Influence of CYP2C9 Genotype on warfarin dose among African American and European Americans.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) plays a vital role in drug metabolism. There has been an increased effort to identify polymorphisms within the gene and determine their clinical consequences. However, most of these efforts have focused on populations of European descent. Herein we report the influence of CYP2C9 genotype on warfarin dose among European American and African American patients. We also identify two new mutations; one in the coding region and one in the non-coding region of the CYP2C9 gene. METHODS: Patients (?20 years of age) are enrolled after obtaining medical, lifestyle and concomitant medication history. Changes in International Normalized Ratio (INR), warfarin dose, co-medications, diet, physical activity and the occurrence of complications are documented. CYP2C9 genotype was determined using PCR-RFLP and pyrosequencing. Differences in genotype frequencies and HWE assumptions were assessed using ?(2) statistics and exact tests. The genotype dose association was evaluated using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: This report includes 490 patients (mean age 60.6 ± 15.6, 51.3% men). African American patients comprise 48.9% of the cohort with mean follow-up of 13.5 (±10.6) months. Both the CYP2C9 *2 and *3 allele were more frequent in European Americans (11.24%, 5.1%) compared to African Americans (1.1% and 1.8%). CYP2C9 *5 (0.9%), *6 (0.4%), and *11 (1.1%) variants were only observed in African Americans. The variant genotype is more frequent among European Americans compared to African Americans (29.8% vs. 9.73%, p<0.0001). Warfarin dose was significantly related to CYP2C9 genotype (p<0.0001) both in univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariable race-specific analyses highlight the contribution of CYP2C9 genotype among European American but not among African American patients. CONCLUSION: The variant CYP2C9 genotype is more frequent among European Americans compared to African Americans. Among African Americans the variant genotype frequency is higher than previously reported. CYP2C9 genotype predicts warfarin dose in European Americans, but not in African Americans.
Project description:The influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose, time to target International Normalized Ratio (INR), time to stabilization, and risk of over-anticoagulation (INR: > 4) was assessed after adjustment for clinical factors, intraindividual variation in environmental factors and unobserved heterogeneity.Common CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms were assessed in 302 European-Americans and 273 African-Americans receiving warfarin. Race-stratified multivariable analyses evaluated the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin response.CYP2C9 and VKORC1 accounted for up to 30% of the variability in warfarin dose among European-Americans and 10% among African-Americans. Neither CYP2C9 nor VKORC1 influenced the time to target INR or stabilization among patients of either race, and neither influenced the risk of over-anticoagulation among African-Americans. The risk of over-anticoagulation was higher among European-Americans with variant VKORC1 1173C/T (p < 0.01) and marginally significant among those with variant CYP2C9 (p = 0.08) genotype. Although CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping can facilitate individualized initiation of warfarin dose in African and European-Americans, the ability to predict the risk of over-anticoagulation is inconsistent across race. Identification of other factors that can predict such risk consistently in a racially diverse group will facilitate individualized maintenance of warfarin therapy.
Project description:Although the frequencies of pharmacogenetic variants differ among racial groups, most pharmacogenetic algorithms for genotype-guided warfarin dosing only include two CYP2C9 alleles (*2 and *3) and a single VKORC1 allele (g.-1639G>A or g.1173C>T) commonly found among Caucasians. Therefore, this study sought to identify other CYP2C9 and VKORC1 alleles important in warfarin dose variability and to determine their frequencies in different racial and ethnic groups.The CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes were sequenced in selected sensitive (< 21 mg/week) and resistant (> 49 mg/week) individuals with discrepant therapeutic and algorithm-predicted warfarin doses based on prior CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping. The CYP2C9 and VKORC1 allele frequencies were determined in healthy, racially self-identified blood donors.Sequencing identified an African-American male with a lower than predicted therapeutic warfarin dose (14.4 mg/week), previously genotyped as CYP2C9*1/*1, who was homozygous for CYP2C9*8 (c.449G>A; p.R150H). Genotyping 600 African-American alleles identified CYP2C9*8 as their most frequent variant CYP2C9 allele (0.047), and the combined allele frequency of CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *8 and *11 was 0.133. Given most warfarin pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms only include CYP2C9*2 and *3, the inclusion of CYP2C9*8 alone could reclassify the predicted metabolic phenotypes of almost 10% of African-Americans, or when combined with CYP2C9*5, *6 and *11, more than 15%. In addition, the African-American VKORC1 g.-1639A allele frequency was 0.108 and three g.1331G>A (p.V66M) carriers were identified.CYP2C9*8 is prevalent among African-Americans ( approximately 1 in 11 individuals). Thus, in this racial group, the incorporation of CYP2C9*8 into genotyping panels may improve dose prediction of CYP2C9-metabolized drugs, including warfarin.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although multiple reports have documented the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants on warfarin dose, risk of over-anticoagulation and hemorrhage, their influence on anticoagulation maintenance and individual proportion of time spent in target INR range (PPTR) is limited. Moreover the potential benefit of genotype-guided dosing implemented after initiation of therapy in a racially diverse population has not been explored. Herein we present the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 C1173T on warfarin response during the first 30 days of therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Warfarin dose was empirically determined in 250 African Americans 271 European Americans. The influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on rate of INR increase, anticoagulation maintenance, risk of over-anticoagulation, and change in dose over 30 days was evaluated after adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors. Possession of variant VKORC1 (+/- variant CYP2C9) genotype was associated with a more rapid attainment of target INR and higher frequency of dose adjustments. Patients possessing variant genotypes spent less time in target range. However adjustment for rate of INR increase rendered the association non-significant. European Americans (but not African Americans) possessing variant VKORC1 (+/- variant CYP2C9) genotype had a higher risk of over-anticoagulation. Neither CYP2C9 nor VKORC1 influenced the risk of minor hemorrhage. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 explained 6.3% of the variance in dose change over the first 30 days of therapy demonstrating that the usefulness of genotype-guided dosing may extend beyond first day of therapy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The benefit of genotype-based dose prediction may extend beyond first few days of therapy. Whether genotype-guided dosing will decrease the risk of over-anticoagulation, improve anticoagulation control and most importantly improve outcomes for chronic warfarin users remains to be proven.
Project description:Recent clinical trial data cast doubt on the utility of genotype-guided warfarin dosing, specifically showing worse dosing with a pharmacogenetic versus clinical dosing algorithm in African Americans. However, many genotypes important in African Americans were not accounted for. We aimed to determine whether omission of the CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9*6, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9*11 alleles and rs12777823 G > A genotype affects performance of dosing algorithms in African Americans.In a cohort of 274 warfarin-treated African Americans, we examined the association between the CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9*6, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9*11 alleles and rs12777823 G > A genotype and warfarin dose prediction error with pharmacogenetic algorithms used in clinical trials.The http://www.warfarindosing.org algorithm overestimated doses by a median (interquartile range) of 1.2 (0.02-2.6) mg/day in rs12777823 heterozygotes (P<0.001 for predicted vs. observed dose), 2.0 (0.6-2.8) mg/day in rs12777823 variant homozygotes (P = 0.004), and 2.2 (0.5-2.9) mg/day in carriers of a CYP2C9 variant (P < 0.001). The International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm underdosed warfarin by 0.8 (-2.3 to 0.4) mg/day for patients with the rs12777823 GG genotype (P < 0.001) and overdosed warfarin by 0.7 (-0.4 to 1.9) mg/day in carriers of a variant CYP2C9 allele (P = 0.04). Modifying the http://www.warfarindosing.org algorithm to adjust for variants important in African Americans led to better dose prediction than either the original http://www.warfarindosing.org (P < 0.01) or IWPC (P < 0.01) algorithm.These data suggest that, when providing genotype-guided warfarin dosing, failure to account for variants important in African Americans leads to significant dosing error in this population.
Project description:AIMS:CYP4F2*3 (p.V433M) has been associated with higher warfarin dose requirements; however, its frequency, like other CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants, has not been systematically assessed in major racial/ethnic populations. Thus, we determined the individual and combined frequencies of important CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 variants in several racial/ethnic groups. MATERIALS & METHODS:Healthy African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) blood donors were genotyped for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *8, *11 and *13), VKORC1 (g.-1639G>A) and CYP4F2 (*3 [p.V433M] and rs2189784). RESULTS:The combined frequencies of variant CYP2C9 alleles were 0.133, 0.078, 0.212, 0.178 and 0.212 among African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, respectively. CYP4F2*3 frequencies were prevalent (0.233-0.342) among Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, while significantly less frequent among African-Americans (0.117; p < 0.0001). In addition, CYP4F2*3 was in linkage disequilibrium with rs2189784, an allele recently associated with time-to-therapeutic international normalized ratio, among all studied populations. Importantly, 87-95% of Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals had a variant CYP2C9, VKORC1 and/or CYP4F2*3 allele, compared with only 53% of African-Americans (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with other racial/ethnic populations studied, only approximately one in 80 African-Americans were CYP4F2*3 homozygous, indicating that this population would benefit less from dosing algorithms that include this variant. In addition, the unique allele frequency profiles identified among the different populations partly explain why genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms perform less well for African-Americans and suggest that other unidentified genetic and/or nongenetic factors that influence warfarin dosage may exist in this population.
Project description:Although the influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin response has been studied, variability in dose explained by CYP2C9 and VKORC1 is lower among African-Americans compared with European-Americans. This has lead investigators to hypothesize that assessment of VKORC1 haplotypes may help capture a greater proportion of the variability in dose for this under-represented group. However, the inadequate representation of African-Americans and the assessment of a few VKORC1 polymorphisms have hindered this effort.To determine if VKORC1 haplotypes or haplotype groups explain a higher variability in warfarin dose, we comprehensively assessed VKORC1 polymorphisms in 273 African-Americans and 302 European-Americans. The influence of VKORC1 polymorphisms, race-specific haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose was evaluated in race-stratified multivariable analyses after accounting for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *5, *6 and *11) and clinical covariates.VKORC1 explained 18% (30% with CYP2C9) variability in warfarin dose among European-Americans and 5% (8% with CYP2C9) among African-Americans. Four common haplotypes in European-Americans and twelve in African-Americans were identified. In each race VKORC1 haplotypes emerged into two groups: low-dose (Group A) and high-dose (Group B). African-Americans had a lower frequency of Group A haplotype (10.6%) compared with European-Americans (35%, p < 0.0001).The variability in dose explained by VKORC1 haplotype or haplotype groups was similar to that of a single informative polymorphism.Our findings support the use of CYP2C9, VKORC1 polymorphisms (rs9934438 or rs9923231) and clinical covariates to predict warfarin dose in both African- and European-Americans. A uniform set of common polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1, and limited clinical covariates can be used to improve warfarin dose prediction for a racially diverse population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans.<h4>Methods</h4>We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ?18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 -1639G?A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10(-8) in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort.<h4>Findings</h4>The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10(-8)). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10(-5)); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10(-12). Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement).<h4>Interpretation</h4>A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant effect on warfarin dose in African Americans, independent of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Incorporation of this variant into pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms could improve warfarin dose prediction in this population.<h4>Funding</h4>National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Wisconsin Network for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust.
Project description:Variants in the CYP2C9 (i.e. *2 and *3) and VKORC1 (i.e. 1173C/T or -1639G/A) genes have been shown to influence warfarin dose requirements. However, these factors seem to explain less of the dose variability in African Americans who have a lower prevalence of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 and VKORC1 1173T alleles.In African Americans, the VKORC1 rs17886199 variant was statistically significantly associated with log-transformed warfarin maintenance dose, independent of the influence of VKORC1 1173C>T and CYP2C9*2 and *3. However, replication of our finding is needed to confirm the association of rs1786199 SNP in African Americans, since Limdi et al. did not examine the effect of this SNP because the prevalence of the rs1786199 A-allele was too low.To raise hypotheses with regards to whether genetic variants in the VKORC1, CYP2C9, EPHX1, GGCX and ALB genes might influence warfarin dose in African Americans and Caucasians, independent of the effects of the VKORC1 1173C>T and CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants.From a prospective cohort study, we obtained additional DNA on 36 Caucasian and 22 African American warfarin users who reached maintenance dose and genotyped them for tagSNPs (r2<0.8) in VKORC1, EPHX1, GGCX and ALB genes, and one exonic CYP2C9 SNP. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the relationship (P value) between log-transformed maintenance dose and each SNP and the amount of the warfarin dose variability accounted for by each SNP (partial R2).In African Americans, the VKORC1 rs17886199 A-allele was associated with a lower dose (GG=46.3 mg and GA=25.6 mg; P=0.002), independent of the VKORC1 1173C>T and CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants. Even after applying Bonferroni correction, the P value would still be considered statistically significant. The VKORC1 rs17886199 variant was not found in Caucasians. In Caucasians, the EPHX1 rs1051741 T-allele was associated with a lower dose (CC=41.3 mg and CT=30.0 mg; P=0.04). The latter was no longer statistically significant after applying Bonferroni correction.Our pilot study suggests that the VKORC1 rs17886199 variant could influence warfarin maintenance dose among African Americans, even after accounting for the influence of the VKORC1 1173C>T variant. Future studies with a larger sample size will be needed to confirm our findings.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Genetic factors contribute considerably toward variability in warfarin dose requirements and are important in the dose-titration phase; their effects on the stability of anticoagulation later in therapy are not known. METHODS:Using deidentified electronic medical records linked to a DNA-biobank, we studied 140 African-Americans and 943 European-Americans after the warfarin dose-titration phase. We genotyped 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes (CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX, EPHX1, CALU) associated with altered warfarin dose requirements and tested their associations with international normalized ratio variability (INRVAR) and percent time in therapeutic range in European-Americans and African-Americans. RESULTS:One allele copy of rs2108622 in CYP4F2 was associated with a 15% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1-26, P=0.03] decrease in the median INRVAR in European-Americans. In African-Americans, GGCX variants rs11676382 and rs699664 were associated with 4.16-fold (95% CI: 1.45-11.97, P=0.009) and 1.50-fold (95% CI: 1.07-2.08, P=0.02) changes in the median INRVAR per variant allele copy, respectively; rs11676382 was also significantly associated with a 23.19% (95% CI: 5.89-40.48, P=0.01) decrease in time in therapeutic range. The total variation in INRVAR explained by both clinical factors and rs2108622 was 5.2% for European-Americans. In African-Americans, the inclusion of GGCX variants rs11676382 and rs699664, and the CYP2C9*8 variant rs7900194 explained ?29% of the variation in INRVAR. CONCLUSION:The stability of anticoagulation after the warfarin dose-titration phase is differentially affected by variants in CYP4F2 in European-Americans and GGCX loci in African-Americans.
Project description:AIM:This study attempted to identify predictors of S-warfarin clearance (CL[S]) and to make a pharmacokinetic evaluation of genotype-based dosing algorithms in African-Americans. METHODS:Using plasma S-warfarin concentration (Cp[S]) at a steady state and eight SNPs previously shown to influence warfarin dose in African-Americans, CL(S) and its predictors were estimated by population pharmacokinetic analysis in 60 African-Americans. The time courses of Cp(S) following either the loading dose or maintenance dose were simulated using the population pharmacokinetic estimates. RESULTS:CYP2C9*8 and body surface area or body weight were predictors of CL(S) (-30 and -5% per -0.1 m(2)/-10 kg reduction in CL[S], respectively) in African-Americans. Simulations of Cp(S) showed that Cp(S) at steady state was 1.4-times higher in patients with CYP2C9*8 than in those with CYP2C9*1/*1, irrespective of the algorithm for loading dose or maintenance dose. CONCLUSION:African-Americans possess independent predictors of CL(S), possibly leading to a prediction error of any dosing algorithm that excludes African-specific variant(s). Original submitted 3 September 2014; Revision submitted 3 November 2014.