Association of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 2 (PCSK2) gene with type 2 diabetes in an African American population.
ABSTRACT: In a genome-wide scan for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in African American (AA) families, ordered subsets analysis (OSA) provided evidence for linkage to chromosome 20p in a subset with later age at diagnosis (max LOD 2.57, P=0.008). The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 2 (PCSK2) gene is within the LOD-1 interval of this linkage peak. Twenty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped across this gene in 380 unrelated AA individuals with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD), 278 AA controls, 96 European Americans (EA) and 120 Yoruba Nigerian (YRI) controls. In addition, 22 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in all AA subjects, 120 YRI, and 282 EA controls. ADMIXMAP was used to model the distributions of admixture and generate score tests of allelic and haplotypic association. Association with T2DM was observed among 4 SNPs: rs2021785 (admixture-adjusted Pa=0.00014), rs1609659 (Pa=0.028), rs4814597 (Pa=0.039) and rs2269023 (Pa=0.043). None of the PCSK2 SNPs were associated with age at T2DM diagnosis. A variant in the PCKS2 gene, rs2021785, appears to play a role in susceptibility to T2DM in this AA population.
Project description:Admixture and population stratification are major concerns in genetic association studies. We wished to evaluate the impact of admixture using empirically derived data from genetic association studies of African Americans (AA) with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Seventy ancestry informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in 577 AA with T2DM-ESRD, 596 AA controls, 44 Yoruba Nigerian (YRI) and 39 European American (EA) controls. Genotypic data and association results for eight T2DM candidate gene studies in our AA population were included. Ancestral estimates were calculated using FRAPPE, ADMIXMAP and STRUCTURE for all AA samples, using varying numbers of AIMs (25, 50, and 70). Ancestry estimates varied significantly across all three programs with the highest estimates obtained using STRUCTURE, followed by ADMIXMAP; while FRAPPE estimates were the lowest. FRAPPE estimates were similar using varying numbers of AIMs, while STRUCTURE estimates using 25 AIMs differed from estimates using 50 and 70 AIMs. Female T2DM-ESRD cases showed higher mean African proportions as compared to female controls, male cases, and male controls. Age showed a weak but significant correlation with individual ancestral estimates in AA cases (r2 = 0.101; P = 0.019) and in the combined set (r2 = 0.131; P = 3.57 x 10(-5)). The absolute difference between frequencies in parental populations, absolute delta, was correlated with admixture impact for dominant, additive, and recessive genotypic models of association. This study presents exploratory analyses of the impact of admixture on studies of AA with T2DM-ESRD and supports the use of ancestral proportions as a means of reducing confounding effects due to admixture.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations.Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals [N] = 1004), American Indian (AI; N = 883), European American (EA; N = 537), and Mexican American (MA; N = 1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Non-parametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM.Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 4q21.1 (LOD = 3.13; genome-wide p = 0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of 11 regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD > 1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD = 2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD = 2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD = 2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD = 2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD = . 2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD > 1.71 have been identified in previously published studies.The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA; 6p in EA; 2p in AI; and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population.
Project description:A genome-wide linkage scan of 357 European American (EA) and 72 African American (AA) pedigrees multiplex for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was performed with multipoint nonparametric QTL linkage analysis. Four subclinical measures of cardiovascular disease (CVD): coronary artery (CCP), carotid artery (CarCP), and abdominal aortic calcified plaque (AACP) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) were mapped. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and (if appropriate) ethnicity and diabetes status. Evidence for linkage was observed in EA T2DM subjects to CarCP near 16p13 (LOD=4.39 at 8.4 cM; P = 0.00001). When all EA subjects were included, the LOD score was 2.52, suggesting an amplification of the linkage by diabetes. Linkage analysis of a principal components measure of vascular calcium (LOD = 3.85 at 9.3 cM on 16p in EA T2DM subjects) and bivariate analysis of CarCP X IMT (LOD = 3.77 at 9.3 cM on 16p in EA T2DM subjects) were consistent with this linkage. In addition, evidence for linkage was observed with CCP near D15S1515 (LOD = 2.34) in EAs. Additional loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 10, 13, and 21 had LODs > 2.0. The identification of trait-determining polymorphisms underlying these linkages will help delineate risk factors for CVD in T2DM and the general population.
Project description:Uric acid is the primary byproduct of purine metabolism. Hyperuricemia is associated with body mass index (BMI), sex, and multiple complex diseases including gout, hypertension (HTN), renal disease, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry (EA) have reported associations between serum uric acid levels (SUAL) and specific genomic loci. The purposes of this study were: 1) to replicate major signals reported in EA populations; and 2) to use the weak LD pattern in African ancestry population to better localize (fine-map) reported loci and 3) to explore the identification of novel findings cognizant of the moderate sample size.African American (AA) participants (n = 1,017) from the Howard University Family Study were included in this study. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix® Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Imputation was performed using MACH and the HapMap reference panels for CEU and YRI. A total of 2,400,542 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed for association with serum uric acid under the additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, glomerular filtration rate, HTN, T2D, and the top two principal components identified in the assessment of admixture and population stratification.Four variants in the gene SLC2A9 achieved genome-wide significance for association with SUAL (p-values ranging from 8.88 × 10(-9) to 1.38 × 10(-9)). Fine-mapping of the SLC2A9 signals identified a 263 kb interval of linkage disequilibrium in the HapMap CEU sample. This interval was reduced to 37 kb in our AA and the HapMap YRI samples.The most strongly associated locus for SUAL in EA populations was also the most strongly associated locus in this AA sample. This finding provides evidence for the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid metabolism across human populations. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of following-up EA populations GWAS signals in African-ancestry populations with weaker linkage disequilibrium.
Project description:Previously, we performed a genome scan for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using 638 African-American (AA) affected sibling pairs from 247 families; non-parametric linkage analysis suggested evidence of linkage at 6q24-27 (LOD 2.26). To comprehensively evaluate this region, we performed a two-stage association study by first constructing a SNP map of 754 SNPs selected from HapMap on the basis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 300 AAT2DM end-stage renal disease (ESRD) subjects, 311 AA controls, 43 European American controls and 45 Yoruba Nigerian samples (Set 1). Replication analyses were conducted in an independent population of 283 AA T2DM-ESRD subjects and 282 AA controls (Set 2). In addition, we adjusted for the impact of admixture on association results by using ancestry informative markers (AIMs). In Stage 1, 137 (18.2%) SNPs showed nominal evidence of association (P < 0.05) in one or more of tests of association: allelic (n = 33), dominant (n = 36), additive (n = 29), or recessive (n = 34) genotypic models, and 2- (n = 47) and 3-SNP (n = 43) haplotypic analyses. These SNPs were selected for follow-up genotyping. Stage 2 analyses confirmed association with a predicted 2-SNP "risk" haplotype in the PARK2 gene. Also, two intergenic SNPs showed consistent genotypic association with T2DM-ESRD: rs12197043 and rs4897081. Combined analysis of all subjects from both stages revealed nominal associations with 17 SNPs within genes, including suggestive associations in ESR1 and PARK2. This study confirms known diabetic nephropathy loci and identifies potentially novel susceptibility variants located within 6q24-27 in AA.
Project description:CYP19A1 facilitates the bioconversion of estrogens from androgens. CYP19A1 intron single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may alter mRNA splicing, resulting in altered CYP19A1 activity, and potentially influencing disease susceptibility. Genetic studies of CYP19A1 SNPs have been well documented in populations of European ancestry; however, studies in populations of African ancestry are limited. In the present study, ten 'candidate' intronic SNPs in CYP19A1 from 125 African Americans (AA) and 277 European Americans (EA) were genotyped and their frequencies compared. Allele frequencies were also compared with HapMap and ASW 1000 Genomes populations. We observed significant differences in the minor allele frequencies between AA and EA in six of the ten SNPs including rs10459592 (p<0.0001), rs12908960 (p<0.0001), rs1902584 (p = 0.016), rs2470144 (p<0.0001), rs1961177 (p<0.0001), and rs6493497 (p = 0.003). While there were no significant differences in allele frequencies between EA and CEU in the HapMap population, a 1.2- to 19-fold difference in allele frequency for rs10459592 (p = 0.004), rs12908960 (p = 0.0006), rs1902584 (p<0.0001), rs2470144 (p = 0.0006), rs1961177 (p<0.0001), and rs6493497 (p = 0.0092) was observed between AA and the Yoruba (YRI) population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks and haplotype clusters that is unique to the EA population but not AA was also observed. In summary, we demonstrate that differences in the allele frequencies of CYP19A1 intron SNPs are not consistent between populations of African and European ancestry. Thus, investigations into whether CYP19A1 intron SNPs contribute to variations in cancer incidence, outcomes and pharmacological response seen in populations of different ancestry may prove beneficial.
Project description:African Americans (AAs) are an admixed population of West African (WA) and European ancestry (EA). Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility genes have not been established. We therefore evaluated the contribution of European admixture and major established risk genes to AA CD.Ninety-seven admixture informative markers were genotyped for ancestry estimates using STRUCTURE. Overall, 354 AA CD cases and 354 ethnicity-matched controls were genotyped for total 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATG16L1, NOD2, IBD5, IL23R and IRGM by TaqMan or direct sequencing. Association was evaluated by logistic regression, adjusted for ancestry.Mean EA was similar among the CD cases and controls (20.9% and 20.4%, respectively, P = 0.58). No significant admixture differences were observed among 211 to 227 cases stratified by phenotypic subclassifications including onset, surgery, site, and behavior. CD was associated with NOD2 carrier (6.93% CD, 2.15% Controls, P = 0.007), ATG16L1 Thr300Ala (36.1% CD, 29.3% Controls, P = 0.003), SLC22A4 and SLC22A5 (IBD5 locus) functional SNPs (Leu503Phe [10.5% CD, 7.6% Controls, P = 0.05] and g-207c [41.3% CD, 35.7% Controls, P = 0.03], respectively), and IL23R rs2201841 (18.2% CD, 13.8% Controls, P = 0.03), but not IRGM variants, nor three African ancestral NOD2 nonsynonymous variants. IBD5 risk was recessive. An all-minor allele IBD5 haplotype from EA was associated (P = 0.05), whereas a more common haplotype isolating g-207c was not.Specific functional gene variations contribute significantly to AA CD risk. Established NOD2, SLC22A4-A5, and ATG16L1 variants show increased CD risk, with IBD5 recessive. Although CD is more common in whites, European admixture is similar among AA cases and controls.
Project description:Variants in the engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) gene are associated with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Japanese cohort. We comprehensively evaluated this gene in African American (AA) T2DM patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Three hundred and nine HapMap tagging SNPs and 9 reportedly associated SNPs were genotyped in 577 AA T2DM-ESRD patients and 596 AA non-diabetic controls, plus 43 non-diabetic European American controls and 45 Yoruba Nigerian samples for admixture adjustment. Replication analyses were conducted in 558 AA with T2DM-ESRD and 564 controls without diabetes. Extension analyses included 328 AA with T2DM lacking nephropathy and 326 with non-diabetic ESRD. The original and replication analyses confirmed association with four SNPs in intron 13 (permutation p-values for combined analyses = 0.001-0.003), one in intron 1 (P = 0.004) and one in intron 5 (P = 0.002) with T2DM-associated ESRD. In a subsequent combined analysis of all 1,135 T2DM-ESRD cases and 1,160 controls, an additional 7 intron 13 SNPs produced evidence of association (P = 3.5 x 10(-5)- P = 0.05). No associations were seen with these SNPs in those with T2DM lacking nephropathy or with ESRD due to non-diabetic causes. Variants in intron 13 of the ELMO1 gene appear to confer risk for diabetic nephropathy in AA.
Project description:Genetic studies in Turkish, Native American, European American, and African American (AA) families have linked chromosome 18q21.1-23 to susceptibility for diabetes-associated nephropathy. In this study, we have carried out fine linkage mapping in the 18q region previously linked to diabetic nephropathy in AAs by genotyping both microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for linkage analysis in an expanded set of 223 AA families multiplexed for type 2 diabetes associated ESRD (T2DM-ESRD). Several approaches were used to evaluate evidence of linkage with the strongest evidence for linkage in ordered subset analysis with an earlier age of T2DM diagnosis compared to the remaining pedigrees (LOD 3.9 at 90.1 cM, ?P = 0.0161, NPL P value = 0.00002). Overall, the maximum LODs and LOD-1 intervals vary in magnitude and location depending upon analysis. The linkage mapping was followed up by performing a dense SNP map, genotyping 2,814 SNPs in the refined LOD-1 region in 1,029 AA T2DM-ESRD cases and 1,027 AA controls. Of the top 25 most associated SNPs, 10 resided within genic regions. Two candidate genes stood out: NEDD4L and SERPINB7. SNP rs512099, located in intron 1 of NEDD4L, was associated under a dominant model of inheritance [P value = 0.0006; Odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval) OR (95% CI) = 0.70 (0.57-0.86)]. SNP rs1720843, located in intron 2 of SERPINB7, was associated under a recessive model of inheritance [P value = 0.0017; OR (95% CI) = 0.65 (0.50-0.85)]. Collectively, these results suggest that multiple genes in this region may influence diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in AAs.
Project description:We describe statistical methods that extend the application of admixture mapping from unrelated individuals to nuclear pedigrees, allowing existing pedigree-based collections to be fully exploited. Computational challenges have been overcome by developing a fast algorithm that exploits the factorial structure of the underlying model of ancestry transitions. This has been implemented as an extension of the program ADMIXMAP. We demonstrate the application of the method to a study of sarcoidosis in African Americans that has previously been analyzed only as an admixture mapping study restricted to unrelated individuals. Although the ancestry signals detected in this pedigree analysis are generally similar to those detected in the earlier analysis of unrelated cases, we are able to extract more information and this yields a much sharper exclusion map; using the classical criterion of an LOD score of minus 2, the pedigree analysis is able to exclude a risk ratio of 2 or more associated with African ancestry over 96% of the genome, compared with only 83% in the earlier analysis of unrelated individuals only. Although the pedigree extension of ADMIXMAP can use ancestry-informative markers only at relatively low density, it can use imputed ancestry states from programs such as WINPOP or HAPMIX that use dense SNP marker genotypes for admixture mapping. This extends both the efficiency and the range of application of this powerful gene mapping method.