Proteasome inhibitors enhance endothelial thrombomodulin expression via induction of Kruppel-like transcription factors.
ABSTRACT: Impairment of the thrombomodulin-protein C anticoagulant pathway has been implicated in pathological thrombosis associated with malignancy. Patients who receive proteasome inhibitors as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen appear to be at decreased risk for thromboembolic events. We investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors on endothelial thrombomodulin expression and function.Proteasome inhibitors as a class markedly induced the expression of thrombomodulin and enhanced the protein C activating capacity of endothelial cells. Thrombomodulin upregulation was independent of NF-kappaB signaling, a principal target of proteasome inhibitors, but was instead a direct consequence of increased expression of the Krüppel-like transcription factors, KLF2 and KLF4. These effects were confirmed in vivo, where systemic administration of a proteasome inhibitor enhanced thrombomodulin expression that was paralleled by changes in the expression of KLF2 and KLF4.These findings identify a novel mechanism of action of proteasome inhibitors that may help to explain their clinically observed thromboprotective effects.
Project description:To evaluate if p53 decreases Kruppel-Like Factor 2 (KLF2) expression and determine whether p53-mediated suppression of KLF2 plays a role in p53-induced endothelial dysfunction.Endothelial KLF2 mediates endothelium-dependent vascular homeostasis by differentially regulating endothelial genes, leading to an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic endothelial surface with normal vasodilatory function. In contrast, the tumor suppressor p53 leads to inflammatory gene expression and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, thus promoting endothelial dysfunction. The effect of p53 on KLF2 expression was determined. p53 inhibited KLF2 transcription in a histone deacetylase-dependent and a histone acetyltransferase-independent fashion. KLF2 expression was suppressed by p53 via a conserved p53-binding repressor sequence in its promoter. p53 bound to, and stimulated, deacetylation of Histone H3 at the KLF2 promoter. The effect of p53 on endothelial KLF2 target genes was examined. Downregulation of p53 increased expression of endothelial NO synthase and thrombomodulin and inhibited expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Conversely, overexpression of p53 suppressed endothelial NO synthase and thrombomodulin expression and stimulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and endothelin-1 expression. Knockdown of KLF2 abolished the p53-induced decrease in thrombomodulin and increase in endothelin-1. Both, overexpression of p53 and knockdown of KLF2 in endothelial cells increased blood coagulation on an endothelial cell monolayer. The p53-induced increase in coagulation was rescued by forced expression of KLF2. p53 also impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and decreased bioavailable vascular NO, both of which were rescued by forced KLF2 expression.These findings illustrate a novel p53-dependent mechanism for the regulation of endothelial KLF2 expression. In addition, they show that downregulation of KLF2, in part, mediates a p53-stimulated dysfunctional endothelium.
Project description:Hemoglobin subunit alpha (HBA) expression in endothelial cells (ECs) has recently been shown to control vascular tone and function. We sought to elucidate the transcriptional regulation of HBA expression in the EC. Gain of KLF2 or KLF4 function studies led to significant induction of HBA in ECs. An opposite effect was observed in ECs isolated from animals with endothelial-specific ablation of Klf2, Klf4 or both. Promoter reporter assays demonstrated that KLF2/KLF4 transactivated the hemoglobin alpha promoter, an effect that was abrogated following mutation of all four putative KLF-binding sites. Fine promoter mutational studies localized three out of four KLF-binding sites (sites 2, 3, and 4) as critical for the transactivation of the HBA promoter by KLF2/KLF4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies showed that KLF4 bound to the HBA promoter in ECs. Thus, KLF2 and KLF4 serve as important regulators that promote HBA expression in the endothelium.
Project description:Upregulated by atheroprotective flow, the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is crucial for maintaining endothelial function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. We examined the role of miRNAs, particularly miR-92a, in the atheroprotective flow-regulated KLF2.Dicer knockdown increased the level of KLF2 mRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, suggesting that KLF2 is regulated by miRNA. In silico analysis predicted that miR-92a could bind to the 3' untranslated region of KLF2 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-92a decreased the expression of KLF2 and the KLF2-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase and thrombomodulin at mRNA and protein levels. A complementary finding is that miR-92a inhibitor increased the mRNA and protein expression of KLF2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and thrombomodulin. Subsequent studies revealed that atheroprotective laminar flow downregulated the level of miR-92a precursor to induce KLF2, and the level of this flow-induced KLF2 was reduced by miR-92a precursor. Furthermore, miR-92a level was lower in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to the atheroprotective pulsatile shear flow than under atheroprone oscillatory shear flow. Anti-Ago1/2 immunoprecipitation coupled with real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that pulsatile shear flow decreased the functional targeting of miR-92a precursor/KLF2 mRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Consistent with these findings, mouse carotid arteries receiving miR-92a precursor exhibited impaired vasodilatory response to flow.Atheroprotective flow patterns decrease the level of miR-92a, which in turn increases KLF2 expression to maintain endothelial homeostasis.
Project description:Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is a positive transcriptional regulator of several endothelial protective molecules, including thrombomodulin (TM), a surface receptor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that generates nitric oxide (NO). Loss of TM and eNOS causes endothelial dysfunction, which results in suppressed generation of activated protein C (APC) by TM-thrombin complex and in upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Mechanistic studies revealed that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) via upregulation of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) induces KLF2 expression. Radiation causes endothelial dysfunction, but no study has investigated radiation's effects on the KLF2 pathway. Because fractionated radiation is routinely used during cancer radiotherapy, we decided to delineate the effects of radiation dose fractionation on the KLF2 signaling cascade at early time points (up to 24?h). We exposed human primary endothelial cells to radiation as a series of fractionated or as a single exposure, with the same total dose delivered to each group. We measured the expression and activity of critical members of the KLF2 pathway at subsequent time points, and determined whether pharmacological upregulation of KLF2 can reverse the radiation effects. Compared to single exposure, fractionated radiation profoundly suppressed KLF2, TM, and eNOS levels, subdued APC generation, declined KLF2 binding ability to TM and eNOS promoters, enhanced ICAM-1 expression, and decreased expression of upstream regulators of KLF2 (ERK5 and MEF2). Pharmacological inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway prevented fractionated-radiation-induced suppression of KLF2, TM, and eNOS expression. Finally, fractionated irradiation to thoracic region more profoundly suppressed KLF2 and enhanced ICAM-1 expression than single exposure in the lung at 24?h. These data clearly indicate that radiation dose fractionation plays a critical role in modulating levels of KLF2, its upstream regulators, and its downstream target molecules in endothelial cells. Our findings will provide important insights for selecting fractionated regimens during radiotherapy and for developing strategies to alleviate radiotherapy-induced toxicity to healthy tissues.
Project description:Endothelial transcription factors Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and KLF2 are implicated in protection against atherogenesis. Steady-state microRNA (miR) regulation of KLFs in vivo is accessible by screening region-specific endothelial miRs and their targets.A subset of differentially expressed endothelial miRs was identified in atherosusceptible versus protected regions of normal swine aorta. In silico analyses predicted highly conserved binding sites in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of KLF4 for 5 miRs of the subset (miR-26a, -26b, -29a, -92a, and -103) and a single binding site for a miR-92a complex in the 3'UTR of KLF2. Of these, only miR-92a knockdown and knock-in resulted in responses of KLF4 and KLF2 expression in human arterial endothelial cells. Dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated functional interactions of miR-92a with full-length 3'UTR sequences of both KLFs and with the specific binding elements therein. Two evolutionarily conserved miR-92a sites in KLF4 3'UTR and 1 site in KLF2 3'UTR were functionally validated. Knockdown of miR-92a in vitro resulted in partial rescue from cytokine-induced proinflammatory marker expression (monocyte chemotactic protein 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase) that was attributable to enhanced KLF4 expression. Leukocyte-human arterial endothelial cell adhesion experiments supported this conclusion. In swine aortic arch endothelium, a site of atherosusceptibility where miR-92a expression was elevated, both KLFs were expressed at low levels relative to protected thoracic aorta.miR-92a coregulates KLF4 and KLF2 expression in arterial endothelium and contributes to phenotype heterogeneity associated with regional atherosusceptibility and protection in vivo.
Project description:Endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) is critically involved in anticoagulation, anti-inflammation, cytoprotection and normal fetal development. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) suppresses TM expression.TNF? has been shown to down-regulate TM partly via activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). However, because the TM promoter lacks an NF-?B binding site, the direct involvement of NF-?B has been controversial. We investigated the role of the upstream regulatory serine kinase, inhibitory kappa-B kinase-? (IKK?), in TM expression and function with or without TNF? treatment.Inhibition of IKK? was achieved by specific chemical inhibitors, siRNA or shRNA. TM expression was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry, luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay. TM function was estimated by generation of activated protein C (APC). NF-?B activation was determined by immunocytochemistry.IKK? inhibition increased TM expression and function, and attenuated TNF?-mediated TM down-regulation. In contrast, inhibition of downstream canonical NF-?B protein family members p50 and p65 (RelA) failed to up-regulate TM expression and did not affect IKK? inhibition-mediated TM over-expression. However, knockdown of cRel and RelB, family members of the canonical and non-canonical NF-?B pathway, respectively, resulted in TM over-expression. IKK? inhibition caused over-expression, increased promoter activity and enhanced binding of Krüppel-like factor 2 (Klf2) to the TM promoter, which positively regulates TM expression. Finally, knockdown of Klf2 completely attenuated IKK? inhibition-mediated TM up-regulation. We conclude that IKK? regulates TM in a Klf2-dependent manner.
Project description:Hemodynamic disturbed flow (DF) is associated with susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Endothelial Kruppel-Like Factor 4 (KLF4) is an important anti-inflammatory atheroprotective transcription factor that is suppressed in regions of DF.The plasticity of epigenomic KLF4 transcriptional regulation by flow-mediated DNA methylation was investigated in vitro and in arterial tissue.To recapitulate dominant flow characteristics of atheroprotected and atherosusceptible arteries, human aortic endothelial cells were subjected to pulsatile undisturbed flow or oscillatory DF containing a flow-reversing phase. Differential CpG site methylation was measured by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite pyrosequencing, and restriction enzyme-polymerase chain reaction. The methylation profiles of endothelium from disturbed and undisturbed flow sites of adult swine aortas were also investigated. In vitro, DF increased DNA methylation of CpG islands within the KLF4 promoter that significantly contributed to suppression of KLF4 transcription; the effects were mitigated by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors and knockdown of DNMT3A. Contributory mechanisms included DF-induced increase of DNMT3A protein (1.7-fold), DNMT3A enrichment (11-fold) on the KLF4 promoter, and competitive blocking of a myocyte enhancer factor-2 binding site in the KLF4 promoter near the transcription start site. DF also induced DNMT-sensitive propathological expression of downstream KLF4 transcription targets nitric oxide synthase 3, thrombomodulin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In support of the in vitro findings, swine aortic endothelium isolated from DF regions expressed significantly lower KLF4 and nitric oxide synthase 3, and bisulfite sequencing of KLF4 promoter identified a hypermethylated myocyte enhancer factor-2 binding site.Hemodynamics influence endothelial KLF4 expression through DNMT enrichment/myocyte enhancer factor-2 inhibition mechanisms of KLF4 promoter CpG methylation with regional consequences for atherosusceptibility.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a central regulator of the hypoxic response in many cell types. In endothelial cells, HIF-1 induces the expression of key proangiogenic factors to promote angiogenesis. Recent studies have identified Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. However, the role of KLF2 in regulating HIF-1 expression and function has not been evaluated. KLF2 expression was induced acutely by hypoxia in endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF2 inhibited hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1alpha and its target genes such as interleukin 8, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells. Conversely, knockdown of KLF2 increased expression of HIF-1alpha and its targets. Furthermore, KLF2 inhibited hypoxia-induced endothelial tube formation, whereas endothelial cells from mice with haploinsufficiency of KLF2 showed increased tube formation in response to hypoxia. Consistent with this ex vivo observation, KLF2 heterozygous mice showed increased microvessel density in the brain. Mechanistically, KLF2 promoted HIF-1alpha degradation in a von Hippel-Lindau protein-independent but proteasome-dependent manner. Finally, KLF2 disrupted the interaction between HIF-1alpha and its chaperone Hsp90, suggesting that KLF2 promotes degradation of HIF-1alpha by affecting its folding and maturation. These observations identify KLF2 as a novel inhibitor of HIF-1alpha expression and function. Therefore, KLF2 may be a target for modulating the angiogenic response in disease states.
Project description:Statins; a class of routinely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs; inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA reductase (HMGCR) and strongly induce endothelial thrombomodulin (TM); which is known to have anti-inflammatory; anti-coagulation; anti-oxidant; and radioprotective properties. However; high-dose toxicity limits the clinical use of statins. The vitamin E family member gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) also suppresses HMGCR activity and induces TM expression without causing significant adverse side effects; even at high concentrations. To investigate the synergistic effect of statins and GT3 on TM; a low dose of atorvastatin and GT3 was used to treat human primary endothelial cells. Protein-level TM expression was measured by flow cytometry. TM functional activity was determined by activated protein C (APC) generation assay. Expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), one of the key transcription factors of TM, was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TM expression increased in a dose-dependent manner after both atorvastatin and GT3 treatment. A combined treatment of a low-dose of atorvastatin and GT3 synergistically up-regulated TM expression and functional activity. Finally; atorvastatin and GT3 synergistically increased KLF2 expression. These findings suggest that combined treatment of statins with GT3 may provide significant health benefits in treating a number of pathophysiological conditions; including inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:The Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) and Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) transcription factors have recently been shown to act as critical regulators of endothelial homeostasis. While several insights have been made into the signaling mechanisms orchestrating endothelial KLF2 expression, those governing the expression of KLF4 in the vascular endothelium remain largely unknown. Here, we show that diverse vasoprotective stimuli including an atheroprotective shear stress waveform, simvastatin, and resveratrol induce the expression of KLF4 in cultured human endothelial cells. We further demonstrate that the induction of KLF4 by resveratrol and atheroprotective shear stress occurs via a MEK5/MEF2-dependent signaling pathway. Since MEK5 activation is also critical for the expression of KLF2, we assessed the individual contribution of KLF4 and KLF2 to the global transcriptional activity triggered by MEK5 activation. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of endothelial cells overexpressing KLF4, KLF2, or constitutively active MEK5 revealed that 59.2% of the genes regulated by the activation of MEK5 were similarly controlled by either KLF2 or KLF4. Collectively, our data identify a significant degree of mechanistic and functional conservation between KLF2 and KLF4, and importantly, provide further insights into the complex regulatory networks governing endothelial vasoprotection.