HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power--an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors.
ABSTRACT: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD+ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD (P=.004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P=7.37e(-5)). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P=.03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3' region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD in the Finns (P=.02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P=.00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P=.03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics.
Project description:On the basis of the converging evidence showing regulation of drinking behavior by 5-HT3AB receptors and the serotonin transporter, we hypothesized that the interactive effects of genetic variations in the genes HTR3A, HTR3B, and SLC6A4 confer greater susceptibility to alcohol dependence (AD) than do their effects individually. We examined the associations of AD with 22 SNPs across HTR3A, HTR3B, and two functional variants in SLC6A4 in 500 AD and 280 healthy control individuals of European descent. We found that the alleles of the low-frequency SNPs rs33940208:T in HTR3A and rs2276305:A in HTR3B were inversely and nominally significantly associated with AD with odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval of 0.212 and 0.073, 0.616 (P = 0.004) and 0.261 and 0.088, 0.777 (P = 0.016), respectively. Further, our gene-by-gene interaction analysis revealed that two four-variant models that differed by only one SNP carried a risk for AD (empirical P < 1 × 10(-6) for prediction accuracy of the two models based on 10(6) permutations). Subsequent analysis of these two interaction models revealed an OR of 2.71 and 2.80, respectively, for AD (P < 0.001) in carriers of genotype combinations 5'-HTTLPR:LL/LS(SLC6A4)-rs1042173:TT/TG(SLC6A4)-rs1176744:AC(HTR3B)-rs3782025:AG(HTR3B) and 5'-HTTLPR:LL/LS(SLC6A4)-rs10160548:GT/TT(HTR3A)-rs1176744:AC(HTR3B)-rs3782025:AG(HTR3B). Combining all five genotypes resulted in an OR of 3.095 (P = 2.0 × 10(-4)) for AD. Inspired by these findings, we conducted the analysis in an independent sample, OZ-ALC-GWAS (N = 6699), obtained from the NIH dbGAP database, which confirmed the findings, not only for all three risk genotype combinations (Z = 4.384, P = 1.0 × 10(-5); Z = 3.155, P = 1.6 × 10(-3); and Z = 3.389, P = 7.0 × 10(-4), respectively), but also protective effects for rs33940208:T (? (2) = 3.316, P = 0.0686) and rs2276305:A (? (2) = 7.224, P = 0.007). These findings reveal significant interactive effects among variants in SLC6A4-HTR3A-HTR3B affecting AD. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.
Project description:Pharmacologic studies implicate a significant role of genes encoding the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and the 5-HT3AB subunits HTR3A and HTR3B in nicotine dependence (ND). However, whether they are involved in ND remains largely unknown.Here, we examined the impact of variations in the three genes on ND in 1366 individuals from 402 African American (AA) and 671 individuals from 200 European American (EA) families. The ND of each smoker was assessed with smoking quantity (SQ), heaviness of smoking index (HSI), and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND).Association analysis revealed marginal association of rs10160548 in HTR3A with SQ and HSI in AA, 5-HTTLPR in SLC6A4 with FTND in EA, and rs11606194 in HTR3B with SQ and FTND in the pooled sample. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed a few major haplotypes in HTR3A that were significantly associated with ND in the AA, EA, and pooled samples. However, none of these associations remained significant after correcting for multiple testing except for a haplotype G-C-C-T-A-T formed by SNPs rs1150226, rs1062613, rs33940208, rs1985242, rs2276302, and rs10160548 in HTR3A for the AA sample. Considering biological functions of the three genes, we examined interactive effects of variants in the three genes, which revealed significant interactions among rs1062613 and rs10160548 in HTR3A, rs1176744 in HTR3B, and 5-HTTLPR and rs1042173 in SLC6A4 in affecting ND in the three samples.We conclude that SLC6A4, HTR3A and HTR3B play a significant role in ND through genetic interactions.
Project description:The authors previously reported that the 5'-HTTLPR-LL and rs1042173-TT (SLC6A4-LL/TT) genotypes in the serotonin transporter gene predicted a significant reduction in the severity of alcohol consumption among alcoholics receiving the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron. In this study, they explored additional markers of ondansetron treatment response in alcoholics by examining polymorphisms in the HTR3A and HTR3B genes, which regulate directly the function and binding of 5-HT3 receptors to ondansetron.The authors genotyped one rare and 18 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HTR3A and HTR3B in the same sample that they genotyped for SLC6A4-LL/TT in the previous randomized, double-blind, 11-week clinical trial. Participants were 283 European Americans who received oral ondansetron (4 mg/kg of body weight twice daily) or placebo along with weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy. Associations of individual and combined genotypes with treatment response on drinking outcomes were analyzed.Individuals carrying one or more of genotypes rs1150226-AG and rs1176713-GG in HTR3A and rs17614942-AC in HTR3B showed a significant overall mean difference between ondansetron and placebo in drinks per drinking day (22.50; effect size=0.867), percentage of heavy drinking days (220.58%; effect size=0.780), and percentage of days abstinent (18.18%; effect size=0.683). Combining these HTR3A/HTR3B and SLC6A4-LL/TT genotypes increased the target cohort from approaching 20% (identified in the previous study) to 34%.The authors present initial evidence suggesting that a combined fivemarker genotype panel can be used to predict the outcome of treatment of alcohol dependence with ondansetron. Additional, larger pharmacogenetic studies would help to validate these results.
Project description:Previous studies have implicated genes encoding the 5-HT3AB receptors (HTR3A and HTR3B) and the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), both independently and interactively, in alcohol (AD), cocaine (CD), and nicotine dependence (ND). However, whether these genetic effects also exist in subjects with comorbidities remains largely unknown. We used 1,136 African-American (AA) and 2,428 European-American (EA) subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) to determine associations between 88 genotyped or imputed variants within HTR3A, HTR3B, and SLC6A4 and three types of addictions, which were measured by DSM-IV diagnoses of AD, CD, and ND and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), an independent measure of ND commonly used in tobacco research. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed a significant association of rs2066713 in SLC6A4 with FTND in AA (? = -1.39; P = 1.6E - 04). Haplotype-based association analysis found one major haplotype formed by SNPs rs3891484 and rs3758987 in HTR3B that was significantly associated with AD in the AA sample, and another major haplotype T-T-G, formed by SNPs rs7118530, rs12221649, and rs2085421 in HTR3A, which showed significant association with FTND in the EA sample. Considering the biologic roles of the three genes and their functional relations, we used the GPU-based Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR-GPU) program to test SNP-by-SNP interactions within the three genes and discovered two- to five-variant models that have significant impacts on AD, CD, ND, or FTND. Interestingly, most of the SNPs included in the genetic interaction model(s) for each addictive phenotype are either overlapped or in high linkage disequilibrium for both AA and EA samples, suggesting these detected variants in HTR3A, HTR3B, and SLC6A4 are interactively contributing to etiology of the three addictive phenotypes examined in this study.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between response to antiemetics in the treatment of NVP and genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor subunit genes HTR3A and HTR3B. METHODS: Pregnant women ?18 years of age with NVP starting antiemetic therapy with promethazine, prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, or ondansetron at???16 weeks gestational age were eligible. The study recruited 29 women with complete data and sampling who returned for their one week follow-up and were genotyped for HTR3A and HTR3B polymorphisms. Severity of NVP was captured (using Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) and Quality of Life (QOL) tools) upon enrollment and after one week of antiemetic therapy. These measures were correlated with pharmacogenetic variability. RESULTS: Subjects with genotype associated with high serotonin affinity of the 5-HT3B receptor (rs1176744, CC) required more antiemetic medications (p?<?0.001) than other subjects. Those with genotypes associated with increased expression of the 5-HT3A receptor subunit (rs1062613, CT or TT) had worse final PUQE scores (p?=?0.01) than other subjects while rs3782025 variants carriers had significantly better initial (p?=?0.02) and final (p?=?0.02) PUQE scores than other subjects. CONCLUSIONS: HTR3B and HTR3A gene variants may contribute to variability in response to antiemetic therapy for NVP.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic severe neuropsychiatric disorder, where pharmacological treatment has been hindered by adverse effects, including antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) and related complications. Genetic studies have been exploring the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis pathways in AIWG with some promising leads. The serotonin system has been shown to participate in these pathways.In the current study, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms across the serotonin receptor genes HTR3A and HTR3B. Prospective weight change was assessed for a total of 149 SCZ patients of European ancestry.We did not find the tested HTR3A or HTR3B gene markers to be associated with AIWG in our sample.Our preliminary findings suggest that these receptors may not play a major role in predicting AIWG.
Project description:Serotonin type 3 receptors (5-HT(3)) are involved in learning, cognition and emotion, and have been implicated in various psychiatric phenotypes. However, their contribution to the pathomechanism of these disorders remains elusive. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HTR3A and HTR3B genes (rs1062613, rs1176744 and rs3831455) have been associated with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) in pilot studies, and all of them are of functional relevance. We performed a European multicenter study to confirm previous results and provide further evidence for the relevance of these SNPs to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. This involved analysis of the distribution of the three SNPs among 1804 BPAD cases and 2407 healthy controls. A meta-analysis revealed a pooled odds ratio of 0.881 (P = 0.009, 95% confidence intervals = 0.802-0.968) for the non-synonymous functional SNP HTR3B p.Y129S (rs1176744), thereby confirming previous findings. In line with this, the three genome-wide association study samples BOMA (Bonn-Mannheim)-BPAD, WTCCC (Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium)-BPAD and GAIN (Genetic Association Information Network)-BPAD, including >3500 patients and 5200 controls in total, showed an overrepresentation of the p.Y129 in patients. Remarkably, the meta-analysis revealed a P-value of 0.048 (OR = 0.934, fixed effect model). We also performed expression analyses to gain further insights into the distribution of HTR3A and HTR3B mRNA in the human brain. HTR3A and HTR3B were detected in all investigated brain tissues with the exception of the cerebellum, and large differences in the A:B subunit ratio were observed. Interestingly, expression of the B subunit was most prominent in the brain stem, amygdalae and frontal cortex, regions of relevance to psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, the present study provides further evidence for the presence of impaired 5-HT(3) receptor function in BPAD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The present study aims to investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms in HTR3A and HTR3E and diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) in a Chinese population. METHODS:We enrolled 500 D-IBS patients and 500 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects to detect the genotypes in HTR3A and HTR3B gene by using of PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS:There were significant difference between the D-IBS patients and the health control subjects in the distribution of genotype and allele of rs1062613 in HTR3A gene. As regarding rs62625044 in HTR3E gene, we found there was a significant different between the case and the control group in the distribution of GA genotype and A allele in female but not in male. CONCLUSION:The present study suggested that there are associations of D-IBS risk with genetic polymorphisms in HTR3A and HTR3E.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally if 5-HT3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) contribute to pain perception and efficacy of the 5-HT3-antagonist granisetron and sex differences. Sixty healthy participants were genotyped regarding HTR3A (rs1062613) and HTR3B (rs1176744). First, pain was induced by bilateral hypertonic saline injections (HS, 5.5%, 0.2 mL) into the masseter muscles. Thirty min later the masseter muscle on one side was pretreated with 0.5 mL granisetron (1 mg/mL) and on the other side with 0.5 mL placebo (isotonic saline) followed by another HS injection (0.2 mL). Pain intensity, pain duration, pain area and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed after each injection. HS evoked moderate pain, with higher intensity in the women (P = 0.023), but had no effect on PPTs. None of the SNPs influenced any pain variable in general, but compared to men, the pain area was larger in women carrying the C/C (HTR3A) (P = 0.015) and pain intensity higher in women with the A/C alleles (HTR3B) (P = 0.019). Pre-treatment with granisetron reduced pain intensity, duration and area to a lesser degree in women (P < 0.05), but the SNPs did not in general influence the efficacy of granisetron. Women carrying the C/T & T/T (HTR3A) genotype had less reduction of pain intensity (P = 0.041) and area (P = 0.005), and women with the C/C genotype (HTR3B) had less reduction of pain intensity (P = 0.030), duration (P = 0.030) and area compared to men (P = 0.017). In conclusion, SNPs did not influence experimental muscle pain or the effect of granisetron on pain variables in general, but there were some sex differences in pain variables that seem to be influenced by genotypes. However, due to the small sample size further research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.
Project description:Drug addiction is influenced by genetic factors.To determine if genetic variants in the serotonergic and adrenergic pathways are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction.The study examined 140 polymorphisms in 19 genes in 1855 subjects with predominantly European or African ancestries.A total of 38 polymorphisms (13 genes) showed nominal associations, including novel associations in S100A10 (p11) and SLC18A2 (VMAT2). The association of HTR3B SNP rs11606194 with heroin addiction in the European ancestry subgroup remained significant after correction for multiple testing (p(corrected) = 0.04).The study strengthens our previous findings of association of polymorphisms in HTR3A, HTR3B and ADRA1A. The study suggests partial overlap in genetic susceptibility between populations of different ancestry and between heroin and cocaine addiction.