Spatiotemporal homogeneity of Campylobacter subtypes from cattle and sheep across northeastern and southwestern Scotland.
ABSTRACT: Source attribution using molecular subtypes has implicated cattle and sheep as sources of human Campylobacter infection. Whether the Campylobacter subtypes associated with cattle and sheep vary spatiotemporally remains poorly known, especially at national levels. Here we describe spatiotemporal patterns of prevalence, bacterial enumeration, and subtype composition in Campylobacter isolates from cattle and sheep feces from northeastern (63 farms, 414 samples) and southwestern (71 farms, 449 samples) Scotland during 2005 to 2006. Isolates (201) were categorized as sequence type (ST), as clonal complex (CC), and as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). No significant difference in average prevalence (cattle, 22%; sheep, 25%) or average enumeration (cattle, 2.7 x 10(4) CFU/g; sheep, 2.0 x 10(5) CFU/g) was found between hosts or regions. The four most common STs (C. jejuni ST-19, ST-42, and ST-61 and C. coli ST-827) occurred in both hosts, whereas STs of the C. coli ST-828 clonal complex were more common in sheep. Neither host yielded evidence for regional differences in ST, CC, or MLST allele composition. Isolates from the two hosts combined, categorized as ST or CC, were more similar within than between farms but showed no further spatiotemporal trends up to 330 km and 50 weeks between farm samples. In contrast, both regions yielded evidence for significant differences in ST, CC, and allele composition between hosts, such that 65% of isolates could be attributed to a known host. These results suggest that cattle and sheep within the spatiotemporal scales analyzed are each capable of contributing homogeneous Campylobacter strains to human infections.
Project description:Since cattle are a major source of food and the cattle industry engages people from farms to processing plants and meat markets, it is conceivable that beef-products contaminated with Campylobacter spp. would pose a significant public health concern. To better understand the epidemiology of cattle-associated Campylobacter spp. in the USA, we characterized the prevalence, genotypic and phenotypic properties of these pathogens. Campylobacter were detected in 181 (19.2%) out of 944 fecal samples. Specifically, 71 C. jejuni, 132 C. coli, and 10 other Campylobacter spp. were identified. The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fecal samples collected from the South (32.8%) as compared to those from the North (14.8%), Midwest (15.83%), and East (12%). Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were genotypically diverse and certain genotypes were shared across two or more of the geographic locations. In addition, 13 new C. jejuni and two C. coli sequence types (STs) were detected by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). C. jejuni associated with clinically human health important sequence type, ST-61 which was not previously reported in the USA, was identified in the present study. Most frequently observed clonal complexes (CC) were CC ST-21, CC ST-42, and CC ST-61, which are also common in humans. Further, the cattle associated C. jejuni strains showed varying invasion and intracellular survival capacity; however, C. coli strains showed a lower invasion and intracellular survival potential compared to C. jejuni strains. Furthermore, many cattle associated Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter.
Project description:An intensive study of 443 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from 2031 fecal samples excreted by animal sources including cattle, sheep, and pigs, a range of wild and domesticated avian species and pets is described. The prevalence found in the majority of animal sources ranged from 22% to 28% with poultry being highest at 41% and cats and dogs lowest (<5%). The average count excreted for each animal source was found not to be significantly different ranging from approximately 10(2) to 10(5) cfu/g. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified phylogenies that exhibited host specificity. A number of clonal complexes (CCs) and sequence types (STs) were characteristic of particular hosts (e.g., CC-179, ST-637, and ST-1341 found only in pigeons and gulls). Analysis of genetic distance demonstrated numerous significant differences in the distribution of MLST types (CC, ST, and allele) between animal sources. Host association was quantified using structure that correctly assigned the nine animal sources with accuracies of 28%, 24%, and 55% at the CC, ST, and allele levels, respectively. This is substantially higher than would be expected by random allocation (11%) but farmyard poultry had the lowest assignment accuracy (13%, 13%, and 21%) suggesting that isolates were shared with a wide range of other animals. This study demonstrates the link between MLST type and host and provides data that can be used in risk assessment and food attribution models. Further, it demonstrates the applicability of MLST to characterize Campylobacter strains from a broad range of environmental sources.
Project description:Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%]), and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST), but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC) accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3%) delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types) generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU) countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks.
Project description:Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in the European Union with over 200,000 laboratory-confirmed cases reported annually. This is the first study to describe findings related to comparative genomics analyses of the sequence type (ST)-677 clonal complex (CC), a Campylobacter jejuni lineage associated with bacteremia cases in humans. We performed whole-genome sequencing, using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology, on five related ST-677 CC isolates from two chicken farms to identify microevolution taking place at the farms. Our further aim was to identify novel putative virulence determinants from the ST-677 CC genomes. For this purpose, clinical isolates of the same CC were included in comparative genomic analyses against well-known reference strains of C. jejuni. Overall, the ST-677 CC was recognized as a highly clonal lineage with relatively small differences between the genomes. Among the farm isolates differences were identified mainly in the lengths of the homopolymeric tracts in genes related to the capsule, lipo-oligosaccharide, and flagella. We identified genomic features shared with C. jejuni subsp. doylei, which has also been shown to be associated with bacteremia in humans. These included the degradation of the cytolethal distending toxin operon and similarities between the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis loci. The phase-variable GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (EC 220.127.116.11) (wcbK, CAMP1649), associated with the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, may play a central role in ST-677 CC conferring acid and serum resistance during different stages of infection. Homology-based searches revealed several additional novel features and characteristics, including two putative type Vb secretion systems and a novel restriction modification/methyltransferase gene cluster, putatively associated with pathogenesis and niche adaptation.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that is increasingly found worldwide and that is transmitted to humans through meat or dairy products. A detailed understanding of the prevalence and characteristics of C. jejuni in dairy cattle farms, which are likely to become sources of contamination, is imperative and is currently lacking. In this study, a total of 295 dairy cattle farm samples from 15 farms (24 visits) in Korea were collected. C. jejuni prevalence at the farm level was 60% (9/15) and at the animal level was 23.8% (68/266). Using the multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) model based on farm-environmental factors, we estimated that a high density of cattle and average environmental temperature (7 days prior to sampling) below 24°C affects the presence and survival of C. jejuni in the farm environment. Cattle isolates, together with C. jejuni from other sources (chicken and human), were genetically characterized based on analysis of 10 virulence and survival genes. A total of 19 virulence profile types were identified, with type 01 carrying eight genes (all except hcp and virB11) being the most prevalent. The prevalence of virB11 and hcp was significantly higher in isolates from cattle than in those from other sources (p < 0.05). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of C. jejuni isolates from three different sources mainly clustered in the CC-21 and CC-48. Within the CC-21 and CC-48 clusters, cattle isolates shared an indistinguishable pattern with human isolates according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. This suggests that CC-21 and CC-48 C. jejuni from dairy cattle are genetically related to clinical campylobacteriosis isolates. In conclusion, the farm environment influences the presence and survival of C. jejuni, which may play an important role in cycles of cattle re-infection, and dairy cattle represent potential reservoirs of human campylobacteriosis. Thus, environmental management practices could be implemented on cattle farms to reduce the shedding of C. jejuni from cattle, subsequently reducing the potential risk of the spread of cattle-derived C. jejuni to humans through the food chain.
Project description:Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. This study aimed at a better understanding of the genetic diversity of this pathogen disseminated in Japan. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from different sources (100 human, 61 poultry, and 51 cattle isolates) in Japan between 2005 and 2006. This approach identified 62 sequence types (STs) and 19 clonal complexes (CCs), including 11 novel STs. These 62 STs were phylogenetically divided into 6 clusters, partially exhibiting host association. We identified a novel ST (ST-4526) that has never been reported in other countries; a phylogenetic analysis showed that ST-4526 and related STs showed distant lineage from the founder ST, ST-21 within CC-21. Comparative genome analysis was performed to investigate which properties could be responsible for the successful dissemination of ST-4526 in Japan. Results revealed that three representative ST-4526 isolates contained a putative island comprising the region from Cj0737 to Cj0744, which differed between the ST-4526 isolates and the reference strain NCTC11168 (ST-43/CC-21). Amino acid sequence alignment analyses showed that two of three ST-4526 isolates expressed 693aa- filamentous hemagglutination domain protein (FHA), while most of other C. jejuni strains whose genome were sequenced exhibited its truncation. Correspondingly, host cell binding of FHA-positive C. jejuni was greater than that of FHA-truncated strains, and exogenous administration of rFHA protein reduced cell adhesion of FHA-positive bacteria. Biochemical assays showed that this putative protein exhibited a dose-dependent binding affinity to heparan sulfate, indicating its adhesin activity. Moreover, ST-4526 showed increased antibiotic-resistance (nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolones) and a reduced ability for DNA uptake. Taken together, our data suggested that these combined features contributed to the clonal thriving of ST-4526 in Japan.
Project description:Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance, particularly to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, in the major foodborne pathogen Campylobacter is considered a serious threat to public health. Although ruminant animals serve as a significant reservoir for Campylobacter, limited information is available on antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter of bovine origin. Here, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 320 C. jejuni and 115 C. coli isolates obtained from feedlot cattle farms in multiple states in the U.S. The results indicate that fluoroquinolone resistance reached to 35.4% in C. jejuni and 74.4% in C. coli, which are significantly higher than those previously reported in the U.S. While all fluoroquinolone resistant (FQR) C. coli isolates examined in this study harbored the single Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA, FQR C. jejuni isolates had other mutations in GyrA in addition to the Thr-86-Ile change. Notably, most of the analyzed FQR C. coli isolates had similar PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) patterns and the same MLST (multilocus sequence typing) sequence type (ST-1068) regardless of their geographic sources and time of isolation, while the analyzed C. jejuni isolates were genetically diverse, suggesting that clonal expansion is involved in dissemination of FQR C. coli but not C. jejuni. These findings reveal the rising prevalence of FQR Campylobacter in the U.S. and provide novel information on the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter in the ruminant reservoir.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans, is a foodborne pathogen that can reside in chickens, pigs, and cattle. Because resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are commonly used to treat human infections, has emerged in C. jejuni, it is imperative to continously monitor resistance patterns and examine the genetic variation in strains from human infections and animal reservoirs. Our previous study of C. jejuni from human campylobacteriosis cases showed a significantly higher rate of tetracycline resistance compared to national trends, and identified multilocus sequence type (ST)-982 and a history of cattle contact to be associated with tetracycline resistance. To further investigate these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and examine the genetic diversity of C. jejuni recovered from 214 cattle at three Michigan herds. Overall, the prevalence of C. jejuni was 69.2% (range: 58.6-83.8%) for the three farms, and 83.7% (n = 113) of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance to only tetracycline predominated among the cattle isolates (n = 89; 65.9%) with most resistant strains belonging to ST-459 (96.5%) or ST-982 (86.4%). Among the 22 STs identified, STs 459 and 982 were more prevalent in one feedlot, which reported the use of chlortetracycline in feed upon arrival of a new herd. PCR-based fingerprinting demonstrated that the ST-982 isolates from cattle and humans had identical banding patterns, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission. Resistance to macrolides (1.5%) and ciprofloxacin (16.3%) was also observed; 14 of the 22 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates represented ST-1244. Together, these findings demonstrate a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. jejuni in cattle and identify associations with specific genotypes. Continuous monitoring and identification of risk factors for resistance emergence are imperative to develop novel methods aimed at decreasing pathogen persistence in food animal reservoirs and the frequency of resistant infections in humans.