Inequities in maternal postnatal visits among public and private patients: 2004 Pelotas cohort study.
ABSTRACT: The postnatal period is the ideal time to deliver interventions to improve the health of both the newborn and the mother. However, postnatal care shows low-level coverage in a large number of countries. The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate inequities in maternal postnatal visits, 2) examine differences in postnatal care coverage between public and private providers and 3) explore the relationship between the absence of maternal postnatal visits and exclusive breastfeeding, use of contraceptive methods and maternal smoking three months after birth.In the calendar year of 2004 a birth cohort study was started in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Mothers were interviewed soon after delivery and at three months after birth. The absence of postnatal visits was defined as having no consultations between the time of hospital discharge and the third month post-partum. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between absence of postnatal visits and type of insurance scheme adjusting for potential confounding factors.Poorer women, black/mixed, those with lower level of education, single mothers, adolescents, multiparae, smokers, women who delivered vaginally and those who were not assisted by a physician were less likely to attend postnatal care. Postnatal visits were also less frequent among women who relied in the public sector than among private patients (72.4% vs 96% among public and private patients, respectively, x2 p < 0.001) and this difference was not explained either by maternal characteristics or by health care utilization patterns. Women who attended postnatal visits were more likely to exclusively breastfeed their infants, to use contraceptive methods and to be non-smokers three months after birth.Postpartum care is available for every woman free of charge in the Brazilian Publicly-funded health care system. However, low levels of postpartum care were seen in the study (77%). Efforts should be made to increase the percentage of women receiving postpartum care, particularly those in socially disadvantaged groups. This could include locally-adapted health education interventions that address women's beliefs and attitudes towards postpartum care. There is a need to monitor postpartum care and collected data should be used to guide policies for health care systems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The first 2 days after childbirth present the highest risk of dying for a mother. Providing postnatal care within the first 2 days after childbirth can help avert maternal mortality because it allows early detection of problems that could result in adverse maternal health outcomes. Unfortunately, knowledge of the uptake of early postnatal care (EPNC), which is imperative for informing policies aimed at reducing maternal mortality, remains low in Uganda. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of early postnatal care attendance among Ugandan women. METHODS:This study was based on nationally representative data from the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample comprised 5471 women (age 15-49) who delivered a child in the 2?years preceding the survey. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with use of early postnatal care. RESULTS:Our findings showed that 50% of mothers used EPNC services for their most recent delivery in the 2?years preceding the survey. Women's residence, education level, religion, wealth status, marital status, occupation, antenatal care attendance, place of delivery, birth order, perceived accessibility of health facilities, and access to mass media messages were associated with greater use of EPNC. The percentage of women receiving EPNC was much higher among women who delivered at a health facility, either a public facility (63%) or private facility (65%), versus only 9% among women who delivered at home. Multivariate analysis showed that delivery at a health facility was the most important determinant of early postnatal care attendance. CONCLUSIONS:To increase mothers' use of EPNC services and improve maternal survival in Uganda, programs could promote and strengthen health facility delivery and ensure that EPNC services are provided to all women before discharge. Even so, the fact that only about two-thirds of women who delivered at a health facility received early postpartum care shows substantial room for improvement. Interventions should target women who deliver at home, women who attend fewer than four antenatal care visits, and women with a primary education.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal periods are considered high-risk periods for the health of mothers and their newborns. Although the current utilization rate of some maternal and child care services in Jordan is encouraging, detailed information about the quality of these services is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the quality of maternal-fetal and newborn antenatal care (ANC), delivery, and postnatal care (PNC) services in Jordan. METHODS:We conducted 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant and postpartum women who attended maternal-child care services in three major hospitals in Jordan. All FGDs were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to identify themes and subthemes. RESULTS:The content analysis of the FGDs revealed a consensus among the discussants regarding the importance of ANC and PNC services for the health of mothers and their newborns. However, the participating women viewed ANC to be much more important than PNC. With regards to the choice between public and private antenatal care services, some of the discussants were disposed towards the private sector. Reasons for this included longer consultation time, a higher quality of services, better interpersonal and communication skills of healthcare providers, better treatment, more advanced equipment and devices, availability of female obstetricians, and more flexible appointment times. These women only perceived public hospital services to be necessary in cases of pregnancy-related complications and labor, as the costs of private sector services in such cases are too high. The findings also revealed that mothers usually only seek PNC services to check up on their newborn's health and not their own. CONCLUSION:Visiting private ANC clinics throughout pregnancy while giving birth in public facilities leads to the discontinuity and fragmentation in maternal-fetal and child healthcare services. To address this fragmentation, healthcare systems are proposed to establish interprofessional teamwork that requires different healthcare providers with complementary skills and practices in both public and private settings to work co-operatively and collectively. Investment in new technologies and interventions which enhance coordination and collaboration between public and private healthcare settings is necessary for the provision of non-traditional maternal healthcare.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During the perinatal period, suicides are more likely to occur in those with depression and who are not receiving active treatment at the time of death. Suicide is a common outcome in people with suicide ideation. We developed an intervention program taking care of comprehensive perinatal maternal mental healthcare to prevent suicide ideation. We hypothesized that our intervention program could reduce postnatal suicide ideation and improve maternal mental health. METHODS:We performed a controlled trial to examine the usual postnatal care plus a maternal suicide prevention program (the intervention group) compared with usual postnatal care alone, which comprised home visits by public health nurses without mental health screening (the control group) in Nagano city, Japan. In total, 464 women were included; 230 were allocated to the control group and 234 to the intervention group. The intervention had three components: 1) all the women received postnatal mental health screening by public health nurses who completed home visits during the neonatal period, 2) the intervention was administered by a multidisciplinary clinical network, and 3) systematic follow-up sheets were used to better understand bio-psycho-social characteristics of both the mothers and their infants and develop responsive care plans. We measured the participants' mental health at 3-4?months postpartum (T1) and 7-8?months postpartum (T2) using the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). RESULTS:Suicidal ideation was significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group at T1 (p?=?0.014); however, this significant between-group difference did not continue to T2 (p?=?0.111). We measured the intervention effects on maternal mental health using the total score of the EPDS, which was significantly improved in the intervention group compared with the control group at T1. Here, the significant difference continued to T2 (p?=?0.049). CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that our program may reduce maternal suicidal ideation at 3-4?months postnatally and improve women's mental health during the postnatal periods of 3-4 to 7-8?months. Postnatal maternal mental healthcare, including services to reduce suicide ideation, should be included as an important component of general postnatal care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Name of registry: A multidisciplinary intervention program for maternal mental health in perinatal periods. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number: UMIN000033396 . Registration URL: https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgibin/ctr/ctr_view_reg.cgi?recptno=R000038076 Registration date: July 15, 2018. Registration timing: retrospective.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Egypt has achieved important reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality and experienced increases in the proportion of births attended by skilled professionals. However, substandard care has been highlighted as one of the avoidable causes behind persisting maternal deaths. This paper describes changes over time in the use of childbirth care in Egypt, focusing on location and sector of provision (public versus private) and the content of immediate postpartum care. METHODS:We used five Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Egypt between 1995 and 2014 to explore national and regional trends in childbirth care. To assess content of care in 2014, we calculated the caesarean section rate and the percentage of women delivering in a facility who reported receiving four components of immediate postpartum care for themselves and their newborn. RESULTS:Between 1995 and 2014, the percentage of women delivering in health facilities increased from 35 to 87% and women delivering with a skilled birth attendant from 49 to 92%. The percentage of women delivering in a private facility nearly quadrupled from 16 to 63%. In 2010-2014, fewer than 2% of women delivering in public or private facilities received all four immediate postpartum care components measured. CONCLUSIONS:Egypt achieved large increases in the percentage of women delivering in facilities and with skilled birth attendants. However, most women and newborns did not receive essential elements of high quality immediate postpartum care. The large shift to private facilities may highlight failures of public providers to meet women's expectations. Additionally, the content (quality) of childbirth care needs to improve in both sectors. Immediate action is required to understand and address the drivers of poor quality, including insufficient resources, perverse incentives, poor compliance and enforcement of existing standards, and providers' behaviours moving between private and public sectors. Otherwise, Egypt risks undermining the benefits of high coverage because of substandard quality childbirth care.
Project description:Little has been known about the magnitude and predictors of contraceptive use in extended postpartum period in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aims to assess the magnitude and determinants of contraception utilization in extended postpartum period. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Gida Ayana district, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia in February 2015. Six hundred and three postpartum women were included using a multistage sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and logistic regressions were used to assess the predictors of modern family planning use at 95% confidence interval.The proportion of women using any of the modern family planning in extended postpartum period was 45.4%. Women who had four and more antenatal care visits (AOR?=?2.93; 95% CI 1.08-7.94), mothers who received post-natal care (AOR?=?4.34; 95% CI 2.37-7.94), and those desiring less number of children (AOR?=?5; 95% CI 2.19-11.41) were more likely to use modern family planning methods during the extended postpartum period. Therefore, health care providers should work to improve quality of health services provided during antenatal care and postnatal care to enhance family planning utilization among post-partum women.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The first year after birth is an ideal time to offer contraception services, as many women have many opportunities to be in contact with the health care system. Nevertheless, a large number of postpartum women in developing countries do not use the service owing to the interplay of factors operating at various stages. Therefore, this study aimed to assess predictors of modern contraceptive use in the extended postpartum period. METHODS:A community based retrospective cross-sectional study was done among 1281 women who gave birth within 12 months preceding the survey. Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests were used to explore the rate of modern contraceptive use. The Weibull regression survival model with multivariate frailty was employed to identify the predictors of time to contraception. RESULTS:Of the respondents, 59.1% (95% CI: 56.8%-62.2%) had started using modern contraceptive methods within 12 months after birth. By the second month after birth, only 11.1 percent of the women surveyed started to use a contraceptive method, which increased steadily to 25.9%, 37.7%, and 59.5% at 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively. The most preferred contraceptive method was injectable (71.5%), followed by implants (21.5%). Women's education (aHR = 1.29; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.66), four or more antenatal care (aHR? = ?1.59; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.06), early initiation of antenatal care (aHR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.21), and early postnatal checkup (aHR? = ?1.39; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.73) were statistically significant predictors of earlier initiation of modern contraceptive methods. CONCLUSIONS:A substantial proportion of women did not use modern contraceptive methods in the first year after birth. Maternal services were found to be the sole predictors in postpartum contraceptive use. Findings suggest the importance of linking postpartum family planning along the continuum of care. The observed heterogeneity at cluster level also urges the need of disaggregating data for decision-making.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Perinatal depression is a complication of pregnancy that can result in adverse maternal and infant outcomes. Screening to identify pregnant and postpartum women with depressive symptoms is recommended to provide diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care to reduce poor outcomes. METHODS:CDC analyzed 2018 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System to describe postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) among women with a recent live birth and to assess whether health care providers asked women about depression during prenatal and postpartum health care visits, by site and maternal and infant characteristics. RESULTS:Among respondents from 31 sites, the prevalence of PDS was 13.2%, ranging from 9.7% in Illinois to 23.5% in Mississippi. The prevalence of PDS exceeded 20% among women who were aged ?19 years, were American Indian/Alaska Native, smoked during or after pregnancy, experienced intimate partner violence before or during pregnancy, self-reported depression before or during pregnancy, or whose infant had died since birth. The prevalence of women reporting that a health care provider asked about depression during prenatal care visits was 79.1% overall, ranging from 51.3% in Puerto Rico to 90.7% in Alaska. The prevalence of women reporting that a provider asked about depression during postpartum visits was 87.4% overall, ranging from 50.7% in Puerto Rico to 96.2% in Vermont. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE:The prevalence of self-reported PDS varied by site and maternal and infant characteristics. Whether providers asked women about perinatal depression was not consistent across sites. Provision of recommended screenings and appropriate referrals for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care can ensure early and effective management of depression to reduce adverse maternal and infant outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide and accounts for 56% of maternal deaths in Afghanistan. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is commonly caused by uterine atony, genital tract trauma, retained placenta, and coagulation disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of prevention, detection and management of PPH in both public and private hospitals in Afghanistan in 2016, and compare the quality of care in district hospitals with care in provincial, regional, and specialty hospitals. METHODS:This study uses a subset of data from the 2016 Afghanistan National Maternal and Newborn Health Quality of Care Assessment. It covers a census of all accessible public hospitals, including 40 district hospitals, 27 provincial hospitals, five regional hospitals, and five specialty hospitals, as well as 10 purposively selected private hospitals. RESULTS:All public and private hospitals reported 24?h/7?days a week service provision. Oxytocin was available in 90.0% of district hospitals, 89.2% of provincial, regional and specialty hospitals and all 10 private hospitals; misoprostol was available in 52.5% of district hospitals, 56.8% of provincial, regional and specialty hospitals and in all 10 private hospitals. For prevention of PPH, 73.3% women in district hospitals, 71.2% women at provincial, regional and specialty hospitals and 72.7% women at private hospital received uterotonics. Placenta and membranes were checked for completeness in almost half of women in all hospitals. Manual removal of placenta was performed in 97.8% women with retained placenta. Monitoring blood loss during the immediate postpartum period was performed in 48.4% of women in district hospitals, 36.9% of women in provincial, regional and specialty hospitals, and 43.3% in private hospitals. The most commonly observed cause of PPH was retained placenta followed by genital tract trauma and uterine atony. CONCLUSION:Gaps in performance of skilled birth attendants are substantial across public and private hospitals. Improving and retaining skills of health workers through on-site, continuous capacity development approaches and encouraging a culture of audit, learning and quality improvement may address clinical gaps and improve quality of PPH prevention, detection and management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perinatal mental health problems such as mood disorders are common. We propose a new multidisciplinary health service intervention program providing continuous support to women and their children from the start of pregnancy till after childbirth. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the program with respect to making women's mental health better in the postpartum period and improving the state of care for women and their children in the perinatal period. METHODS:We performed a controlled study to investigate the effectiveness of the program in Suzaka City, Japan. The women's mental health status was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 3?months postpartum. Of 349 women, 210 were allocated to the intervention group and 139 to the control group. From April 2014 to March 2015, the number of the pregnant women who were followed-up by the multidisciplinary meeting in the intervention and control groups were 60 and 4, respectively. In the same period, the number of the pregnant women who were identified as requiring intensive care were 21 and 2, respectively. RESULTS:The total EPDS score, which was the primary outcome of the present study, differed significantly between the intervention and control groups (Mean [SD] = 2.74 (2.89) and 4.58 [2.62], respectively; p?<?0.001). The number of the women receiving counseling from a public health nurse (5.3% in intervention group, 0.7% in control group, p?=?0.02), attending maternal seminars (attendant ratio: 46% whereas 16%, p?=?0.01), and receiving home visits by public health nurses (home visit ratio: 93.8% whereas 82.6%, p?<?0.001) was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS:The present study indicates that continuum support provided by integrated mental health care through a multidisciplinary maternal and child health service in the community can make women's mental health better in the postpartum period and help women and their children receive more health services from public health nurses. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Name of registry: Research for the effectiveness of a multi-professional health service intervention program of continuum supports for mother and child which starts for pregnancy periods to enhance maternal mental health. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number: UMIN000032424 . Registration date: April 29th, 2018. Registration timing: retrospective.
Project description:Uganda has one of the highest unmet needs for family planning globally, which is associated with negative health outcomes for women and population-level public health implications. The present cross-sectional study identified factors influencing family planning service uptake and contraceptive use among postpartum women in rural Uganda.Participants were 258 women who attended antenatal care at a rural Ugandan hospital. We used logistic regression models in SPSS to identify determinants of family planning service uptake and contraceptive use postpartum.Statistically significant predictors of uptake of family planning services included: education (AOR = 3.03, 95 % CI 1.57-5.83), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 7.15, 95 % CI 1.58-32.37), partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.36-2.37), and perceived need of contraceptives (AOR = 2.57, 95 % CI 1.09-6.08). Statistically significant predictors of contraceptive use since delivery included: education (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.05-3.95), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 10.79, 95 % CI 1.40-83.06), and partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.34-2.44).Education, partner communication, and perceived need of family planning are key determinants of postpartum family planning service uptake and contraceptive use, and should be considered in antenatal and postnatal family planning counseling.