Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation primes cells to a pro-inflammatory polarized response to a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist.
ABSTRACT: TLR7 (Toll-like receptor 7) mediates anti-viral immunity by recognizing ssRNA (single-stranded RNA) viruses. Small-molecular-mass TLR7 agonists have been approved, or are being evaluated, for treatment of cancers or infectious diseases. Although TLR7 is predominantly expressed in a restricted set of immune cell types, including pDCs (plasmacytoid dendritic cells), it is also expressed in non-native expressing cells (e.g. hepatocytes) under certain circumstances. To elucidate the molecular basis of TLR7 induction by pro-inflammatory stimulation and the subsequent cellular responses in these non-native TLR7-expressing cell types, we first cloned and characterized the 5'-promoter region of TLR7. The proximal region of this promoter drives the transcription of the TLR7 gene. Pro-inflammatory stimuli activated TLR 7 transcription via a NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB)-binding motif in this region, and this activation could be blocked by mutation of the NF-kappaB binding site or addition of NF-kappaB inhibitors. Further studies showed that pretreatment of the Hep3B hepatocytes with TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) or IL-1 (interleukin-1) rendered them responsive to TLR7 activation by a TLR7 agonist. However, distinct from TLR7 activation in pDCs, which respond to stimulation with Th1 polarized cytokine production, TLR7 induction by pro-inflammatory signals in hepatocytes reconstitutes the NF-kappaB-dependent cascade but not the IRF7 (interferon regulatory factor 7)-dependent cascade, resulting in a pro-inflammatory polarized response rather than a Th1 polarized response. These results indicate that inflammatory stimulation is capable of priming cells to respond to TLR7 agonist with an immune response that differs from that in native TLR7-expressing cells.
Project description:Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, regimens used to treat many such conditions cannot maintain disease control in the majority of SLE patients and more aggressive approaches such as high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy are used to provide transient reductions in disease activity. The primary anti-inflammatory mechanism of glucocorticoids is thought to be NF-kappaB inhibition. Recognition of self nucleic acids by toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 on B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) is an important step in the pathogenesis of SLE, promoting anti-nuclear antibodies and the production of type I interferon (IFN), both correlated with the severity of disease. Following their activation by self-nucleic acid-associated immune complexes, PDCs migrate to the tissues. We demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, that stimulation of PDCs through TLR7 and 9 can account for the reduced activity of glucocorticoids to inhibit the IFN pathway in SLE patients and in two lupus-prone mouse strains. The triggering of PDCs through TLR7 and 9 by nucleic acid-containing immune complexes or by synthetic ligands activates the NF-kappaB pathway essential for PDC survival. Glucocorticoids do not affect NF-kappaB activation in PDCs, preventing glucocorticoid induction of PDC death and the consequent reduction of systemic IFN-alpha levels. These findings unveil a new role for self nucleic acid recognition by TLRs and indicate that inhibitors of TLR7 and 9 signalling could prove to be effective corticosteroid-sparing drugs.
Project description:Cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage play a central role in the orchestration and resolution of inflammation. Plasticity is a hallmark of mononuclear phagocytes, and in response to environmental signals these cells undergo different forms of polarized activation, the extremes of which are called classic or M1 and alternative or M2. NF-kappaB is a key regulator of inflammation and resolution, and its activation is subject to multiple levels of regulation, including inhibitory, which finely tune macrophage functions. Here we identify the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB as a key regulator of M2-driven inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo. p50 NF-kappaB inhibits NF-kappaB-driven, M1-polarizing, IFN-beta production. Accordingly, p50-deficient mice show exacerbated M1-driven inflammation and defective capacity to mount allergy and helminth-driven M2-polarized inflammatory reactions. Thus, NF-kappaB p50 is a key component in the orchestration of M2-driven inflammatory reactions.
Project description:Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a critical role in antiviral immunity through their ability to produce large amounts of type I IFNs. Activation of pDCs upon viral infection has been shown to be dependent on MyD88 and mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 9, which sense viral ssRNA and CpG DNA, respectively. In this study, we showed that murine pDC recognition of vaccinia virus (VV), a dsDNA virus, was MyD88-dependent but TLR9-independent. Using HEK293 cells transfected with murine TLR7 or TLR8 and a NF-kappaB luciferase reporter, we demonstrated that stimulation of TLR8-, but not TLR7-, transfected cells with either VV or VV DNA resulted in substantial NF-kappaB activation, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of TLR8 expression in pDCs led to a complete ablation of VV-induced type I IFN production. We further identified that the VV genome was rich in poly(A)/T sequences, and synthetic poly(A) and poly T oligodeoxynucleotides were capable of activating pDCs in a TLR8-dependent manner. In vivo, TLR8-MyD88-dependent pDC activation played a critical role in innate immune control of VV infection. Collectively, our data are unique in demonstrating that TLR8 is required for sensing poly(A)/T-rich DNA in pDCs, and that murine TLR8 is functional in the context of a viral infection.
Project description:Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-kappaB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection.Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, by NF-kappaB DNA binding, and by the subsequent secretion of NF-kappaB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. However, exposure of macrophages and human monocytes to FHA for two hours or more resulted in the accumulation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, and the failure of TNF-alpha to activate NF-kappaB. Proteasome activity was attenuated following exposure of cells to FHA for 2 hours, as was the nuclear translocation of RelA in BEAS-2B cells.These results reveal a complex temporal dynamic, and suggest that despite short term effects to the contrary, longer exposures of host cells to this secreted adhesin may block NF-kappaB activation, and perhaps lead to a compromised immune response to this bacterial pathogen.
Project description:Anorexia and weight loss are prevalent in infectious diseases. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena, we established animal models of infection-associated anorexia by administrating bacterial and viral products, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein (Tat). In these models, we found that the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a pivotal transcription factor for inflammation-related proteins, was activated in the hypothalamus. In parallel, administration of LPS and Tat increased hypothalamic pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which was abrogated by inhibition of hypothalamic NF-kappaB. In vitro, NF-kappaB activation directly stimulated the transcriptional activity of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), a precursor of anorexigenic melanocortin, and mediated the stimulatory effects of LPS, Tat, and pro-inflammatory cytokines on POMC transcription, implying the involvement of NF-kappaB in controlling feeding behavior. Consistently, hypothalamic injection of LPS and Tat caused a significant reduction in food intake and body weight, which was prevented by blockade of NF-kappaB and melanocortin. Furthermore, disruption of I kappaB kinase-beta, an upstream kinase of NF-kappaB, in POMC neurons attenuated LPS- and Tat-induced anorexia. These findings suggest that infection-associated anorexia and weight loss are mediated via NF-kappaB activation in hypothalamic POMC neurons. In addition, hypothalamic NF-kappaB was activated by leptin, an important anorexigenic hormone, and mediates leptin-stimulated POMC transcription, indicating that hypothalamic NF-kappaB also serves as a downstream signaling pathway of leptin.
Project description:Specific therapies are not available for inflammatory muscle diseases. We and others have shown that the pro-inflammatory NF-kappaB pathway is highly activated in these conditions. Since NF-kappaB is an important therapeutic target, we decided to utilize an in vitro screening assay to identify potential inhibitors that block TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB activation in a C2C12 muscle line stably expressing an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter gene. Upon evaluation of multiple anti-inflammatory agents in undifferentiated myoblasts as well as differentiated myotubes , we found different levels of inhibition depending on the state of differentiation. Interestingly, we found that some drugs that are known to inhibit NF-kappaB in immune cells were not effective in muscle cells. Drug toxicity was assessed for using an MTT cell viability assay, and the validity of the luciferase assay was verified by immunostaining for NF-kappaB nuclear translocation in myoblasts. In conclusion, we have determined the optimal assay conditions for detecting potentially valuable NF-kappaB inhibitors for the first time in a muscle cell line that may have significant therapeutic potential for inflammatory muscle diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Initiation and maintenance of pro-inflammatory reactions elicited by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and/or cytokines in the macrophage lineage have been reported to play a crucial role in acute and chronic pathogenic effects. Whether pro-inflammatory responses triggered by lipopolysaccharide in growth arrested cells differ from those in proliferating cells remains unanswered. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Olomoucine and roscovitine are cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors that prevent progression through the cell cycle. After treatment with CDK inhibitors, expression of pro-inflammatory genes was analysed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) were determined by Western blotting. Promoter activity of iNOS was measured by the luciferase activity assay. RESULTS:In this study we have demonstrated that both olomoucine and roscovitine inhibit cell proliferation and diminish nitric oxide production and cytokine gene expression, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, olomoucine reduces iNOS promoter activity and alleviates NF-kappaB transcription activation. After co-transfection with E2F1 interference RNA, suppression of lipopolysaccharide-mediated iNOS promoter activity and NF-kappaB activation was observed. Furthermore, we demonstrated that olomoucine-induced growth arrested cells reduce expression of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. CONCLUSIONS:The findings of this study suggest that inhibition of cell-cycle progression is capable of reducing pro-inflammatory responses via down-regulation of NF-kappaB.
Project description:The effect of cycloheximide (CHX) on the mRNA expression of the cytokine-inducible, calcium-independent nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was investigated in fetal hepatocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the presence of CHX the LPS-dependent iNOS mRNA levels were reduced, whereas the response to pro-inflammatory cytokines was enhanced. Because iNOS transcription is highly dependent on the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), this factor was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and a close correlation between NF-kappaB activity and iNOS mRNA levels was observed. CHX itself potentiated the degradation of the IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta inhibitory subunits (IkappaB is inhibitory kappaB) of the NF-kappaB complex, and therefore the loss of LPS-dependent iNOS mRNA expression cannot be attributed to a blockage in the activation of NF-kappaB. These results suggest the existence of a CHX-sensitive pathway in the expression of iNOS mediated by LPS, a mechanism that is not involved in the response to pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>During normal physical activities cartilage experiences dynamic compressive forces that are essential to maintain cartilage integrity. However, at non-physiologic levels these signals can induce inflammation and initiate cartilage destruction. Here, by examining the pro-inflammatory signaling networks, we developed a mathematical model to show the magnitude-dependent regulation of chondrocytic responses by compressive forces.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Chondrocytic cells grown in 3-D scaffolds were subjected to various magnitudes of dynamic compressive strain (DCS), and the regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression via activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling cascade examined. Experimental evidences provide the existence of a threshold in the magnitude of DCS that regulates the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), an inducible pro-inflammatory enzyme. Interestingly, below this threshold, DCS inhibits the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, with the degree of suppression depending on the magnitude of DCS. This suppression of NOS2 by DCS correlates with the attenuation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway as measured by IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB)-alpha, degradation of IkappaB-alpha and IkappaB-beta, and subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65. A mathematical model developed to understand the complex dynamics of the system predicts two thresholds in the magnitudes of DCS, one for the inhibition of IL-1beta-induced expression of NOS2 by DCS at low magnitudes, and second for the DCS-induced expression of NOS2 at higher magnitudes.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Experimental and computational results indicate that biomechanical signals suppress and induce inflammation at critical thresholds through activation/suppression of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. These thresholds arise due to the bistable behavior of the networks originating from the positive feedback loop between NF-kappaB and its target genes. These findings lay initial groundwork for the identification of the thresholds in physical activities that can differentiate its favorable actions from its unfavorable consequences on joints.
Project description:Human intestinal macrophages contribute to tissue homeostasis in noninflamed mucosa through profound down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Here, we show that this down-regulation extends to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced cytokine release, as intestinal macrophages expressed TLR3-TLR9 but did not release cytokines in response to TLR-specific ligands. Likely contributing to this unique functional profile, intestinal macrophages expressed markedly down-regulated adapter proteins MyD88 and Toll interleukin receptor 1 domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon beta, which together mediate all TLR MyD88-dependent and -independent NF-kappaB signaling, did not phosphorylate NF-kappaB p65 or Smad-induced IkappaBalpha, and did not translocate NF-kappaB into the nucleus. Importantly, transforming growth factor-beta released from intestinal extracellular matrix (stroma) induced identical down-regulation in the NF-kappaB signaling and function of blood monocytes, the exclusive source of intestinal macrophages. Our findings implicate stromal transforming growth factor-beta-induced dysregulation of NF-kappaB proteins and Smad signaling in the differentiation of pro-inflammatory blood monocytes into noninflammatory intestinal macrophages.