myelin protein zero-like 2 (MPZL2, also called epithelial V-like antigen). We therefore named this gene Mpzl3 (myelin protein zero-like 3). The mutation in the rc/rc mice occurred at a highly conserved residue within the conserved Ig-like V-type domain, thus likely altering the MPZL3 protein function. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed expression of the Mpzl3 gene in various adult organs, including the skin. Using indirect immunofluorescence, we detected MPZL3 protein in the keratinocytes and sebocytes in the skin. Results from this study identified a novel gene encoding a predicted adhesion protein whose mutation in the rc/rc mice likely caused the rc phenotype.
Project description:The rough coat (rc) spontaneous mutation causes sebaceous gland (SG) hypertrophy, hair loss, and extracutaneous abnormalities including growth retardation. The rc mice have a missense mutation in the predicted Ig protein Myelin Protein Zero-Like 3 (Mpzl3). In this study, we generated Mpzl3 knockout mice to determine its functions in the skin. Homozygous Mpzl3 knockout mice showed unkempt and greasy hair coat and hair loss soon after birth. Histological analysis revealed severe SG hypertrophy and increased dermal thickness, but did not detect significant changes in the hair cycle. Mpzl3-null mice frequently developed inflammatory skin lesions; however, the early-onset skin abnormalities were not the result of immune defects. The abnormalities in the Mpzl3 knockout mice closely resemble those observed in rc/rc mice, and in mice heterozygous for both the rc and Mpzl3 knockout alleles, indicating that rc and Mpzl3 are allelic. Using a lacZ reporter gene, we detected Mpzl3 promoter activity in the companion layer and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, SG, and epidermis. Loss of MPZL3 function also caused a striking reduction in cutaneous and overall adipose tissue. These data reveal a complex role for Mpzl3 in the control of skin development, hair growth, and adipose cell functions.
Project description:We have recently reported a mutation within the conserved immunoglobulin V-type domain of the predicted adhesion protein Mpzl3 (MIM 611707) in rough coat (rc) mice with severe skin abnormalities and progressive cyclic hair loss. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the human orthologue MPZL3 on chromosome 11q23.3 is a candidate for similar symptoms in humans. The predicted conserved MPZL3 protein has two transmembrane motifs flanking an extracellular Ig-like domain. The R100Q rc mutation is within the Ig-domain recognition loop that has roles in T-cell receptors and cell adhesion. Results of the rc mouse study, 3D structure predictions, homology with Myelin Protein Zero and EVA1, comprehensive database analyses of polymorphisms and mutations within the human MPZL3 gene and its cell, tissue expression and immunostaining pattern indicate that homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of MPZL3 might be involved in immune-mediated human hereditary disorders with hair loss.
Project description:Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder. In this study, we demonstrated SD-like clinical features with associated histology in the Mpzl3 knockout(-/-) mice. Mpzl3-/- skin showed increased macrophage and CD4+ lymphocyte infiltration, however adaptive immunity was not required for the onset of skin inflammation. Furthermore, we detected epidermal barrier defects as suggested by increased dye permeability in Mpzl3-/- embryos and altered gene expression by microarray analysis in pup skin. Taken together, these findings suggest MPZL3 plays an essential role in epidermal differentiation and barrier function, and underscore the interplay between epidermal barrier and immunity in SD. The SD-like clinical and histologic features in the Mpzl3-/- mice also resemble those in patients carrying a frame-shift mutation in ZNF750, a key regulator of epidermal differentiation and a transcriptional activator of the MPZL3 gene. Therefore, we conclude that the ZNF750/MPZL3 pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SD, and a better understanding of skin inflammation and barrier restoration in the Mpzl3-/- mice will provide insight into the pathogenesis and treatment/prevention of recurrent SD. Overall design: Comparison of gene expression of Mpzl3 -/- and +/+ mouse skin: Total RNA was extracted from the dorsal skin of mouse pups with TriZol Reagent (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY) and purified with the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen, Germantown, MD). RNA was sent to the John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics Gene Expression Core Facility at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine for microarray analysis using the Agilent Whole Mouse Genome (4x44K) array from Agilent (Santa Clara, CA).
Project description:Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a hereditary neuropathy mainly caused by gene mutation of peripheral myelin proteins including myelin protein zero (P0, MPZ). Large myelin protein zero (L-MPZ) is an isoform of P0 that contains an extended polypeptide synthesized by translational readthrough at the C-terminus in tetrapods, including humans. The physiological role of L-MPZ and consequences of an altered L-MPZ/P0 ratio in peripheral myelin are not known. To clarify this, we used genome editing to generate a mouse line (L-MPZ mice) that produced L-MPZ instead of P0. Motor tests and electrophysiological, immunohistological, and electron microscopy analyses show that homozygous L-MPZ mice exhibit CMT-like phenotypes including thin and/or loose myelin, increased small-caliber axons, and disorganized axo-glial interactions. Heterozygous mice show a milder phenotype. These results highlight the importance of an appropriate L-MPZ/P0 ratio and show that aberrant readthrough of a myelin protein causes neuropathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) phenotype caused by mutation in the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene varies considerably, from early onset and severe forms to late onset and milder forms. The mechanism is not well understood. The myelin protein zero (P0) mediates adhesion in the spiral wraps of the Schwann cell's myelin sheath. The crystalline structure of the extracellular domain of the myelin protein zero (P0ex) is known, while the transmembrane and intracellular structure is unknown. FINDINGS: One novel missense mutation caused a milder late onset CMT type 2, while the second missense mutation caused a severe early onset phenotype compatible with Déjérine-Sottas syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotypic variation caused by different missense mutations in the MPZ gene is likely caused by different conformational changes of the MPZ protein which affects the functional tetramers. Severe changes of the MPZ protein cause dysfunctional tetramers and predominantly uncompacted myelin, i.e. the severe phenotypes congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy and Déjérine-Sottas syndrome, while milder changes cause the phenotypes CMT type 1 and 2.
Project description:Defective proteolysis has been implicated in hearing loss through the discovery of mutations causing autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in a type II transmembrane serine protease gene, TMPRSS3. To investigate their physiological function and the contribution of this family of proteases to the auditory function, we analyzed the hearing status of mice deficient for hepsin, also known as TMPRSS1. These mice exhibited profound hearing loss with elevated hearing thresholds compared with their heterozygous and wild-type littermates. Their cochleae showed abnormal tectorial membrane development, reduction in fiber compaction in the peripheral portion of the auditory nerve, and decreased expression of the myelin proteins myelin basic protein and myelin protein zero. In addition, reduced level of the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel was detected in the sensory hair cells of Tmprss1-null mice. We examined thyroid hormone levels in Tmprss1-deficient mice, as similar cochlear defects have been reported in animal models of hypothyroidism, and found significantly reduced free thyroxine levels. These data show that TMPRSS1 is required for normal auditory function. Hearing impairment present in Tmprss1-null mice is characterized by a combination of various structural, cellular, and molecular abnormalities that are likely to affect different cochlear processes.
Project description:Wrinkle-free (wrfr) is a previously uncharacterized, spontaneous, autosomal recessive mouse mutation resulting in very tight, thick skin. wrfr mutant mice exhibit severe breathing difficulties secondary to their tight skin and die shortly after birth. This phenotype is strikingly similar to a very rare human genetic disorder, restrictive dermopathy. wrfr mutant mice display a defective skin barrier, which is normally imparted by the cornified envelope, a composite of protein and lipid that prevents loss of water from within and entry of potentially harmful substances from without. In addition, hair growth from grafted wrfr skin is impaired. Positional cloning of the wrfr mutation revealed a retrotransposon insertion into a coding exon of Slc27a4, the gene encoding fatty acid transport protein (FATP)4. FATP4 is the primary intestinal FATP and is thought to play a major role in dietary fatty acid uptake; it therefore is viewed as a target to prevent or reverse obesity. However, its function in vivo had not been determined. Our results demonstrate an unexpected yet critical role for FATP4 in skin and hair development and suggest Slc27a4 to be a candidate gene for restrictive dermopathy.
Project description:Protein zero (P0) is the major structural protein in peripheral myelin, and mutations in the Myelin Protein Zero (Mpz) gene produce wide-ranging hereditary neuropathy phenotypes. To gain insight in the mechanisms underlying a particularly severe form, congenital hypomyelination (CH), we targeted mouse Mpz to encode P0Q215X, a nonsense mutation associated with the disease, that we show escapes nonsense mediated decay and is expressed in CH patient nerves. The knock-in mice express low levels of the resulting truncated protein, producing a milder phenotype when compared to patients, allowing to dissect the subtle pathogenic mechanisms occurring in otherwise very compromised peripheral myelin. We find that P0Q215X does not elicit an unfolded protein response, which is a key mechanism for other pathogenic MPZ mutations, but is instead in part aberrantly trafficked to non-myelin plasma membranes and induces defects in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. We show that the loss of the C-terminal Tyr-Ala-Met-Leu motif is responsible for P0 mislocalization, as its addition is able to restore correct P0Q215X trafficking in vitro. Lastly, we show that P0Q215X acts through dose-dependent gain of abnormal function, as wild-type P0 is unable to rescue the hypomyelination phenotype. Collectively, these data indicate that alterations at the premyelinating stage, linked to altered targeting of P0, may be responsible for CH, and that different types of gain of abnormal function produce the diverse neuropathy phenotypes associated with MPZ, supporting future allele-specific therapeutic silencing strategies.
Project description:In peripheral nerves, Schwann cells form the myelin sheath that insulates axons and allows rapid propagation of action potentials. Although a number of regulators of Schwann cell development are known, the signaling pathways that control myelination are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that Gpr126 is essential for myelination and other aspects of peripheral nerve development in mammals. A mutation in Gpr126 causes a severe congenital hypomyelinating peripheral neuropathy in mice, and expression of differentiated Schwann cell markers, including Pou3f1, Egr2, myelin protein zero and myelin basic protein, is reduced. Ultrastructural studies of Gpr126-/- mice showed that axonal sorting by Schwann cells is delayed, Remak bundles (non-myelinating Schwann cells associated with small caliber axons) are not observed, and Schwann cells are ultimately arrested at the promyelinating stage. Additionally, ectopic perineurial fibroblasts form aberrant fascicles throughout the endoneurium of the mutant sciatic nerve. This analysis shows that Gpr126 is required for Schwann cell myelination in mammals, and defines new roles for Gpr126 in axonal sorting, formation of mature non-myelinating Schwann cells and organization of the perineurium.
Project description:We report the first case of a missense mutation in MPZ causing a gain of glycosylation in myelin protein zero, the main protein of peripheral nervous system myelin. The patient was affected by a severe demyelinating neuropathy caused by a missense mutation, D32N, that created a new glycosylation sequence. We confirmed that the mutant protein is hyperglycosylated, is partially retained into the Golgi apparatus in vitro, and disrupts intercellular adhesion. By sequential experiments, we demonstrated that hyperglycosylation is the main mechanism of this mutation. Gain of glycosylation is a new mechanism in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B.