VEGF siRNA delivery system using arginine-grafted bioreducible poly(disulfide amine).
ABSTRACT: Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are able to silence their target genes when they are successfully delivered intact into the cytoplasm. Delivery systems that enhance siRNA localization to the cytoplasm can facilitate gene silencing by siRNA therapeutics. We describe an arginine-conjugated poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-diaminohexane) (poly(CBA-DAH-R)), a bioreducible cationic polymer, as an siRNA carrier for therapeutic gene silencing for cancer. After intracellular uptake of the siRNA/poly(CBA-DAH-R) polyplexes, the reductive environment of the cytoplasm cleaves the disulfide linkages in the polymeric backbone, resulting in decomplexing of the siRNA/poly(CBA-DAH-R) polyplexes and release of siRNA molecules throughout the cytoplasm. The siRNA/poly(CBA-DAH-R) polyplexes, which demonstrate increased membrane permeability with arginine modification, have a similar level of cellular uptake as siRNA/bPEI polyplexes. The VEGF siRNA/poly(CBA-DAH-R) polyplexes, however, inhibit VEGF expression to a greater degree than VEGF siRNA/bPEI in various human cancer cell lines. The improved RNAi activity demonstrated by the VEGF siRNA/poly(CBA-DAH-R) polyplexes is due to enhanced intracellular delivery and effective localization to the cytoplasm of the VEGF siRNAs. These results demonstrate that the VEGF siRNA/poly(CBA-DAH-R) polyplex delivery system may useful for siRNA-based approaches for cancer therapy.
Project description:Novel biodegradable poly(disulfide amine)s with defined structure, high transfection efficiency, and low cytotoxicity were designed and synthesized as nonviral gene delivery carriers. Michael addition between N, N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA) and three N-Boc protected diamines ( N-Boc-1,2-diaminoethane, N-Boc-1,4-diaminobutane, and N-Boc-1,6-diaminohexane) followed by N-Boc deprotection under acidic condition resulted in final cationic polymers with disulfide bonds, tertiary amine groups in main chains, and pendant primary amine groups in side chains. Polymer structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, and their molecular weights were in the range 3.3-4.7 kDa with narrow polydispersity (1.12-1.17) as determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Acid-base titration assay showed that the poly(disulfide amine)s possessed superior buffering capacity to branched PEI 25 kDa in the pH range 7.4-5.1, which may facilitate the escape of DNA from the endosomal compartment. Gel retardation assay demonstrated that significant polyplex dissociation was observed in the presence of 5.0 mM DTT within 1 h, suggesting rapid DNA release in the reduction condition such as cytoplasm due to the cleavage of disulfide bonds. Genetic transfections mediated by these poly(disulfide amine)s were side-chain spacer length dependent. The poly(disulfide amine) with a hexaethylene spacer, poly(CBA-DAH), had comparable transfection efficiency to bPEI 25 kDa in the tested cell lines, i.e., 293T cells, Hela cells, and NIH3T3 cells. This same poly(disulfide amine) mediated 7-fold higher luciferase expression than bPEI 25 kDa in C2C12 cells (mouse myoblast cell line), a cell line difficult to transfect with many cationic polymers. Furthermore, MTT assay indicated that all three poly(disulfide amine)s/pDNA polyplexes were significantly less toxic than bPEI/pDNA complexes.
Project description:Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted therapeutics (STT) offers a compelling alternative to tradition medications for treatment of genetic diseases by providing a means to silence the expression of specific aberrant proteins, through interference at the expression level. The perceived advantage of siRNA therapy is its ability to target, through synthetic antisense oligonucleotides, any part of the genome. Although STT provides a high level of specificity, it is also hindered by poor intracellular uptake, limited blood stability, high degradability and non-specific immune stimulation. Since serum proteins has been considered as useful vehicles for targeting tumors, in this study we investigated the effect of incorporation of human serum albumin (HSA) in branched polyethylenimine (bPEI)-siRNA polyplexes in their internalization in epithelial and endothelial cells. We observed that introduction of HSA preserves the capacity of bPEI to complex with siRNA and protect it against extracellular endonucleases, while affording significantly improved internalization and silencing efficiency, compared to bPEI-siRNA polyplexes in endothelial and metastatic breast cancer epithelial cells. Furthermore, the uptake of the HSA-bPEI-siRNA ternary polyplexes occurred primarily through a caveolae-mediated endocytosis, thus providing evidence for a clear role for HSA in polyplex internalization. These results provide further impetus to explore the role of serum proteins in delivery of siRNA.
Project description:A family of bioreducible poly(disulfide amine)s, which differ in the length of polymethylene spacer [-(CH(2))(n)-] in the main chain and the side chain, has been synthesized. These bioreducible poly(disulfide amine)s exhibit local environment specific degradability and are associated with lower cytotoxicity than branched poly(ethylenimine) (bPEI, 25 kDa). These cationic polymers also show higher buffering capacity and protonation degree than bPEI, facilitating the endosomal escape of carried genetic materials. The transfection efficiency of these agents is oligomethylene length dependent. Poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-spermine) [poly(CBA-SP)], poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,3-propanediamine) [poly(CBA-APPD)], and poly(cyxtaminebisacrylamide-bis(3-aminopropyl)-ethylenediamine) [ploy(CBA-APED)] with longer propylene [-(CH(2))(3)-] side spacer, demonstrate higher transfection efficacy than the counterpart poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine) [poly(CBA-AEPD)] and poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-triethylenetetramine) [poly(CBA-TETA)], which have shorter ethylene [-(CH(2))(2)-] side spacer. The poly(CBA-SP), poly(CBA-APPD), poly(CBA-APED) with the main chain spacer of -(CH(2))(4)-, -(CH(2))(3)-, -(CH(2))(2)- demonstrate similar transfection efficiency, indicating the length of polymer main chain spacer has less influence on transfection efficiency. However, with the same short ethylene [-(CH(2))(2)-] side spacer, poly(CBA-AEPD), with the longer main chain oligomethylene units [-(CH(2))(3)-], showed relatively higher transfection efficiency than poly(CBA-TETA), having shorter main chain oligomethylene units [-(CH(2))(2)-]. Of these polymeric carriers, poly(CBA-SP) demonstrated the highest transfection in the C2C12 cell line, while poly(CBA-APED) showed the highest transfection in the HeLa cell line. All of these agents showed greater transfection activity than commercialized bPEI 25 kDa. The poly(disulfide amine)s are promising safe and efficient non-viral vectors for gene delivery.
Project description:We describe a safe and highly effective non-viral vector system based on ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD)-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) for improved delivery small interfering RNA (siRNA) to glioblastoma cells. In our approach, we utilized amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers partially grafted with ?-CD as a nanoreactor to entrap Au NPs. The acquired ?-CD-modified Au DENPs (Au DENPs-?-CD) were complexed with two different types of therapeutic siRNA (B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) siRNA and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA). The siRNA compression ability of the Au DENPs-?-CD was evaluated by various methods. The cytocompatibility of the vector/siRNA polyplexes was assessed by viability assay of cells. The siRNA transfection capability of the formed Au DENPs-?-CD vector was evaluated by flow cytometric assay of the cellular uptake of the polyplexes and Western blot assays of the Bcl-2 and VEGF protein expression. Our data reveals that the formed Au DENPs-?-CD carrier enables efficiently delivery of siRNA to glioma cells, has good cytocompatibility once complexed with the siRNA, and enables enhanced gene silencing to inhibit the expression of Bcl-2 and VEGF proteins. The developed Au DENPs-?-CD vector may be used for efficient siRNA delivery to different biosystems for therapeutic purposes.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>RNA interference (RNAi) is a process by which small interfering RNAs (siRNA) induce sequence-specific gene silencing. Therefore, siRNA is an emerging promise as a novel therapeutic. In order to realize the high expectations for therapeutic applications, efficient delivery systems for siRNA are necessary.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, a new series of biodegradable poly(amido amine)s with disulfide linkages in the backbone was synthesized out of N,N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA), 4-amino-1-butanol (ABOL) and ethylene diamine (EDA). Effects of different percentages of butanolic side chains and protonatable fragments in the main chain on siRNA complexation, cellular uptake, gene silencing and toxicity were investigated.<h4>Results</h4>Incorporation of EDA in the polymer resulted in increased siRNA condensation. Efficient siRNA condensation was shown to be necessary for cellular uptake; however, excess of polymer decreased siRNA uptake for polymers with high amounts of EDA. Silencing efficiency did not correlate with uptake, since silencing increased with increasing w/w ratio for all polymers. More than 80% knockdown was found for polyplexes formed with polymers containing 25% or 50% EDA, which was combined with low cytotoxicity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Poly(amido amine)s with minor fractions of protonatable fragments in the main chain are promising carriers for delivery of siRNA.
Project description:The pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes is complicated, and a clear, single mechanism has yet to be identified. Reports have indicated that the activating receptor NKG2D plays an important role in the development of disease. Exploiting a natural phenomenon observed in tumors, plasmid DNA encoding for a soluble ligand to NKG2D (sRAE-1?) was isolated and engineered into a plasmid expression system. A polymeric gene delivery system was developed to deliver the soluble RAE-1 plasmid locally to the pancreatic islets for the prevention of type-1 diabetes. The bioreducible cationic polymer poly(cystamine bisacrylamide-diamino hexane) (p(CBA-DAH)) was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the targeting peptide CHVLWSTRC, known to target the EphA2 and EphA4 receptors. The PEG serves to improve stability and tissue selectivity, while the peptide will target EphA2 and A4, overexpressed in the pancreatic microvasculature. The targeting polymer Eph-PEG-p(CBA-DAH) shows selective uptake by the target cell line, indicative of the targeting properties that will be seen in systemic administration. Using the delivery system, the therapeutic plasmid can be delivered to the pancreas, reduce interactions between the beta-cells and infiltrating NKG2D positive lymphocytes, and effectively protect beta-cells from autoimmune destruction and prevent type 1 diabetes.
Project description:When nanoparticles interact with their environment, the nature of that interaction is governed largely by the properties of its outermost surface layer. Here, we exploit the exceptional properties of a common disaccharide, trehalose, which is well-known for its unique biological stabilization effects. To this end, we have developed a synthetic procedure that readily affords a polymer of this disaccharide, poly(methacrylamidotrehalose) or "poly(trehalose)" and diblock copolycations containing this polymer with 51 repeat units chain extended with aminoethylmethacrylamide (AEMA) at three degrees of polymerization (n = 34, 65, and 84). Two series of experiments were conducted to study these diblock copolymers in detail and to compare their properties to two control polymers [PEG-P(AEMA) and P(AEMA)]. First, we demonstrate that the poly(trehalose) coating ensures colloidal stability of polyplexes containing siRNA in the presence of high salt concentrations and serum proteins. Poly(trehalose) retains the ability of trehalose to lower the phase transition energy associated with water freezing and can protect siRNA polyplexes during freeze-drying, allowing complete nanoparticle resuspension without loss of biological function. Second, we show that siRNA polyplexes coated with poly(trehalose) have exceptional cellular internalization into glioblastoma cells that proceeds with zero-order kinetics. Moreover, the amount of siRNA delivered by poly(trehalose) block copolycations can be controlled by the siRNA concentration in cell culture media. Using confocal microscopy we show that trehalose-coated polyplexes undergo active trafficking in cytoplasm upon internalization and significant siRNA-induced target gene down-regulation was achieved with an IC50 of 19 nM. These findings coupled with a negligible cytotoxicity suggests that poly(trehalose) has the potential to serve as an important component of therapeutic nanoparticle formulations of nucleic acids and has great promise to be extended as a new coating for other nanobased technologies and macromolecules, in particular, those related to nanomedicine applications.
Project description:A combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and siRNA is emerging as a new modality for cancer therapy. A safe and effective carrier platform is needed for combination drug delivery. Here, a functionalized mixed micelle-based delivery system was developed for targeted co-delivery of methotrexate (MTX) and survivin siRNA. Linolenic acid (LA) was separately conjugated to branched polyethlenimine (b-PEI) and methoxy-polyethyleneglycol (mPEG). MTX was then conjugated to LA-modified b-PEI (MTX-bPEI-LA) to form a functionalized polymer-drug conjugate. Functionalized mixed micelles (M-MTX) were obtained by the self-assembly of MTX-bPEI-LA and LA-modified mPEG (mPEG-LA). M-MTX had a narrow particle size distribution and could successfully condense siRNA at an N/P ratio of 16/1. M-MTX/siRNA was selectively taken up by HeLa cells overexpressing the folate receptor (FR) and facilitated the release of the siRNA into the cytoplasm. In vitro, M-MTX/siRNA produced a synergy between MTX and survivin siRNA and markedly suppressed survivin protein expression. In tumor-bearing mice, M-MTX/Cy5-siRNA showed an elevated tumor uptake. In addition, M-MTX/siRNA inhibited tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry and a western blot analysis showed a significant target gene downregulation. In conclusion, M-MTX/siRNA was highly effective as a delivery system and may serve as a model for the targeted co-delivery of therapeutic agents.
Project description:Redox-responsive polyplexes represent a promising class of non-viral gene delivery vectors. The reducible disulfide bonds in the polyplexes undergo intracellular reduction owing to the presence of high concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH). Available evidence suggests improved transfection activity of redox-sensitive polyplexes upon artificial modulation of intracellular GSH. This study investigates the effect of innate differences in GSH concentration in a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines on activity of reducible polyplexes of the four major classes of nucleic acid therapeutics: plasmid DNA (pDNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AON) and siRNA. In general, reducible polyplexes of linear poly(amido amines) (PAA) show improved activity compared to non-reducible polyplexes of PAA. Results demonstrate that increased GSH levels are associated with improved transfection of mRNA polyplexes but no clear trend is observed for pDNA, AON and siRNA polyplexes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Successful non-viral gene delivery currently requires compromises to achieve useful transfection levels while minimizing toxicity. Despite high molecular weight (MW) branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) is considered the gold standard polymeric transfectant, it suffers from high cytotoxicity. Inversely, its low MW counterpart is less toxic and effective in transfection. Moreover, chitosan is a highly biocompatible and biodegradable polymer but characterized by very low transfection efficiency. In this scenario, a straightforward approach widely exploited to develop effective transfectants relies on the synthesis of chitosan-graft-low MW bPEIs (Chi-g-bPEI(x)) but, despite the vast amount of work that has been done in developing promising polymeric assemblies, the possible influence of the degree of grafting on the overall behavior of copolymers for gene delivery has been largely overlooked.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>With the aim of providing a comprehensive evaluation of the pivotal role of the degree of grafting in modulating the overall transfection effectiveness of copolymeric vectors, we have synthesized seven Chi-g-bPEI(x) derivatives with a variable amount of bPEI grafts (minimum: 0.6%; maximum: 8.8%). Along the Chi-g-bPEI(x) series, the higher the degree of grafting, the greater the ?-potential and the cytotoxicity of the resulting polyplexes. Most important, in all cell lines tested the intermediate degree of grafting of 2.7% conferred low cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency compared to other Chi-g-bPEI(x) copolymers. We emphasize that, in transfection experiments carried out in primary articular chondrocytes, Chi-g-bPEI(2.7%) was as effective as and less cytotoxic than the gold standard 25 kDa bPEI.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This work underlines for the first time the pivotal role of the degree of grafting in modulating the overall transfection effectiveness of Chi-g-bPEI(x) copolymers. Crucially, we have demonstrated that, along the copolymer series, the fine tuning of the degree of grafting directly affected the overall charge of polyplexes and, altogether, had a direct effect on cytotoxicity.