Unknown

Dataset Information

0

Physico-chemical evaluation of rationally designed melanins as novel nature-inspired radioprotectors.


ABSTRACT: Melanin, a high-molecular weight pigment that is ubiquitous in nature, protects melanized microorganisms against high doses of ionizing radiation. However, the physics of melanin interaction with ionizing radiation is unknown.We rationally designed melanins from either 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPA, L-cysteine/L-DOPA, or L-DOPA with diverse structures as shown by elemental analysis and HPLC. Sulfur-containing melanins had higher predicted attenuation coefficients than non-sulfur-containing melanins. All synthetic melanins displayed strong electron paramagnetic resonance (2.14.10(18), 7.09.10(18), and 9.05.10(17) spins/g, respectively), with sulfur-containing melanins demonstrating more complex spectra and higher numbers of stable free radicals. There was no change in the quality or quantity of the stable free radicals after high-dose (30,000 cGy), high-energy ((137)Cs, 661.6 keV) irradiation, indicating a high degree of radical stability as well as a robust resistance to the ionizing effects of gamma irradiation. The rationally designed melanins protected mammalian cells against ionizing radiation of different energies.We propose that due to melanin's numerous aromatic oligomers containing multiple pi-electron system, a generated Compton recoil electron gradually loses energy while passing through the pigment, until its energy is sufficiently low that it can be trapped by stable free radicals present in the pigment. Controlled dissipation of high-energy recoil electrons by melanin prevents secondary ionizations and the generation of damaging free radical species.

SUBMITTER: Schweitzer AD 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC2749938 | BioStudies | 2009-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

Similar Datasets

2012-01-01 | S-EPMC3448835 | BioStudies
2015-01-01 | S-EPMC4395095 | BioStudies
2013-01-01 | S-EPMC3563405 | BioStudies
2013-01-01 | S-EPMC3676409 | BioStudies
2020-01-01 | S-EPMC7265499 | BioStudies
2020-01-01 | S-EPMC7182175 | BioStudies
2005-01-01 | S-EPMC1291289 | BioStudies
2011-01-01 | S-EPMC3173677 | BioStudies
2014-01-01 | S-EPMC3887007 | BioStudies
2018-01-01 | S-EPMC6311522 | BioStudies