New prescription medication gaps: a comprehensive measure of adherence to new prescriptions.
ABSTRACT: Describe a novel approach to comprehensively summarize medication adherence.Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n approximately 220,000)In a new prescription cohort design (27,329 subjects prescribed new medications), we used pharmacy utilization data to estimate adherence during 24 months follow-up. Proportion of time without sufficient medications (medication gaps) was estimated using a novel measure (New Prescription Medication Gaps [NPMG]) and compared with a traditional measure of adherence.Data derived from electronic medical records and survey responses.Twenty-two percent of patients did not become ongoing users (had zero or only one dispensing of the new prescription). The proportion of newly prescribed patients that never became ongoing users was eightfold greater than the proportion who maintained ongoing use, but with inadequate adherence. Four percent of those with at least two dispensings discontinued therapy during the 24 months follow-up. NPMG was significantly associated with high out-of-pocket costs, self-reported adherence, and clinical response to therapy.NPMG is a valid adherence measure. Findings also suggest a larger burden of inadequate adherence than previously thought. Public health efforts have traditionally focused on improving adherence in ongoing users; clearly more attention is needed to address nonpersistence in the very first stages after a new medication is prescribed.
Project description:Among adults with diabetes, depression is associated with poorer adherence to cardiometabolic medications in ongoing users; however, it is unknown whether this extends to early adherence among patients newly prescribed these medications. This study examined whether depressive symptoms among adults with diabetes newly prescribed cardiometabolic medications are associated with early and long-term nonadherence.An observational follow-up of 4,018 adults with type 2 diabetes who completed a survey in 2006 and were newly prescribed oral antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, or lipid-lowering agents within the following year at Kaiser Permanente Northern California was conducted. Depressive symptoms were examined based on Patient Health Questionnaire-8 scores. Pharmacy utilization data were used to identify nonadherence by using validated methods: early nonadherence (medication never dispensed or dispensed once and never refilled) and long-term nonadherence (new prescription medication gap [NPMG]: percentage of time without medication supply). These analyses were conducted in 2016.Patients with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms had poorer adherence than nondepressed patients (8.3% more patients with early nonadherence, P=0.01; 4.9% patients with longer NPMG, P=0.002; 7.8% more patients with overall nonadherence [medication gap >20%], P=0.03). After adjustment for confounders, the models remained statistically significant for new NPMG (3.7% difference, P=0.02). There was a graded association between greater depression severity and nonadherence for all the models (test of trend, P<0.05).Depressive symptoms were associated with modest differences in early and long-term adherence to newly prescribed cardiometabolic medications in diabetes patients. Interventions targeting adherence among adults with diabetes and depression need to address both initiation and maintenance of medication use.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine whether a pharmacist-led intervention improves medication adherence among patients who have filled a first-time prescription for a cardiovascular medicine. METHODS:Design: Unblinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING:67 Norwegian pharmacies, October 2014-June 2015. PARTICIPANTS:1480 adults with a first-time prescription for a cardiovascular medicine. INTERVENTION:Participants in the intervention group received two consultations with a pharmacist 1-2 and 3-5 weeks after filling the prescription. Participants in the control group received care according to usual practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:The primary outcome was self-reported adherence as measured by the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), at 7 and 18 weeks after filling the prescription. Adherence from baseline to week 52 was estimated using data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NPD). KEY FINDINGS:Data from MMAS-8 showed that 91.3% of the patients in the intervention group were adherent after 7 weeks versus 86.8% in the control group (4.5% difference, 95% CI 0.8-8.2, P = 0.017). The corresponding proportions were 88.7% versus 83.7% after 18 weeks (5.0% difference, 95% CI 0.8-9.2, P = 0.021). NPD data (n = 1294) showed no significant difference in adherence after 52 weeks (95% CI -2.0 to 7.8, P = 0.24). However, adherence among statin users (n = 182) was 66.5% in the intervention group versus 57.4% among new statin users in the general population (n = 1500) (difference 9.1%, 95% CI 1.5-16.0, P = 0.019). CONCLUSION:The main outcome measure indicates that a short, structured pharmacist-led intervention may increase medication adherence for patients starting on chronic cardiovascular medication. However, these findings could not be confirmed by the NPD data analysis.
Project description:Prescription medication labels contain valuable health information, and better labels may enhance patient adherence to chronic medications. A new prescription medication labeling system was implemented by Target pharmacies in May 2005 and aimed to improve readability and understanding.We evaluated whether the new Target label influenced patient medication adherence.Using claims from two large health plans, we identified patients with one of nine chronic diseases who filled prescriptions at Target pharmacies and a matched sample who filled prescriptions at other community pharmacies.We stratified our cohort into new and prevalent medication users and evaluated the impact of the Target label on medication adherence. We used linear regression and segmented linear regression to evaluate the new-user and prevalent-user analyses, respectively.Our sample included 23,745 Target users and 162,368 matched non-Target pharmacy users. We found no significant change in adherence between new users of medications at Target or other community pharmacies (p = 0.644) after implementing the new label. In prevalent users, we found a 0.0069 percent reduction in level of adherence (95% CI -0.0138-0.0; p < 0.001) and a 0.0007 percent increase in the slope in Target users (the monthly rate of change of adherence) after implementation of the new label (95% CI 0.0001-0.0013; p = 0.001).We found no changes in adherence of chronic medication in new users, and small and likely clinically unimportant changes in prevalent users after implementation of the new label. While adherence may not be improved with better labeling, evaluation of the effect of labeling on safety and adverse effects is needed.
Project description:Although the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Indonesia has increased in recent years, little is known about the specific characteristics affecting adherence in this population. Indonesia is different from most of its neighbors given that it is a geographically and culturally diverse country, with a large Muslim population. We aimed to identify the current rate of adherence and explore factors that influence ART adherence.Data were collected from ART-prescribed outpatients on an HIV registry at a North Jakarta hospital in 2012. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were explored as factors associated with adherence using logistics regression analyses. Chi squared test was used to compare the difference between proportions. Reasons for missing medication were analyzed descriptively.Two hundred and sixty-one patients participated, of whom 77% reported ART adherence in the last 3 months. The level of social support experienced was independently associated with adherence where some social support (p?=?0.018) and good social support (p?=?0.039) improved adherence compared to poor social support. Frequently cited reasons for not taking ART medication included forgetting to take medication (67%), busy with something else (63%) and asleep at medication time (60%).This study identified that an increase in the level of social support experienced by ART-prescribed patients was positively associated with adherence. Social support may minimize the impact of stigma among ART prescribed patients. Based on these findings, if social support is not available, alternative support through community-based organizations is recommended to maximize treatment success.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Robust evidence is lacking on optimal timing of statin administration and its impact on patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to evaluate among incident statin users the relationship between those prescribed evening vs. daily dosing instructions, medication adherence, and changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). DESIGN:This is an observational cohort study at Sutter Health, a community-based healthcare system, 2010-2016. PARTICIPANTS:Patients were ??35 years of age as of the first statin prescription (baseline), with 12 to 36 months of electronic health record activity before and after baseline. Incident use was defined as no statin prescription in 12 months prior to baseline. MAIN MEASURES:Differences in medication adherence (proportion of days covered ??0.80) over 12 months from baseline and mean change in LDL-c between 12 and 24 months from baseline were measured using regression modeling, adjusting for baseline demographics and clinical, prescriber, and statin characteristics. KEY RESULTS:Among 31,252 patients with valid statin prescriptions between 2010 and 2016, 5099 eligible incident statin users (mean age, 63 years) were identified, of whom 53% were prescribed evening and 47% daily dosing instructions. No difference in likelihood of statin adherence over 12 months was observed for evening vs. daily dosing (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.90; 95% CI 0.75, 1.08). No differences were observed in mean change in LDL-c (adjusted mean difference 1.42 mg/dL; 95% CI -?1.02, 3.89) or likelihood of attaining LDL-c <?70 mg/dL (adjusted OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.67, 1.04) for evening vs. daily dosing over a mean of 19 months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Among incident statin users from a real-world clinical setting, those with daily and evening dosing instructions had similar adherence rates and mean changes in LDL-c. Given potential clinical equipoise for evening and daily dosing, clinicians should consider patient-tailored statin dosing instructions to reduce potentially unnecessary regimen complexity.
Project description:Background:Recurrent use of oral corticosteroids (OCS) and over-use of short-acting beta-2-agonists (SABA) are factors associated with adverse side effects and asthma-related death. We aim to quantify high OCS exposure, SABA over-use and its association with prescription and adherence to maintenance treatment for respiratory disease, among patients with prescriptions for respiratory disease, from the Portuguese electronic prescription and dispensing database (BDNP). Methods:This was a 1-year (2016) retrospective population-based analysis of a random sample of adult patients from the BDNP, the nationwide compulsory medication prescription system. We assessed high OCS exposure (dispensing ≥ 4 packages containing 20 doses of 20 mg each of prednisolone-equivalent, ≥ 1600 mg/year) on patients on persistent respiratory treatment (PRT-prescription for > 2 packages of any respiratory maintenance medications). Excessive use of SABA was defined as having a ratio of SABA-to-maintenance treatment > 1 or having SABA over-use (dispensing of > 1 × 200 dose canister/month, of 100 μg of salbutamol-equivalent). Factors associated with high OCS exposure were assessed by multinomial logistic regression. Results:The estimated number of patients on PRT was 4786/100,000 patients. OCS was prescribed to more than 1/5 of the patients on PRT and 101/100,000 were exposed to a high-dose (≥ 1600 mg/year). SABA excessive use was found in 144/100,000 patients and SABA over-use in 24/100,000. About 1/6 of SABA over-users were not prescribed any controller medication and 7% of them had a ratio maintenance-to-total ≥ 70% (high prescription of maintenance treatment). Primary adherence (median%) to controller medication was 66.7% for PRT patients, 59.6% for patients exposed to high OCS dose and 75.0% for SABA over-users. High OCS exposure or SABA over-use were not associated with primary adherence. High OCS exposure was associated with a maintenance-to-total medication ratio < 70% (insufficient prescription of maintenance treatment), age > 45 years old and male sex. Conclusions:Exposure to high-dose of OCS (101 per 100,000 patients) and SABA over-use (24 per 100,000) were frequent, and were associated with a low maintenance-to-total prescription ratio but not with primary non-adherence. These results suggest there is a need for initiatives to reduce OCS and SABA inappropriate prescribing.
Project description:Oral chemotherapy is increasingly prescribed to treat cancer. Despite its benefits, concerns have been raised regarding adherence to therapy. The study objective was to compare and measure adherence, persistence, and abandonment in patients filling prescriptions in traditional retail (TR) versus specialty pharmacy (SP) channels.Using a retrospective cohort design, we selected newly treated patients aged ?18 years with a prescription for erlotinib, capecitabine, or imatinib during 2007-2011 from a Medco population of both United States commercial and Medicare health plans. Patients were classified according to pharmacy channel providing the medication. Abandonment was defined as a reversal following initial approval of the index prescription claim with no additional paid claims for agent within 90 days of reversal. Patients were considered adherent if the proportion of days covered between the date of the first and last oral prescription was ?80%.In our retrospective cohort, 11,972 filled their prescriptions within the SP channel, and 30,394 filled their prescriptions within the TR channels, respectively. The SP channel had the highest proportion of adherent patients compared with TR (71.6% vs. 56.4%, P < .001). Abandonment of the initial prescription was low with overall rates of only 1.7%. In multivariate models controlling for demographic characteristics, index oncolytic, days of supply, and copay, SP channel (relative to TR) was significantly associated with lower rates of abandonment and increased adherence.Pharmacy channel may be influential on abandonment and adherence. Lower rates of abandonment and higher rates of adherence were observed among SP patients versus TR.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:There is a paucity of data describing prescribing patterns and adherence to therapy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with long-acting ?2-agonists (LABA) in the Japanese population in clinical practice. METHODS:This was a non-interventional, retrospective, cohort study of patients who were prescribed medication for asthma, using data from the Japan Medical Data Center Claims Database. Data from patients aged???15 years with a prescription of asthma drugs between December 2014 and October 2015 (Day 0, the index date when asthma medication was initiated) were analysed in 12-month pre-index and post-index periods. Part 1 focused on baseline characteristics and epidemiological outcomes in the pre- and post-index period in the overall asthma population, whereas comparing medication adherence [number of prescribed days per year and proportion of days covered (PDC)] between ICS/LABA-naïve patients treated with once-daily fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) and twice-daily fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL) was the primary endpoint in Part 2. RESULTS:Of the available patient data (N?=?2,953,652), 28,699 patients were identified as having asthma. ICS/LABA was the main asthma treatment prescribed; 11,167 (38.9%) patients were continuous ICS/LABA users. In ICS/LABA-naïve asthma patients, treatment with once-daily FF/VI was associated with higher medication adherence compared with twice-daily FP/SAL; mean [standard deviation (SD)] number of prescribed days per year was 97.8 (115.9) for FF/VI versus 80.5 (92.7) for FP/SAL (p?=?0.04), mean (SD) PDC was 26.7% (31.5) for FF/VI versus 21.9% (24.8) for FP/SAL (p?=?0.04). FF/VI was also associated with a lower rate of treatment discontinuation and no difference in use of short-acting beta2-agonists or oral corticosteroids compared with FP/SAL. CONCLUSIONS:ICS/LABA was the major prescribed asthma treatment in Japan. Medication adherence was greater with FF/VI, which may indicate that patients are more likely to adhere to once-daily FF/VI versus twice-daily FP/SAL. FUNDING:This study was funded by GSK (study sponsor). STUDY REGISTRATION:GSK Study No. 207264, GSK Study Register site: https://www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com/search/?search_terms=207264 .
Project description:Aims:To describe discontinuation and adherence to metformin in the United Kingdom. Methods:This was a retrospective analysis of data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database of type 2 diabetes patients aged ?18 years with ?1 metformin prescription in 2013. Metformin use was assessed in new and ongoing users, defined, respectively, as not having or having a prescription for metformin in the baseline period. Discontinuation was assessed in all patients and adherence in patients who did not discontinue metformin. Factors predictive of discontinuation and adherence were assessed. Results:Discontinuation among new and ongoing users was 35.9% and 23.1%, respectively. Among the continuers of metformin treatment, the adherence rate was 40.5% and 44.3% among new and ongoing users, respectively. Among new users, baseline use of DDP-4 inhibitors (HR 1.276) and diabetes duration (HR 1.013) were associated with an increased risk of discontinuation, whereas increased age (HR 0.997), concomitant lipid-lowering therapy (HR 0.956), macrovascular disease (HR 0.952), and chronic kidney disease (HR 0.952) were associated with a decreased risk of discontinuation among ongoing users. Variables positively associated with adherence in both user groups were (HR values for all patients) age (1.021), smoking status (1.188), and baseline comorbidities: chronic kidney disease, depression, dementia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.106, 1.192, 2.27, and 1.211, respectively), while obesity (0.936) and HbA1c 8.0-8.9% (0.862; reference <6.5%) were negatively associated with adherence. Conclusions:About one-third of patients initiating metformin discontinued within 12 months and fewer than 50% of all patients are adherent to metformin.
Project description:To assess guideline adherence of co-prescribing NSAID and gastroprotective medications for elders in general practice over time, and investigate its potential association with the electronic medical record (EMR) system brand used.We included patients 65 years and older who received NSAIDs between 2005 and 2010. Prescription data were extracted from EMR systems of GP practices participating in the Dutch NIVEL Primary Care Database. We calculated the proportion of NSAID prescriptions with co-prescription of gastroprotective medication for each GP practice at intervals of three months. Association between proportion of gastroprotection, brand of electronic medical record (EMR), and type of GP practice were explored. Temporal trends in proportion of gastroprotection between electronic medical records systems were analyzed using a random effects linear regression model.We included 91,521 patient visits with NSAID prescriptions from 77 general practices between 2005 and 2010. Overall proportion of NSAID prescriptions to the elderly with co-prescription of gastroprotective medication was 43%. Mean proportion of gastroprotection increased from 27% (CI 25-29%) in the first quarter of 2005 with a rate of 1.2% every 3 months to 55%(CI 52-58%) at the end of 2010. Brand of EMR and type of GP practice were independently associated with co-prescription of gastroprotection.Although prescription of gastroprotective medications to elderly patients who receive NSAIDs increased in The Netherlands, they are not co-prescribed in about half of the indicated cases. Brand of EMR system is associated with differences in prescription of gastroprotective medication. Optimal design and utilization of EMRs is a potential area of intervention to improve quality of prescription.