Potent new antiviral compound shows similar inhibition and structural interactions with drug resistant mutants and wild type HIV-1 protease.
ABSTRACT: The potent new antiviral inhibitor GRL-98065 (1) of HIV-1 protease (PR) has been studied with PR variants containing the single mutations D30N, I50V, V82A, and I84V that provide resistance to the major clinical inhibitors. Compound 1 had inhibition constants of 17-fold, 8-fold, 3-fold, and 3-fold, respectively, for PR(D30N), PR(I50V), PR(V82A), and PR(I84V) relative to wild type PR. The chemically related darunavir had similar relative inhibition, except for PR(D30N), where inhibitor 1 was approximately 3-fold less potent. The high resolution (1.11-1.60 Angstrom) crystal structures of PR mutant complexes with inhibitor 1 showed small changes relative to the wild type enzyme. PR(D30N) and PR(V82A) showed compensating interactions with inhibitor 1 relative to those of PR, while reduced hydrophobic contacts were observed with PR(I50V) and PR(I84V). Importantly, inhibitor 1 complexes showed fewer changes relative to wild type enzyme than reported for darunavir complexes. Therefore, inhibitor 1 is a valuable addition to the antiviral inhibitors with high potency against resistant strains of HIV.
Project description:GRL-0519 (1) is a potent antiviral inhibitor of HIV-1 protease (PR) possessing tris-tetrahydrofuran (tris-THF) at P2. The high resolution X-ray crystal structures of inhibitor 1 in complexes with single substitution mutants PR(R8Q), PR(D30N), PR(I50V), PR(I54M), and PR(V82A) were analyzed in relation to kinetic data. The smaller valine side chain in PR(I50V) eliminated hydrophobic interactions with inhibitor and the other subunit consistent with 60-fold worse inhibition. Asn30 in PR(D30N) showed altered interactions with neighboring residues and 18-fold worse inhibition. Mutations V82A and I54M showed compensating structural changes consistent with 6-7-fold lower inhibition. Gln8 in PR(R8Q) replaced the ionic interactions of wild type Arg8 with hydrogen bond interactions without changing the inhibition significantly. The carbonyl oxygen of Gly48 showed two alternative conformations in all structures likely due to the snug fit of the large tris-THF group in the S2 subsite in agreement with high antiviral efficacy of 1 on resistant virus.
Project description:The potent new antiviral inhibitor TMC-114 (UIC-94017) of HIV-1 protease (PR) has been studied with three PR variants containing single mutations D30N, I50V, and L90M, which provide resistance to the major clinical inhibitors. The inhibition constants (K(i)) of TMC-114 for mutants PR(D30N), PR(I50V), and PR(L90M) were 30-, 9-, and 0.14-fold, respectively, relative to wild-type PR. The molecular basis for the inhibition was analyzed using high-resolution (1.22-1.45 A) crystal structures of PR mutant complexes with TMC-114. In PR(D30N), the inhibitor has a water-mediated interaction with the side chain of Asn30 rather than the direct interaction observed in PR, which is consistent with the relative inhibition. Similarly, in PR(I50V) the inhibitor loses favorable hydrophobic interactions with the side chain of Val50. TMC-114 has additional van der Waals contacts in PR(L90M) structure compared to the PR structure, leading to a tighter binding of the inhibitor. The observed changes in PR structure and activity are discussed in relation to the potential for development of resistant mutants on exposure to TMC-114.
Project description:The structural and kinetic effects of amprenavir (APV), a clinical HIV protease (PR) inhibitor, were analyzed with wild-type enzyme and mutants with single substitutions of V32I, I50V, I54V, I54M, I84V and L90M that are common in drug resistance. Crystal structures of the APV complexes at resolutions of 1.02-1.85 Å reveal the structural changes due to the mutations. Substitution of the larger side chains in PR(V32I) , PR(I54M) and PR(L90M) resulted in the formation of new hydrophobic contacts with flap residues, residues 79 and 80, and Asp25, respectively. Mutation to smaller side chains eliminated hydrophobic interactions in the PR(I50V) and PR(I54V) structures. The PR(I84V)-APV complex had lost hydrophobic contacts with APV, the PR(V32I)-APV complex showed increased hydrophobic contacts within the hydrophobic cluster and the PR(I50V) complex had weaker polar and hydrophobic interactions with APV. The observed structural changes in PR(I84V)-APV, PR(V32I)-APV and PR(I50V)-APV were related to their reduced inhibition by APV of six-, 10- and 30-fold, respectively, relative to wild-type PR. The APV complexes were compared with the corresponding saquinavir complexes. The PR dimers had distinct rearrangements of the flaps and 80's loops that adapt to the different P1' groups of the inhibitors, while maintaining contacts within the hydrophobic cluster. These small changes in the loops and weak internal interactions produce the different patterns of resistant mutations for the two drugs.
Project description:Drug resistance of mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR) is the most severe challenge to the long-term efficacy of HIV-1 PR inhibitor in highly active antiretroviral therapy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with mutations (D30N, I50V, I54M, and V82A) and inhibitor (GRL-0519) complexes, we have performed five molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and calculated the binding free energies using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. The ranking of calculated binding free energies is in accordance with the experimental data. The free energy spectra of each residue and inhibitor interaction for all complexes show a similar binding model. Analysis based on the MD trajectories and contribution of each residues show that groups R2 and R3 mainly contribute van der Waals energies, while groups R1 and R4 contribute electrostatic interaction by hydrogen bonds. The drug resistance of D30N can be attributed to the decline in binding affinity of residues 28 and 29. The size of Val50 is smaller than Ile50 causes the residue to move, especially in chain A. The stable hydrophobic core, including the side chain of Ile54 in the wild type (WT) complex, became unstable in I54M because the side chain of Met54 is flexible with two alternative conformations. The binding affinity of Ala82 in V82A decreases relative to Val82 in WT. The present study could provide important guidance for the design of a potent new drug resisting the mutation inhibitors.
Project description:HIV-1 protease (PR) and two drug-resistant variants--PR with the V82A mutation (PR(V82A)) and PR with the I84V mutation (PR(I84V))--were studied using reduced peptide analogs of five natural cleavage sites (CA-p2, p2-NC, p6pol-PR, p1-p6 and NC-p1) to understand the structural and kinetic changes. The common drug-resistant mutations V82A and I84V alter residues forming the substrate-binding site. Eight crystal structures were refined at resolutions of 1.10-1.60 A. Differences in the PR-analog interactions depended on the peptide sequence and were consistent with the relative inhibition. Analog p6(pol)-PR formed more hydrogen bonds of P2 Asn with PR and fewer van der Waals contacts at P1' Pro compared with those formed by CA-p2 or p2-NC in PR complexes. The P3 Gly in p1-p6 provided fewer van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bonds at P2-P3 and more water-mediated interactions. PR(I84V) showed reduced van der Waals interactions with inhibitor compared with PR, which was consistent with kinetic data. The structures suggest that the binding affinity for mutants is modulated by the conformational flexibility of the substrate analogs. The complexes of PR(V82A) showed smaller shifts of the main chain atoms of Ala82 relative to PR, but more movement of the peptide analog, compared to complexes with clinical inhibitors. PR(V82A) was able to compensate for the loss of interaction with inhibitor caused by mutation, in agreement with kinetic data, but substrate analogs have more flexibility than the drugs to accommodate the structural changes caused by mutation. Hence, these structures help to explain how HIV can develop drug resistance while retaining the ability of PR to hydrolyze natural substrates.
Project description:We report structural analysis of HIV protease variant PRS17 which was rationally selected by machine learning to represent wide classes of highly drug-resistant variants. Crystal structures were solved of PRS17 in the inhibitor-free form and in complex with antiviral inhibitor, darunavir. Despite its 17 mutations, PRS17 has only one mutation (V82S) in the inhibitor/substrate binding cavity, yet exhibits high resistance to all clinical inhibitors. PRS17 has none of the major mutations (I47V, I50V, I54ML, L76V and I84V) associated with darunavir resistance, but has 10,000-fold weaker binding affinity relative to the wild type PR. Comparable binding affinity of 8000-fold weaker than PR is seen for drug resistant mutant PR20, which bears 3 mutations associated with major resistance to darunavir (I47V, I54L and I84V). Inhibitor-free PRS17 shows an open flap conformation with a curled tip correlating with G48V flap mutation. NMR studies on inactive PRS17 D25N unambiguously confirm that the flaps adopt mainly an open conformation in solution very similar to that in the inhibitor-free crystal structure. In PRS17, the hinge loop cluster of mutations, E35D, M36I and S37D, contributes to the altered flap dynamics by a mechanism similar to that of PR20. An additional K20R mutation anchors an altered conformation of the hinge loop. Flap mutations M46L and G48V in PRS17/DRV complex alter the Phe53 conformation by steric hindrance between the side chains. Unlike the L10F mutation in PR20, L10I in PRS17 does not break the inter-subunit ion pair or diminish the dimer stability, consistent with a very low dimer dissociation constant comparable to that of wild type PR. Distal mutations A71V, L90M and I93L propagate alterations to the catalytic site of PRS17. PRS17 exhibits a molecular mechanism whereby mutations act synergistically to alter the flap dynamics resulting in significantly weaker binding yet maintaining active site contacts with darunavir.
Project description:Most of the currently treated HIV-1 protease (HIV-PR) inhibitors have been prone to suffer from the mutations associated drug resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to search for potent alternatives against the drug resistance. In the current study we have tested the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) as an inhibitor in wild type (WT) as well as in three primary mutants (I50V(PR), V82A(PR) and I84V(PR)) of the HIV-1-PR through docking the SWCNT in the active site region, and then performed all-atom MD simulations for the complexes. The conformational dynamics of HIV-PR with a 20 ns trajectory reveals that the SWCNT can effectively bind to the HIV-1-PR active site and regulate the flap dynamics such as maintaining the flap-flap closed. To gain an insight into the binding affinity, we also performed the MM-PBSA based binding free energy calculations for the four HIV-PR/SWCNT complexes. It was observed that, although the binding between the SWCNT and the HIV-PR decreases due to the mutations, the SWCNTs bind to the HIV-PRs 3-5 folds stronger than the most potent HIV-1-PR inhibitor, TMC114. Remarkably, the significant interactions with binding energy higher than 1kcal/mol focus on the flap and active regions, which favors closing flap-flap and deactivating the active residues of the HIV-PR. The flap dynamics and binding strength information for HIV-PR and SWCNTs can help design SWCNT-based HIV-1-PR inhibitors.
Project description:In order to track the evolution of primary protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates, baseline and follow-up protease sequences were obtained from patients undergoing salvage PI therapy who presented initially with isolates containing a single primary PI resistance mutation. Among 78 patients meeting study selection criteria, baseline primary PI resistance mutations included L90M (42% of patients), V82A/F/T (27%), D30N (21%), G48V (6%), and I84V (4%). Despite the switching of treatment to a new PI, primary PI resistance mutations present at the baseline persisted in 66 of 78 (85%) patients. D30N persisted less frequently than L90M (50% versus 100%, respectively; P < 0.001) and V82A/F/T (50% versus 81%, respectively; P = 0.05). HIV-1 isolates from 38 (49%) patients failing PI salvage therapy developed new primary PI resistance mutations including L90M, I84V, V82A, and G48V. Common combinations of primary and secondary PI resistance mutations after salvage therapy included mutations at amino acid positions 10, 82, and 46 and/or 54 in 16 patients; 10, 90, and 71 and/or 73 in 14 patients; 10, 73, 84, 90, and 46 and/or 54 in 5 patients; 10, 48, and 82 in 5 patients; and 30, 88 and 90 in 5 patients. In summary, during salvage PI therapy, most HIV-1 isolates with a single primary PI resistance mutation maintained their original mutations, and 49% developed additional primary PI resistance mutations. The persistence of L90M, V82A/F/T, G48V, and I84V during salvage therapy suggests that these mutations play a role in clinical resistance to multiple PIs.
Project description:Patterns of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and effects on PI susceptibility associated with the L76V mutation were studied in a large database. Of 20,501 sequences with ?1 PI RAM, 3.2% contained L76V; L76V was alone in 0.04%. Common partner mutations included M46I, I54V, V82A, I84V, and L90M. L76V was associated with a 2- to 6-fold decrease in susceptibility to lopinavir, darunavir, amprenavir, and indinavir and a 7- to 8-fold increase in susceptibility to atazanavir and saquinavir.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) contains numerous natural polymorphisms in its protease (PR) gene that are implicated in drug resistance in the case of HIV-1. This study evaluated emergent PR resistance in HIV-2. Three HIV-2 isolates were selected for resistance to amprenavir (APV), nelfinavir (NFV), indinavir (IDV), and tipranavir (TPV) in cell culture. Genotypic analysis determined the time to the appearance of protease inhibitor (PI)-associated mutations compared to HIV-1. Phenotypic drug susceptibility assays were used to determine the levels of drug resistance. Within 10 to 15 weeks of serial passage, three major mutations--I54M, I82F, and L90M--arose in HIV-2 viral cultures exposed to APV, NFV, and IDV, whereas I82L was selected with TPV. After 25 weeks, other cultures had developed I50V and I84V mutations. In contrast, no major PI mutations were selected in HIV-1 over this period except for D30N in the context of NFV selective pressure. The baseline phenotypes of wild-type HIV-2 isolates were in the range observed for HIV-1, except for APV and NFV for which a lower degree of sensitivity was seen. The acquisition of the I54M, I84V, L90M, and L99F mutations resulted in multi-PI-resistant viruses, conferring 10-fold to more than 100-fold resistance. Of note, we observed a 62A/99F mutational motif that conferred high-level resistance to PIs, as well as novel secondary mutations, including 6F, 12A, and 21K. Thus, natural polymorphisms in HIV-2 may facilitate the selection of PI resistance. The increasing incidence of such polymorphisms in drug-naive HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected persons is of concern.