Ezrin induces long-range interdomain allostery in the scaffolding protein NHERF1.
ABSTRACT: Scaffolding proteins are molecular switches that control diverse signaling events. The scaffolding protein Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) assembles macromolecular signaling complexes and regulates the macromolecular assembly, localization, and intracellular trafficking of a number of membrane ion transport proteins, receptors, and adhesion/antiadhesion proteins. NHERF1 begins with two modular protein-protein interaction domains-PDZ1 and PDZ2-and ends with a C-terminal (CT) domain. This CT domain binds to ezrin, which, in turn, interacts with cytosekeletal actin. Remarkably, ezrin binding to NHERF1 increases the binding capabilities of both PDZ domains. Here, we use deuterium labeling and contrast variation neutron-scattering experiments to determine the conformational changes in NHERF1 when it forms a complex with ezrin. Upon binding to ezrin, NHERF1 undergoes significant conformational changes in the region linking PDZ2 and its CT ezrin-binding domain, as well as in the region linking PDZ1 and PDZ2, involving very long range interactions over 120 A. The results provide a structural explanation, at mesoscopic scales, of the allosteric control of NHERF1 by ezrin as it assembles protein complexes. Because of the essential roles of NHERF1 and ezrin in intracellular trafficking in epithelial cells, we hypothesize that this long-range allosteric regulation of NHERF1 by ezrin enables the membrane-cytoskeleton to assemble protein complexes that control cross-talk and regulate the strength and duration of signaling.
Project description:The Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1) is a scaffolding protein that possesses two tandem PDZ domains and a carboxy-terminal ezrin-binding domain (EBD). The parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), type II sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (Npt2a), and ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR), through their respective carboxy-terminal PDZ-recognition motifs, individually interact with NHERF1 forming a complex with one of the PDZ domains. In the basal state, NHERF1 adopts a self-inhibited conformation, in which its carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand interacts with PDZ2. We applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to uncover the structural and biochemical basis for the binding selectivity of NHERF1 PDZ domains. PDZ1 uniquely forms several contacts not present in PDZ2 that further stabilize PDZ1 interactions with target ligands. The binding free energy (?G) of PDZ1 and PDZ2 with the carboxy-terminal, five-amino acid residues that form the PDZ-recognition motif of PTHR, Npt2a, and ?2-AR was calculated and compared with the calculated ?G for the self-association of NHERF1. The results suggest that the interaction of the PTHR, ?2-adrenergic, and Npt2a involves competition between NHERF1 PDZ domains and the target proteins. The binding of PDZ2 with PTHR may also compete with the self-inhibited conformation of NHERF1, thereby contributing to the stabilization of an active NHERF1 conformation.
Project description:The mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is a multidomain scaffolding protein essential for regulating the intracellular trafficking and macromolecular assembly of transmembrane ion channels and receptors. NHERF1 consists of tandem PDZ-1, PDZ-2 domains that interact with the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins and a C-terminal (CT) domain that binds the membrane-cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin. NHERF1 is held in an autoinhibited state through intramolecular interactions between PDZ2 and the CT domain that also includes a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (-SNL). We have determined the structures of the isolated and tandem PDZ2CT domains by high resolution NMR using small angle x-ray scattering as constraints. The PDZ2CT structure shows weak intramolecular interactions between the largely disordered CT domain and the PDZ ligand binding site. The structure reveals a novel helix-turn-helix subdomain that is allosterically coupled to the putative PDZ2 domain by a network of hydrophobic interactions. This helical subdomain increases both the stability and the binding affinity of the extended PDZ structure. Using NMR and small angle neutron scattering for joint structure refinement, we demonstrate the release of intramolecular domain-domain interactions in PDZ2CT upon binding to ezrin. Based on the structural information, we show that human disease-causing mutations in PDZ2, R153Q and E225K, have significantly reduced protein stability. Loss of NHERF1 expressed in cells could result in failure to assemble membrane complexes that are important for normal physiological functions.
Project description:The multi-domain scaffolding protein NHERF1 modulates the assembly and intracellular trafficking of various transmembrane receptors and ion-transport proteins. The two PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/disk large/zonula occluden 1) domains of NHERF1 possess very different ligand-binding capabilities: PDZ1 recognizes a variety of membrane proteins with high affinity, while PDZ2 only binds limited number of target proteins. Here using NMR, we have determined the structural and dynamic mechanisms that differentiate the binding affinities of the two PDZ domains, for the type 1 PDZ-binding motif (QDTRL) in the carboxyl terminus of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. Similar to PDZ2, we have identified a helix-loop-helix subdomain coupled to the canonical PDZ1 domain. The extended PDZ1 domain is highly flexible with correlated backbone motions on fast and slow timescales, while the extended PDZ2 domain is relatively rigid. The malleability of the extended PDZ1 structure facilitates the transmission of conformational changes at the ligand-binding site to the remote helix-loop-helix extension. By contrast, ligand binding has only modest effects on the conformation and dynamics of the extended PDZ2 domain. The study shows that ligand-induced structural and dynamic changes coupled with sequence variation at the putative PDZ binding site dictate ligand selectivity and binding affinity of the two PDZ domains of NHERF1.
Project description:NHERF1 is a multidomain scaffolding protein that assembles signaling complexes, and regulates the cell surface expression and endocytic recycling of a variety of membrane proteins. The ability of the two PDZ domains in NHERF1 to assemble protein complexes is allosterically modulated by the membrane-cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin, whose binding site is located as far as 110 Ångstroms away from the PDZ domains. Here, using neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy, selective deuterium labeling, and theoretical analyses, we reveal the activation of interdomain motion in NHERF1 on nanometer length-scales and on submicrosecond timescales upon forming a complex with ezrin. We show that a much-simplified coarse-grained model suffices to describe interdomain motion of a multidomain protein or protein complex. We expect that future NSE experiments will benefit by exploiting our approach of selective deuteration to resolve the specific domain motions of interest from a plethora of global translational and rotational motions. Our results demonstrate that the dynamic propagation of allosteric signals to distal sites involves changes in long-range coupled domain motions on submicrosecond timescales, and that these coupled motions can be distinguished and characterized by NSE.
Project description:NHERF1 is a PDZ adaptor protein that scaffolds the assembly of diverse signaling complexes and has been implicated in many cancers. However, little is known about the mechanism responsible for its scaffolding promiscuity or its ability to bind to multiple targets. Computational studies have indicated that PDZ promiscuity may be attributed to its conformational dynamics, but experimental evidence for this relationship remains very limited. Here we examine the conformational flexibility of the NHERF1 PDZ1 domain using crystal lattice trapping via solving PDZ1 structure of a new crystal form. The structure, together with prior PDZ1 structures of a different space group, reveals that 4 of 11 ligand-interacting residues undergo significant crystal packing-induced structural changes. Most of these residues correspond to the residues involved in allosteric transition when a peptide ligand binds. In addition, a subtle difference in ligand conformations causes the same peptide to bind in slightly different modes in different crystal forms. These findings indicate that substantial structural flexibility is present in the PDZ1 peptide-binding pocket, and the structural substate trapped in the present crystal form can be utilized to represent the conformational space accessible to the protein. Such knowledge will be critical for drug design against the NHERF1 PDZ1 domain, highlighting the continued need for experimentally determined PDZ1-ligand complexes.
Project description:Metastatic cells are highly plastic for differential expression of tumor phenotype hallmarks and metastatic organotropism. The signaling proteins orchestrating the shift of one cell phenotype and organ pattern to another are little known. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF1) is a molecular pathway organizer, PDZ-domain protein that recruits membrane, cytoplasmic, and cytoskeletal signaling proteins into functional complexes. To gain insight into the role of NHERF1 in metastatic progression, we stably transfected a metastatic breast cell line, MDA-MB-231, with an empty vector, with wild-type NHERF1, or with NHERF1 mutated in either the PDZ1- or PDZ2-binding domains to block their binding activities. We observed that NHERF1 differentially regulates the expression of two phenotypic programs through its PDZ domains, and these programs form the mechanistic basis for metastatic organotropism. The PDZ2 domain promotes visceral metastases via increased invadopodia-dependent invasion and anchorage-independent growth, as well as by inhibition of apoptosis, whereas the PDZ1 domain promotes bone metastases by stimulating podosome nucleation, motility, neoangiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, and osteoclastogenesis in the absence of increased growth or invasion. Collectively, these findings identify NHERF1 as an important signaling nexus for coordinating cell structure with metastatic behavior and identifies the "mesenchymal-to-vasculogenic" phenotypic transition as an essential step in metastatic progression.
Project description:Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1) is a cytoplasmic PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/disc large/zona occludens) protein that assembles macromolecular complexes and determines the localization, trafficking, and signaling of select G protein-coupled receptors and other membrane-delimited proteins. The parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), which regulates mineral ion homeostasis and bone turnover, is a G protein-coupled receptor harboring a PDZ-binding motif that enables association with NHERF1 and tethering to the actin cytoskeleton. NHERF1 interactions with the PTHR modify its trafficking and signaling. Here, we characterized by live cell imaging the mechanism whereby NHERF1 coordinates the interactions of multiple proteins, as well as the fate of NHERF1 itself upon receptor activation. Upon PTHR stimulation, NHERF1 rapidly dissociates from the receptor and induces receptor aggregation in long lasting clusters that are enriched with the actin-binding protein ezrin and with clathrin. After NHERF1 dissociates from the PTHR, ezrin then directly interacts with the PTHR to stabilize the PTHR at the cell membrane. Recruitment of ?-arrestins to the PTHR is delayed until NHERF1 dissociates from the receptor, which is then trafficked to clathrin for internalization. The ability of NHERF to interact dynamically with the PTHR and cognate adapter proteins regulates receptor trafficking and signaling in a spatially and temporally coordinated manner.
Project description:Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor-1 (NHERF1) is a scaffolding protein containing 2 PDZ domains that coordinates the assembly and trafficking of transmembrane receptors and ion channels. Most target proteins harboring a C-terminus recognition motif bind more-or-less equivalently to the either PDZ domain, which contain identical core-binding motifs. However some substrates such as the type II sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter (NPT2A), uniquely bind only one PDZ domain. We sought to define the structural determinants responsible for the specificity of interaction between NHERF1 PDZ domains and NPT2A. By performing all-atom/explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in combination with biological mutagenesis, fluorescent polarization (FP) binding assays, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we found that in addition to canonical interactions of residues at 0 and -2 positions, Arg at the -1 position of NPT2A plays a critical role in association with Glu43 and His27 of PDZ1 that are absent in PDZ2. Experimentally introduced mutation in PDZ1 (Glu43Asp and His27Asn) decreased binding to NPT2A. Conversely, introduction of Asp183Glu and Asn167His mutations in PDZ2 promoted the formation of favorable interactions yielding micromolar KDs. The results describe novel determinants within both the PDZ domain and outside the canonical PDZ-recognition motif that are responsible for discrimination of NPT2A between two PDZ domains. The results challenge general paradigms for PDZ recognition and suggest new targets for drug development.
Project description:Congenital defects in the Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1) are linked to disordered phosphate homeostasis and skeletal abnormalities in humans. In the kidney, these mutations interrupt parathyroid hormone (PTH)-responsive sequestration of the renal phosphate transporter, Npt2a, with ensuing urinary phosphate wasting. We now report that NHERF1, a modular PDZ domain scaffolding protein, coordinates the assembly of an obligate ternary complex with Npt2a and the PKA-anchoring protein ezrin to facilitate PTH-responsive cAMP signaling events. Activation of ezrin-anchored PKA initiates NHERF1 phosphorylation to disassemble the ternary complex, release Npt2a, and thereby inhibit phosphate transport. Loss-of-function mutations stabilize an inactive NHERF1 conformation that we show is refractory to PKA phosphorylation and impairs assembly of the ternary complex. Compensatory mutations introduced in mutant NHERF1 re-establish the integrity of the ternary complex to permit phosphorylation of NHERF1 and rescue PTH action. These findings offer new insights into a novel macromolecular mechanism for the physiological action of a critical ternary complex, where anchored PKA coordinates the assembly and turnover of the Npt2a-NHERF1-ezrin complex.
Project description:The type II sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NPT2A) mediates renal phosphate uptake. The NPT2A is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23, which requires Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchange regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1), a multidomain PDZ-containing phosphoprotein. Phosphocycling controls the association between NHERF1 and the NPT2A. Here, we characterize the critical involvement of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6A (GRK6A) in mediating PTH-sensitive phosphate transport by targeted phosphorylation coupled with NHERF1 conformational rearrangement, which in turn allows phosphorylation at a secondary site. GRK6A, through its carboxy-terminal PDZ recognition motif, binds NHERF1 PDZ1 with greater affinity than PDZ2. However, the association between NHERF1 PDZ2 and GRK6A is necessary for PTH action. Ser<sup>162</sup>, a PKCα phosphorylation site in PDZ2, regulates the binding affinity between PDZ2 and GRK6A. Substitution of Ser<sup>162</sup> with alanine (S<sup>162</sup>A) blocks the PTH action but does not disrupt the interaction between NHERF1 and the NPT2A. Replacement of Ser<sup>162</sup> with aspartic acid (S<sup>162</sup>D) abrogates the interaction between NHERF1 and the NPT2A and concurrently PTH action. We used amber codon suppression to generate a phosphorylated Ser<sup>162</sup>(pSer<sup>162</sup>)-PDZ2 variant. K<sub>D</sub> values determined by fluorescence anisotropy indicate that incorporation of pSer<sup>162</sup> increased the binding affinity to the carboxy terminus of GRK6A 2-fold compared with WT PDZ2. Molecular dynamics simulations predict formation of an electrostatic network between pSer<sup>162</sup> and Asp<sup>183</sup> of PDZ2 and Arg at position -1 of the GRK6A PDZ-binding motif. Our results suggest that PDZ2 plays a regulatory role in PTH-sensitive NPT2A-mediated phosphate transport and phosphorylation of Ser<sup>162</sup> in PDZ2 modulates the interaction with GRK6A.