Ryanodine receptor luminal Ca2+ regulation: swapping calsequestrin and channel isoforms.
ABSTRACT: Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release in striated muscle is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) channel and the intra-SR Ca(2+) buffering protein calsequestrin (CSQ). Besides its buffering role, CSQ is thought to regulate RyR channel function. Here, CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac (RyR2) channels is explored. Skeletal (CSQ1) or cardiac (CSQ2) calsequestrin were systematically added to the luminal side of single RyR1 or RyR2 channels. The luminal Ca(2+) dependence of open probability (Po) over the physiologically relevant range (0.05-1 mM Ca(2+)) was defined for each of the four RyR/CSQ isoform pairings. We found that the luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR2 channels was substantial when either CSQ isoform was present. In contrast, no significant luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR1 channels was detected in the presence of either CSQ isoform. We conclude that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of single RyR2 channels lacks CSQ isoform specificity, and that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation in skeletal muscle likely plays a relatively minor (if any) role in regulating the RyR1 channel activity, indicating that the chief role of CSQ1 in this tissue is as an intra-SR Ca(2+) buffer.
Project description:Junctin, a non-catalytic splice variant encoded by the aspartate-?-hydroxylase (Asph) gene, is inserted into the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) store where it modifies Ca(2+) signalling in the heart and skeletal muscle through its regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. Junctin is required for normal muscle function as its knockout leads to abnormal Ca(2+) signalling, muscle dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmia. However, the nature of the molecular interaction between junctin and RyRs is largely unknown and was assumed to occur only in the SR lumen. We find that there is substantial binding of RyRs to full junctin, and the junctin luminal and, unexpectedly, cytoplasmic domains. Binding of these different junctin domains had distinct effects on RyR1 and RyR2 activity: full junctin in the luminal solution increased RyR channel activity by ?threefold, the C-terminal luminal interaction inhibited RyR channel activity by ?50%, and the N-terminal cytoplasmic binding produced an ?fivefold increase in RyR activity. The cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and RyR is required for luminal binding to replicate the influence of full junctin on RyR1 and RyR2 activity. The C-terminal domain of junctin binds to residues including the S1-S2 linker of RyR1 and N-terminal domain of junctin binds between RyR1 residues 1078 and 2156.
Project description:Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) regulate contractility in resistance-size cerebral artery smooth muscle, yet their molecular identity, subcellular location, and phenotype in this tissue remain unknown. Following rat resistance-size cerebral artery myocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) purification and incorporation into POPE-POPS-POPC (5:3:2; wt/wt) bilayers, unitary conductances of 110 +/- 8, 334 +/- 15, and 441 +/- 27 pS in symmetric 300 mM Cs(+) were usually detected. The most frequent (34/40 bilayers) conductance (334 pS) decreased to <or=100 pS when Cs(+) was replaced with Ca(2+). The predominant conductance displayed 66 bursts/min with at least three open and three closed states. The steady-state activity (NP(o))-voltage curve was bell shaped, with NP(o) drastically decreasing when voltage was switched from -30 to -40 mV. NP(o) increased when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(i)) was raised within 0.1-100 microM to abruptly diminish with higher Ca(2+)(i). Thus maximal activity occurred within the Ca(2+)(i) range found in rat cerebral artery myocytes under physiological conditions. NP(o) was reduced by ruthenium red (80 muM), increased monotonically by caffeine (0.1-5 mM) or ryanodine (0.05-5 microM), and unaffected by heparin (2 mg/ml). This phenotype resembles that of cardiac RyR and recombinant RyR2. RT-PCR detected RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3 transcripts in cerebral artery myocytes. However, real-time PCR indicated that RyR2 was 4 and 1.5 times more abundant than RyR1 and RyR3, respectively. Consistently, Western blotting showed that the RyR2 product was very abundant. Immunofluorescence showed that each RyR isoform distributed differentially among subcellular compartments. In particular, RyR2 was drastically stronger in the subplasmalemma than in other compartments, underscoring the predominance of RyR2 in a compartment where SR is abundant. Consistently, RyR from SR-enriched membranes displayed pharmacological specificity typical of RyR2, being activated by digoxin (1 muM), resistant to dantrolene (100 muM), and shifted to a subconductance by neomycin (100 nM). Therefore, RyR2 is the predominant molecular and functional RyR that is expressed in the SR membrane of rat resistance-size cerebral artery myocytes.
Project description:Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are Ca(2+)-release channels on the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum that modulate a wide array of physiological functions. Three RyR isoforms are present in cells: RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3. To date, there are no reports on ligands that modulate RyR in an isoform-selective manner. Such ligands are not only valuable research tools, but could serve as intermediates for development of therapeutics.Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide were allowed to react in carbon tetrachloride for 24?h at low temperatures and pressures. The chemical structures of the two products isolated were elucidated using NMR spectrometry, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. [(3) H]-ryanodine binding, lipid bilayer and time-lapsed confocal imaging were used to determine their effects on RyR isoforms.The major product, 2-cyclohexyl-3-cyclohexylimino-2, 3, dihydro-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-1-one (CCDI) dose-dependently potentiated Ca(2+)-dependent binding of [(3)H]-ryanodine to RyR1, with no significant effects on [(3)H]-ryanodine binding to RyR2 or RyR3. CCDI also reversibly increased the open probability (P(o)) of RyR1 with minimal effects on RyR2 and RyR3. CCDI induced Ca(2+) transients in C2C12 skeletal myotubes, but not in rat ventricular myocytes. This effect was blocked by pretreating cells with ryanodine. The minor product 2-cyclohexyl-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-1,3-dione had no effect on either [(3)H]-ryanodine binding or P(o) of RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3.A new ligand that preferentially modulates RyR1 was identified. In addition to being an important research tool, the pharmacophore of this small molecule could serve as a template for the synthesis of other isoform-selective modulators of RyRs.
Project description:Skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac muscle (RyR2) isoforms of ryanodine receptor calcium channels are inhibited by millimollar Ca(2+), but the affinity of RyR2 for inhibitory Ca(2+) is ~10 times lower than that of RyR1. Previous studies demonstrated that the C-terminal quarter of RyR has critical domain(s) for Ca(2+) inactivation. To obtain further insights into the molecular basis of regulation of RyRs by Ca(2+), we constructed and expressed 18 RyR1-RyR2 chimeras in HEK293 cells and determined the Ca(2+) activation and inactivation affinities of these channels using the [(3)H]ryanodine binding assay. Replacing two distinct regions of RyR1 with corresponding RyR2 sequences reduced the affinity for Ca(2+) inactivation. The first region (RyR2 amino acids 4020-4250) contains two EF-hand Ca(2+) binding motifs (EF1, amino acids 4036-4047; EF2, amino acids 4071-4082), and the second region includes the putative second transmembrane segment (S2). A RyR1-backbone chimera containing only EF2 from RyR2 had a modest (not significant) change in Ca(2+) inactivation, whereas another chimera channel carrying only EF1 from RyR2 had a significantly reduced level of Ca(2+) inactivation. The results suggest that EF1 is a more critical determinant for RyR inactivation by Ca(2+). In addition, activities of the chimera carrying RyR2 EF-hands were suppressed at 10-100 ?M Ca(2+), and the suppression was relieved by 1 mM Mg(2+). The same effects have been observed with wild-type RyR2. A mutant RyR1 carrying both regions replaced with RyR2 sequences (amino acids 4020-4250 and 4560-4618) showed a Ca(2+) inactivation affinity comparable to that of RyR2, indicating that these regions are sufficient to confer RyR2-type Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation on RyR1.
Project description:The mdx mouse, a model of the human Duchenne muscular dystrophy, displays impaired contractile function in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles. We explored the possibility that ryanodine receptor (RYR) expression could be altered in vascular muscle. The three RYR sub-types were expressed in portal vein myocytes. As observed through mRNA and protein levels, RYR2 expression was strongly decreased in mdx myocytes, whereas RYR3 and RYR1 expression were unaltered. The use of antisense oligonucleotide directed against RYR sub-types indicated that caffeine-induced Ca(2+) response and Ca(2+) spark frequency depended on RYR2 and RYR1. In mdx mice, caffeine-induced Ca(2+) responses were decreased in both amplitude and maximal rate of rise, and the frequency of Ca(2+) sparks was also strongly decreased. The gentamycin treatment was able to increase both the expression of RYR2 and the caffeine-induced Ca(2+) response to the same level as that observed in wild-type mice. Taken together, these results confirm that both RYR1 and RYR2 are required for vascular Ca(2+) signalling and indicate that inhibition of RYR2 expression may account for the decreased Ca(2+) release from the SR in mdx vascular myocytes. Finally, we suggest that gentamycin can restore the Ca(2+) signalling in smooth muscle from mdx mice by increasing RYR2 and dystrophin expression. These results may help explain the reduced efficacy of contraction in vascular myocytes of mdx mice and Duchenne muscular dystrophy-afflicted patients. Gentamycin treatment could be a good therapeutic tool to restore the vascular function.
Project description:Ryanodine receptors (RyR) are Ca(2+) channels that mediate Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores in response to diverse intracellular signals. In RINm5F insulinoma cells, caffeine, and 4-chloro-m-cresol (4CmC), agonists of RyR, stimulated Ca(2+) entry that was independent of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and blocked by prior incubation with a concentration of ryanodine that inactivates RyR. Patch-clamp recording identified small numbers of large-conductance (gamma(K) = 169 pS) cation channels that were activated by caffeine, 4CmC or low concentrations of ryanodine. Similar channels were detected in rat pancreatic beta-cells. In RINm5F cells, the channels were blocked by cytosolic, but not extracellular, ruthenium red. Subcellular fractionation showed that type 3 IP(3) receptors (IP(3)R3) were expressed predominantly in endoplasmic reticulum, whereas RyR2 were present also in plasma membrane fractions. Using RNAi selectively to reduce expression of RyR1, RyR2, or IP(3)R3, we showed that RyR2 mediates both the Ca(2+) entry and the plasma membrane currents evoked by agonists of RyR. We conclude that small numbers of RyR2 are selectively expressed in the plasma membrane of RINm5F pancreatic beta-cells, where they mediate Ca(2+) entry.
Project description:Dantrolene is the first line therapy of malignant hyperthermia. Animal studies suggest that dantrolene also protects against heart failure and arrhythmias caused by spontaneous Ca(2+) release. Although dantrolene inhibits Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscle preparations, its mechanism of action has remained controversial, because dantrolene does not inhibit single ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels in lipid bilayers. Here we test the hypothesis that calmodulin (CaM), a physiologic RyR binding partner that is lost during incorporation into lipid bilayers, is required for dantrolene inhibition of RyR channels. In single channel recordings (100 nM cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] + 2 mM ATP), dantrolene caused inhibition of RyR1 (rabbit skeletal muscle) and RyR2 (sheep) with a maximal inhibition of Po (Emax) to 52 ± 4% of control only after adding physiologic [CaM] = 100 nM. Dantrolene inhibited RyR2 with an IC50 of 0.16 ± 0.03 µM. Mutant N98S-CaM facilitated dantrolene inhibition with an IC50 = 5.9 ± 0.3 nM. In mouse cardiomyocytes, dantrolene had no effect on cardiac Ca(2+) release in the absence of CaM, but reduced Ca(2+) wave frequency (IC50 = 0.42 ± 0.18 µM, Emax = 47 ± 4%) and amplitude (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.04 µM, Emax = 66 ± 4%) in the presence of 100 nM CaM. We conclude that CaM is essential for dantrolene inhibition of RyR1 and RyR2. Its absence explains why dantrolene inhibition of single RyR channels has not been previously observed.
Project description:S100A1 has been suggested as a therapeutic agent to enhance myocyte Ca(2+) cycling in heart failure, but its molecular mode of action is poorly understood. Using FRET, we tested the hypothesis that S100A1 directly competes with calmodulin (CaM) for binding to intact, functional ryanodine receptors type I (RyR1) and II (RyR2) from skeletal and cardiac muscle, respectively. Our FRET readout provides an index of acceptor-labeled CaM binding near donor-labeled FKBP (FK506-binding protein 12.6) on the cytoplasmic domain of RyR in isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. S100A1 (0.01-400 ?m) partially inhibited FRET (i.e. CaM binding), with Ki > 10 ?m, for both RyR1 and RyR2. The high [S100A1] required for partial effects on FRET indicates a lack of competition by S100A1 on CaM/RyR binding under normal physiological conditions. High-resolution analysis of time-resolved FRET detects two structural states of RyR-bound CaM, which respond to [Ca(2+)] and are isoform-specific. The distribution of these structural states was perturbed only by high micromolar [S100A1], which promoted a shift of bound CaM to a lower FRET orientation (without altering the amount of CaM bound to RyR). Thus, high micromolar S100A1 does alter the CaM/RyR interaction, without involving competition. Nevertheless, submicromolar S100A1 can alter RyR function, an effect that is influenced by both [Ca(2+)] and [CaM]. We conclude that CaM and S100A1 can concurrently bind to and functionally modulate RyR1 and RyR2, but this does not involve direct competition at the RyR CaM binding site.
Project description:Dantrolene is an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ release from skeletal muscle SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum). Direct photoaffinity labelling experiments using [3H]azidodantrolene and synthetic domain peptides have demonstrated that this drug targets amino acids 590-609 [termed DP1 (domain peptide 1)] of RyR1 (ryanodine receptor 1), the skeletal muscle RyR isoform. Although the identical sequence exists in the cardiac isoform, RyR2 (residues 601-620), specific labelling of RyR2 by dantrolene has not been demonstrated, even though some functional studies show protective effects of dantrolene on heart function. Here we test whether dantrolene-active domains exist within RyR2 and if so, whether this domain can be modulated. We show that elongated DP1 sequences from RyR1 (DP1-2s; residues 590-628) and RyR2 (DP1-2c; residues 601-639) can be specifically photolabelled by [3H]azidodantrolene. Monoclonal anti-RyR1 antibody, whose epitope is the DP1 region, can recognize RyR1 but not RyR2 in Western blot and immunoprecipitation assays, yet it recognizes both DP1-2c and DP1-2s. This suggests that although the RyR2 sequence has an intrinsic capacity to bind dantrolene in vitro, this site may be poorly accessible in the native channel protein. To examine whether it is possible to modulate this site, we measured binding of [3H]dantrolene to cardiac SR as a function of free Ca2+. We found that > or =10 mM EGTA increased [3H]dantrolene binding to RyR2 by approximately 2-fold. The data suggest that the dantrolene-binding site on RyR2 is conformationally sensitive. This site may be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases sensitive to dysfunctional intracellular Ca2+ release.
Project description:Activation of intracellular Ca(2+)-release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyRs) is a fundamental step in the regulation of muscle contraction. In mammalian skeletal muscle, Ca(2+)-release channels containing the type 1 isoform of RyR (RyR1) open to release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) upon stimulation by the voltage-activated dihydropyridine receptor on the T-tubule/plasma membrane. In addition to RyR1, low levels of the mRNA of the RyR3 isoform have been recently detected in mammalian skeletal muscles. Here we report data on the distribution of the RyR3 gene product in mammalian skeletal muscles. Western-blot analysis of SR of individual muscles indicated that, at variance with the even distribution of the RyR1 isoform, the RyR3 content varies among different muscles, with relatively higher amounts being detected in diaphragm and soleus, and lower levels in abdominal muscles and tibialis anterior. In these muscles RyR3 was localized in the terminal cisternae of the SR. No detectable levels of RyR3 were observed in the extensor digitorum longus. Preferential high content of RyR3 in the diaphragm muscle was observed in several mammalian species. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that RyR3 transcripts are not restricted to a specific subset of skeletal-muscle fibres. Differential utilization of the RyR3 isoform in skeletal muscle may be relevant to the modulation of Ca2+ release with respect to specific muscle-contraction properties.