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Mechanism of the cytotoxicity of the diazoparaquinone antitumor antibiotic kinamycin F.

ABSTRACT: The bacterial metabolite kinamycin F, which is being investigated as a potent antitumor agent, contains an unusual and potentially reactive diazo group, a paraquinone, and a phenol functional group. Kinamycin F reacted with glutathione (GSH) in a complex series of reactions which suggested that kinamycin F may have its cytotoxicity modulated by GSH. Consistent with this idea, 2-oxo-4-thiazolidinecarboxylic acid treatment to increase cellular GSH levels and buthionine sulfoximine treatment to decrease GSH levels resulted in decreased and increased kinamycin F cytotoxicity, respectively, in K562 leukemia cells. Kinamycin F weakly bound to DNA and induced DNA damage in K562 cells that was independent of GSH levels. The GSH-promoted DNA nicking induced by kinamycin F in vitro was attenuated by deferoxamine, dimethyl sulfoxide, and catalase, which indicated that DNA damage initiated by this agent occurred in an iron-, hydrogen-peroxide-, and hydroxyl-radical-dependent manner. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments showed that the GSH/kinamycin F system produced a semiquinone free radical and that the hydrogen peroxide/peroxidase/kinamycin F system generated a phenoxyl free radical. In conclusion, the results indicated that kinamycin F cytotoxicity may be due to reductive and/or peroxidative activation to produce DNA-and protein-damaging species.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC2753228 | BioStudies | 2007-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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