Unnatural substrates reveal the importance of 8-oxoguanine for in vivo mismatch repair by MutY.
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli MutY has an important role in preventing mutations associated with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) in DNA by excising adenines from OG.A mismatches as the first step of base excision repair. To determine the importance of specific steps in the base pair recognition and base removal process of MutY, we have evaluated the effects of modifications of the OG.A substrate on the kinetics of base removal, mismatch affinity and repair to G-C in an E. coli-based assay. Notably, adenine modification was tolerated in the cellular assay, whereas modification of OG resulted in minimal cellular repair. High affinity for the mismatch and efficient base removal required the presence of OG. Taken together, these results suggest that the presence of OG is a critical feature that is necessary for MutY to locate OG.A mismatches and select the appropriate adenines for excision to initiate repair in vivo before replication.
Project description:Base excision repair glycosylases locate and remove damaged bases in DNA with remarkable specificity. The MutY glycosylases, unusual for their excision of undamaged adenines mispaired to the oxidized base 8-oxoguanine (OG), must recognize both bases of the mispair in order to prevent promutagenic activity. Moreover, MutY must effectively find OG:A mismatches within the context of highly abundant and structurally similar T:A base pairs. Very little is known about the factors that initiate MutY's interaction with the substrate when it first encounters an intrahelical OG:A mispair, or about the order of recognition checkpoints. Here, we used structure-activity relationships (SAR) to investigate the features that influence the in vitro measured parameters of mismatch affinity and adenine base excision efficiency by E. coli MutY. We also evaluated the impacts of the same substrate alterations on MutY-mediated repair in a cellular context. Our results show that MutY relies strongly on the presence of the OG base and recognizes multiple structural features at different stages of recognition and catalysis to ensure that only inappropriately mispaired adenines are excised. Notably, some OG modifications resulted in more dramatic reductions in cellular repair than in the in vitro kinetic parameters, indicating their importance for initial recognition events needed to locate the mismatch within DNA. Indeed, the initial encounter of MutY with its target base pair may rely on specific interactions with the 2-amino group of OG in the major groove, a feature that distinguishes OG:A from T:A base pairs. These results furthermore suggest that inefficient substrate location in human MutY homologue variants may prove predictive for the early onset colorectal cancer phenotype known as MUTYH-Associated Polyposis, or MAP.
Project description:Escherichia coli MutY and MutS increase replication fidelity by removing adenines that were misincorporated opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanines (8-oxoG), G, or C. MutY DNA glycosylase removes adenines from these mismatches through a short-patch base excision repair pathway and thus prevents G:C-to-T:A and A:T-to-G:C mutations. MutS binds to the mismatches and initiates the long-patch mismatch repair on daughter DNA strands. We have previously reported that the human MutY homolog (hMYH) physically and functionally interacts with the human MutS homolog, hMutSalpha (Y. Gu et al., J. Biol. Chem. 277:11135-11142, 2002). Here, we show that a similar relationship between MutY and MutS exists in E. coli. The interaction of MutY and MutS involves the Fe-S domain of MutY and the ATPase domain of MutS. MutS, in eightfold molar excess over MutY, can enhance the binding activity of MutY with an A/8-oxoG mismatch by eightfold. The MutY expression level and activity in mutS mutant strains are sixfold and twofold greater, respectively, than those for the wild-type cells. The frequency of A:T-to-G:C mutations is reduced by two- to threefold in a mutS mutY mutant compared to a mutS mutant. Our results suggest that MutY base excision repair and mismatch repair defend against the mutagenic effect of 8-oxoG lesions in a cooperative manner.
Project description:MutY prevent DNA mutations associated with 8-oxoguanine (OG) by catalyzing the removal of adenines opposite OG. pH dependence of the adenine glycosylase activity establish that Asp 138 of MutY must be deprotonated for maximal activity consistent with its role in stabilizing the oxacarbenium ion transition state in an S(N)1 mechanism. A cellular OG:A repair assay allowed further validation of the critical role of Asp 138. Conservative substitutions of the catalytic residues Asp 138 and Glu 37 resulted in enzymes with a range of activity that were used to correlate the efficiency of adenine excision with overall OG:A repair and suppression of DNA mutations in vivo. The results show that MutY variations that exhibit reduced mismatch affinity result in more dramatic reductions in cellular OG:A repair than those that only compromise adenine excision catalysis.
Project description:MutY adenine glycosylases prevent DNA mutations by excising adenine from promutagenic 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG):A mismatches. Here, we describe structural features of the MutY active site bound to an azaribose transition state analog which indicate a catalytic role for Tyr126 and approach of the water nucleophile on the same side as the departing adenine base. The idea that Tyr126 participates in catalysis, recently predicted by modeling calculations, is strongly supported by mutagenesis and by seeing close contact between the hydroxyl group of this residue and the azaribose moiety of the transition state analog. NMR analysis of MutY methanolysis products corroborates a mechanism for adenine removal with retention of stereochemistry. Based on these results, we propose a revised mechanism for MutY that involves two nucleophilic displacement steps akin to the mechanisms accepted for 'retaining' O-glycosidases. This new-for-MutY yet familiar mechanism may also be operative in related base excision repair glycosylases and provides a critical framework for analysis of human MutY (MUTYH) variants associated with inherited colorectal cancer.
Project description:A growing number of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster cofactors have been identified in DNA repair proteins. MutY and its homologs are base excision repair (BER) glycosylases that prevent mutations associated with the common oxidation product of guanine (G), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) by catalyzing adenine (A) base excision from inappropriately formed OG:A mispairs. The finding of an [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster cofactor in MutY, Endonuclease III, and structurally similar BER enzymes was surprising and initially thought to represent an example of a purely structural role for the cofactor. However, in the two decades subsequent to the initial discovery, purification and in vitro analysis of bacterial MutYs and mammalian homologs, such as human MUTYH and mouse Mutyh, have demonstrated that proper Fe-S cluster coordination is required for OG:A substrate recognition and adenine excision. In addition, the Fe-S cluster in MutY has been shown to be capable of redox chemistry in the presence of DNA. The work in our laboratory aimed at addressing the importance of the MutY Fe-S cluster has involved a battery of approaches, with the overarching hypothesis that understanding the role(s) of the Fe-S cluster is intimately associated with understanding the biological and chemical properties of MutY and its unique damaged DNA substrate as a whole. In this chapter, we focus on methods of enzyme expression and purification, detailed enzyme kinetics, and DNA affinity assays. The methods described herein have not only been leveraged to provide insight into the roles of the MutY Fe-S cluster but have also been provided crucial information needed to delineate the impact of inherited variants of the human homolog MUTYH associated with a colorectal cancer syndrome known as MUTYH-associated polyposis or MAP. Notably, many MAP-associated variants have been found adjacent to the Fe-S cluster further underscoring the intimate relationship between the cofactor, MUTYH-mediated DNA repair, and disease.
Project description:The mutY homolog gene (mutY(Dr)) from Deinococcus radiodurans encodes a 39.4-kDa protein consisting of 363 amino acids that displays 35% identity to the Escherichia coli MutY (MutY(Ec)) protein. Expressed MutY(Dr) is able to complement E. coli mutY mutants but not mutM mutants to reduce the mutation frequency. The glycosylase and binding activities of MutY(Dr) with an A/G-containing substrate are more sensitive to high salt and EDTA concentrations than the activities with an A/7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (GO)-containing substrate are. Like the MutY(Ec) protein, purified recombinant MutY(Dr) expressed in E. coli has adenine glycosylase activity with A/G, A/C, and A/GO mismatches and weak guanine glycosylase activity with a G/GO mismatch. However, MutY(Dr) exhibits limited apurinic/apyrimidinic lyase activity and can form only weak covalent protein-DNA complexes in the presence of sodium borohydride. This may be due to an arginine residue that is present in MutY(Dr) at the position corresponding to the position of MutY(Ec) Lys142, which forms the Schiff base with DNA. The kinetic parameters of MutY(Dr) are similar to those of MutY(Ec). Although MutY(Dr) has similar substrate specificity and a binding preference for an A/GO mismatch over an A/G mismatch, as MutY(Ec) does, the binding affinities for both mismatches are slightly lower for MutY(Dr) than for MutY(Ec). Thus, MutY(Dr) can protect the cell from GO mutational effects caused by ionizing radiation and oxidative stress.
Project description:Escherichia coli MutY (EcMutY) reduces mutagenesis by removing adenines paired with guanines or 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanines (8-oxoG). V45 and Q182 of EcMutY are considered to be the key determinants of adenine specificity. Both residues are spatially close to each other in the active site and are conserved in MutY family proteins but not in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Mig.MthI T/G mismatch DNA glycosylase (A50 and L187 at the corresponding respective positions).Targeted mutagenesis study was performed to determine the substrate specificities of V45A, Q182L, and V45A/Q182L double mutant of EcMutY. All three mutants had significantly lower binding and glycosylase activities for A/G and A/8-oxoG mismatches than the wild-type enzyme. The double mutant exhibited an additive reduction in binding to both the A/G and A/GO in comparison to the single mutants. These mutants were also tested for binding and glycosylase activities with T/G- or T/8-oxoG-containing DNA. Both V45A and Q182L mutants had substantially increased affinities towards T/G, however, they did not exhibit any T/G or T/8-oxoG glycosylase activity. Surprisingly, the V45A/Q182L double mutant had similar binding affinities to T/G as the wild-type EcMutY. V45A, Q182L, and V45A/Q182L EcMutY mutants could not reduce the G:C to T:A mutation frequency of a mutY mutant. Expression of the V45A mutant protein caused a dominant negative phenotype with an increased G:C to A:T mutation frequency.The substrate specificities are altered in V45A, Q182L, and V45A/Q182L EcMutY mutants. V45A and Q182L mutants had reduced binding and glycosylase activities for A/G and A/8-oxoG mismatches and increased affinities towards T/G mismatch. However, in contrast to a previous report that Mig.MthI thymine DNA glycosylase can be converted to a MutY-like adenine glycosylase by replacing two residues (A50V and L187Q), both V45A and Q182L EcMutY mutants did not exhibit any T/G or T/8-oxoG glycosylase activity. The dominant negative phenotype of V45A EcMutY mutant protein is probably caused by its increased binding affinity to T/G mismatch and thus inhibiting other repair pathways.
Project description:We examined whether the human nucleotide excision repair complex, which is specialized on the removal of bulky DNA adducts, also displays a correcting activity on base mismatches. The cytosine/cytosine (C/C) lesion was used as a model substrate to monitor the correction of base mismatches in human cells. Fibroblasts with different repair capabilities were transfected with shuttle vectors that contain a site-directed C/C mismatch in the replication origin, accompanied by an additional C/C mismatch in one of the flanking sequences that are not essential for replication. Analysis of the vector progeny obtained from these doubly modified substrates revealed that C/C mismatches were eliminated before DNA synthesis not only in the repair-proficient background, but also when the target cells carried a genetic defect in long-patch mismatch repair, in nucleotide excision repair, or when both pathways were deleted. Furthermore, cells deficient for long-patch mismatch repair as well as a cell line that combines mismatch and nucleotide excision repair defects were able to correct multiple C/C mispairs, placed at distances of 21-44 nt, in an independent manner, such that the removal of each lesion led to individual repair patches. These results support the existence of a concurrent short-patch mechanism that rectifies C/C mismatches.
Project description:Gap-repair assays have been an important tool for studying the genetic control of homologous recombination in yeast. Sequence analysis of recombination products derived when a gapped plasmid is diverged relative to the chromosomal repair template additionally has been used to infer structures of strand-exchange intermediates. In the absence of the canonical mismatch repair pathway, mismatches present in these intermediates are expected to persist and segregate at the next round of DNA replication. In a mismatch repair defective (mlh1?) background, however, we have observed that recombination-generated mismatches are often corrected to generate gene conversion or restoration events. In the analyses reported here, the source of the aberrant mismatch removal during gap repair was examined. We find that most mismatch removal is linked to the methylation status of the plasmid used in the gap-repair assay. Whereas more than half of Dam-methylated plasmids had patches of gene conversion and/or restoration interspersed with unrepaired mismatches, mismatch removal was observed in less than 10% of products obtained when un-methylated plasmids were used in transformation experiments. The methylation-linked removal of mismatches in recombination intermediates was due specifically to the nucleotide excision repair pathway, with such mismatch removal being partially counteracted by glycosylases of the base excision repair pathway. These data demonstrate that nucleotide excision repair activity is not limited to bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions, but also targets removal of very modest perturbations in DNA structure. In addition to its effects on mismatch removal, methylation reduced the overall gap-repair efficiency, but this reduction was not affected by the status of excision repair pathways. Finally, gel purification of DNA prior to transformation reduced gap-repair efficiency four-fold in a nucleotide excision repair-defective background, indicating that the collateral introduction of UV damage can potentially compromise genetic interpretations.
Project description:The mutB gene of Salmonella typhimurium is involved in a methylation-independent repair pathway specific for A/G or A/C mismatches and is the homolog of the Escherichia coli mutY gene. The mutB gene of S. typhimurium was cloned and sequenced. The isolated mutB clone reduced the mutation rate of the mutB mutant to wild-type levels and also restored A/G mismatch-specific nicking activity, which is defective in mutB extracts. The amino acid sequence encoded by the mutB gene is 91% homologous to that encoded by the E. coli mutY gene.