Molecular mimicry in pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis.
ABSTRACT: Pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis (FNGN) is a severe inflammatory disease associated with autoantibodies to neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens (ANCA). Here we characterize autoantibodies to lysosomal membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and show that they are a new ANCA subtype present in almost all individuals with FNGN. Consequently, its prevalence is nearly twice that of the classical ANCAs that recognize myeloperoxidase or proteinase-3. Furthermore, antibodies to LAMP-2 cause pauci-immune FNGN when injected into rats, and a monoclonal antibody to human LAMP-2 (H4B4) induces apoptosis of human microvascular endothelium in vitro. The autoantibodies in individuals with pauci-immune FNGN commonly recognize a human LAMP-2 epitope (designated P(41-49)) with 100% homology to the bacterial adhesin FimH, with which they cross-react. Rats immunized with FimH develop pauci-immune FNGN and also develop antibodies to rat and human LAMP-2. Finally, we show that infections with fimbriated pathogens are common before the onset of FNGN. Thus, FimH-triggered autoimmunity to LAMP-2 provides a previously undescribed clinically relevant molecular mechanism for the development of pauci-immune FNGN.
Project description:Pauci-immune focal necrotizing GN (piFNGN) is usually associated with ANCAs that are thought to be pathogenic. However, 10%-15% of patients are ANCA negative and the cause of their injury is unknown. We previously reported a high frequency of autoantibodies to human lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (hLAMP-2) in ANCA-associated piFNGN, and have now investigated whether the same is true in ANCA-negative patients. Of 11 patients, 8 (73%) had anti-hLAMP-2 antibodies detected by ELISA and confirmed by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence. The autoantibodies from all 8 patients bound to native LAMP-2 purified from human glomeruli and recombinant hLAMP-2 expressed in ldlD cells, both with molecular masses of 110 kD. However, in contrast to anti-LAMP-2 antibodies from ANCA-positive patients, these antibodies from ANCA-negative patients failed to bind the more complexly glycosylated native neutrophil hLAMP-2 (190 kD). Treatment with the deglycosylating enzyme, endo-?-galactosidase, reduced the mass of neutrophil hLAMP-2 to 110 kD and enabled autoantibody binding. Similarly, pretreating neutrophils with endo-?-galactosidase or neuraminidase converted ANCA assay results from negative to positive. Finally, IgG from LAMP-2-positive ANCA-negative patients bound specifically to normal human kidney sections and to human glomerular endothelial cells in culture. In conclusion, in patients with ANCA-negative piFNGN, we have identified autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 that bind native glomerular but not neutrophil hLAMP-2, suggesting a role in pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thymic hyperplasia and thymic epithelial tumor (thymoma) have been associated with a variety of autoimmune diseases. Renal involvement has been reported in patients with thymoma. Minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy are frequently observed in glomerular lesions of thymoma patients, but ANCA-associated renal vasculitis is rare. We present a case of thymoma-associated microscopic polyangiitis with positivity for three ANCAs: MPO-ANCA, PR3-ANCA and azurocidin-ANCA. CASE PRESENTATION:An 89-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital following an episode of general fatigue, nausea, muscle weakness of the lower limbs, and ophthalmoplegia. On urinalysis, proteinuria, hematuria, and cellular casts were observed. Elevated levels of serum creatinine and C-reactive protein were also demonstrated, and MPO-, PR3- and azurocidin-ANCA were detected on serological examination. Renal biopsy showed pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. We therefore diagnosed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis due to microscopic polyangiitis. Acetylcholine-receptor antibody was also detected. Chest computed tomography and MRI revealed a lobulated tumor in the anterior mediastinum. We thus also diagnosed myasthenia gravis with thymoma. CONCLUSION:Considering the patient's triple-ANCA positivity, thymic diseases may be associated with the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis due to central T-cell tolerance. A further accumulation of cases is needed, because thymectomy does not always induce the remission of thymoma-associated autoimmune diseases.
Project description:(1) Introduction: The incidence of venous thromboembolisms (VTE) has not been extensively analyzed in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN). Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and the risk factors of VTE in patients with ANCA-GN. (2) Methods: Patients from the Maine-Anjou ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) registry with a biopsy showing pauci-immune glomerulonephritis were included. VTE events, site, and interval from AAV diagnosis were analyzed. (3) Results: 133 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study and were analyzed. VTE episodes were diagnosed in 23/133 (17.3%) patients at a median delay of 3 months from ANCA-GN diagnosis. Patients with VTE had lower serum albumin (p = 0.040), were less frequently on statin therapy (p = 0.009) and had less frequently proteinase-3 (PR3)-ANCAs (p = 0.078). Univariate analysis identified higher age (p = 0.022), lower serum albumin (p = 0.030), lack of statin therapy (p = 0.009), and rituximab treatment (p = 0.018) as significant risk factors of VTE. In multivariate analysis, only lack of statin therapy (HR 4.873; p = 0.042) was significantly associated with VTE. (4) Conclusion: Patients with ANCA-GN are at high risk of VTE, especially within the first months following AAV diagnosis. Our results suggest that statin therapy is associated with a lower risk of VTE in ANCA-GN patients.
Project description:Childhood onset anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is a rare group of primary systemic vasculitides affecting medium and small blood vessels. AAV includes granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), and renal limited ANCA vasculitis. These disorders are associated with severe clinical manifestations, frequent relapses and a high cumulative morbidity, and often present with multisystem involvement. Renal involvement is common in the pediatric age group, characterized by pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis which frequently progresses to chronic kidney disease in adulthood. ANCAs against proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) (MPO-ANCA) remain the hallmark of AAV and are integral to the disease pathogenesis. Newer understanding of neutrophil extracellular traps and complement activation have provided better insights into disease pathogenesis. A pediatric vasculitis working group has developed and validated childhood vasculitis classification criteria and disease activity and damage scores. No specific pediatric treatment recommendations exist due to rare nature of the illness in pediatric population. Smaller case series have been published on the efficacy of adult treatment regimens in pediatric patients. The prognosis often remains guarded with frequent relapses and a high cumulative morbidity. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on pediatric AAV with a focus on recent observations regarding epidemiology, disease pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.
Project description:The involvement of autoantibodies to human lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (hLAMP-2) in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is controversial because of the absence of confirmatory data subsequent to the initial reports of their high prevalence in this disease. We characterized three assays for anti-hLAMP-2 antibodies: ELISA and Western blotting assays using unglycosylated recombinant hLAMP-2 expressed in Escherichia coli, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay using stably transfected ldlD cells that expressed glycosylated full-length hLAMP-2 on the plasma membrane. The assays detected autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 in human sera reproducibly and with comparable sensitivity and the assays gave the same results in 80.5% of the test panel of 40 selected positive and negative sera. In untreated patients at presentation, the frequencies of autoantibodies to LAMP-2 were 89%, 91%, and 80%, respectively, among three groups of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis from Vienna, Austria (n=19); Groningen, the Netherlands (n=50) and Cambridge, United Kingdom (n=53). Prevalence of LAMP-2 autoantibodies was similar in both those with myeloperoxidase-ANCA and proteinase 3-ANCA. Furthermore, we detected LAMP-2 autoantibodies in two ANCA-negative patients. LAMP-2 autoantibodies rapidly became undetectable after the initiation of immunosuppressive treatment and frequently became detectable again during clinical relapse. We conclude that when robust assays are used, circulating autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 can be detected in most European patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. Large-scale prospective studies are now needed to determine whether they are pathogenic or merely an epiphenomenon.
Project description:Background:Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis is a pauci-immune disease with the inflammation of the small blood vessels. The efficacies of antibody drugs for induction therapies of vasculitis vary among cases. Here, we developed a novel clone of a single chain Fv region (ScFv) with vasculitis-specific therapeutic potential. Materials and methods:The clone, termed VasSF, was selected from our Escherichia coli expression library of recombinant human ScFv based on the therapeutic efficacy in an SCG/Kj mouse model of MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis (MAAV), such as improvement of the urinary score and decreased crescent formation in glomeruli, granulomatous in lung, MPO-ANCA biomarkers, the anti-moesin antibody, and some cytokine levels. Results:We identified vasculitis-associated apolipoprotein A-II (VAP2) as a target molecule of the clone and confirmed the independently-established VAP2 antibodies were also therapeutic in SCG/Kj mice. In MAAV, MPO-ANCA and cytokines stimulate neutrophils by facilitating heterodimer formation of VAP2 with apolipoprotein A-I in HDL. Conclusion:VasSF would constitute a novel antibody drug for vasculitis by suppressing the heterodimer formation of the apolipoproteins.
Project description:Class IV-S lupus nephritis is often associated with more necrosis and fewer subendothelial immune deposits compared to class IV-G lupus nephritis, suggestive of necrotising glomerular inflammation found in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. ANCAs are present in a significant proportion of patients with lupus nephritis. Here we determine whether ANCAs are associated with distinct clinical and histopathologic features of lupus nephritis. Thirty-two ANCA-positive biopsies were compared to 222 ANCA-negative biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis. The majority (82%) of ANCA-positive patients had antimyeloperoxidase antibodies. Class IV-S lupus nephritis and glomerular necrosis were significantly more common (36% vs. 16% and 35% vs. 15%, respectively) and isolated Class V lupus nephritis significantly less common (10% vs. 29%) in the ANCA-positive group. ANCA-positive patients had significantly higher dsDNA titers (335u/ml vs. 52u/ml), significantly lower serum C4 concentrations (0.125g/L vs. 0.15g/L) and significantly higher serum creatinine (130?mol/L vs. 84?mol/L) at the time of biopsy. Hence ANCAs appear to influence the histological pattern of lupus nephritis and are associated with worse baseline renal function and more active lupus serology. There was no significant difference in outcome between groups when matched for severity of disease and treatment using propensity scoring. Thus, further studies are needed to examine whether ANCAs in patients with lupus nephritis have a pathogenic role and whether they are associated with worse renal outcomes or are simply a marker of more severe disease.
Project description:Small-vessel vasculitis (SVV) is a chronic autoinflammatory condition linked to antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCAs). Here we show that chromatin fibers, so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), are released by ANCA-stimulated neutrophils and contain the targeted autoantigens proteinase-3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Deposition of NETs in inflamed kidneys and circulating MPO-DNA complexes suggest that NET formation triggers vasculitis and promotes the autoimmune response against neutrophil components in individuals with SVV.
Project description:Necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN) is frequently associated with circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA). It is established that ANCA are specific for soluble enzymes of granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN), such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) or protease 3 (PR3). The purpose of this study was to identify membrane proteins of PMNs, and/or glomerular cells, as additional autoantigenic ANCA targets. When membrane protein fractions were prepared from PMNs and isolated human glomeruli, and immunoblotted with ANCA sera of NCGN patients, two bands with apparent molecular masses of 170 and 80-110 kD (gp170/80-110) were labeled in PMNs, and a 130-kD glycoprotein (gp130) in glomeruli. Gp130 was purified, and monoclonal and rabbit antibodies (Abs) were produced which showed the same double specificity as the patient's ANCA. Using these probes, evidence was provided that gp170/80-110 is identical with human lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (h-lamp-2), because both proteins were immunologically cross-reactive and screening of a cDNA expression library from human promyelocytic leukemia cells with anti-gp130 Ab yielded a clone derived from h-lamp-2. Gp170/80-110 was localized primarily in granule membranes of resting PMNs, and was translocated to the cell surfaces by activation with FMLP. By contrast, gp130 was localized in the surface membranes of endothelial cells of human glomerular and renal interstitial capillaries, rather than in lysosomes, as found for h-lamp-2. Potential clinical relevance of autoantibodies to gp170/80-110 and gp130 was assessed in a preliminary trial, in which ANCA sera of patients (n = 16) with NCGN were probed with purified or recombinant antigens. Specific reactivity was detected in approximately 90% of cases with active phases of NCGN, and frequently also in combination with autoantibodies specific for PR3 or MPO. Collectively, these data provide evidence that h-lamp-2 in PMNs and a different, structurally related 130-kD membrane protein on the cell surface of renal microvascular endothelial cells are autoantigenic targets for ANCA in patients with active NCGN.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The coexistence of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) is relatively rare. Only a few studies have reported the features of these patients. METHODS:We studied the clinical and histological features of 20 ANCA-positive IgAN patients. They were compared with ANCA-negative IgAN patients (n = 40) and ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV) patients (n = 40) with a randomly selected and matched proportion of crescentic glomeruli. Furthermore, 9 ANCA-positive crescentic IgAN patients out of the 20 cases were compared with two control groups with crescentic nephritis. RESULTS:ANCA-positive IgAN patients showed older age, lower haemoglobin and higher inflammatory indicator levels at baseline, and a higher percentage of general symptoms and pulmonary involvement, compared with ANCA-negative IgAN patients, and were comparable to AASV patients. Histologically, there was a significantly higher percentage of fibrinoid necrosis in glomeruli in ANCA-positive IgAN patients and in AASV patients compared with ANCA-negative IgAN patients (35, 25 and 0%, respectively, P = 0.003). After immunosuppressive therapy, ANCA-positive crescentic IgAN patients were more likely to withdraw from dialysis (75 versus 9.1%, P = 0.03) and not to reach end-stage renal disease within 6 months (11.1 versus 66.7%, P = 0.01) compared with ANCA-negative crescentic IgAN patients. CONCLUSIONS:IgAN patients with ANCA positivity showed more severe clinical and histological features when compared with ANCA-negative IgAN patients and were comparable to AASV patients. However, renal prognosis was relatively better in ANCA-positive crescentic IgAN patients after aggressive immunosuppressive therapy in the short term, compared with ANCA-negative patients.