Cotranslational assembly of the yeast SET1C histone methyltransferase complex.
ABSTRACT: While probing the role of RNA for the function of SET1C/COMPASS histone methyltransferase, we identified SET1RC (SET1 mRNA-associated complex), a complex that contains SET1 mRNA and Set1, Swd1, Spp1 and Shg1, four of the eight polypeptides that constitute SET1C. Characterization of SET1RC showed that SET1 mRNA binding did not require associated Swd1, Spp1 and Shg1 proteins or RNA recognition motifs present in Set1. RNA binding was not observed when Set1 protein and SET1 mRNA were derived from independent genes or when SET1 transcripts were restricted to the nucleus. Importantly, the protein-RNA interaction was sensitive to EDTA, to the translation elongation inhibitor puromycin and to the inhibition of translation initiation in prt1-1 mutants. Taken together, our results support the idea that SET1 mRNA binding was dependent on translation and that SET1RC assembled on nascent Set1 in a cotranslational manner. Moreover, we show that cellular accumulation of Set1 is limited by the availability of certain SET1C components, such as Swd1 and Swd3, and suggest that cotranslational protein interactions may exert an effect in the protection of nascent Set1 from degradation.
Project description:H2B ubiquitylation (H2Bub)-dependent H3K4 methylation is mediated by the multisubunit Set1 complex (Set1C) in yeast, but precisely how Set1C subunits contribute to this histone modification remains unclear. Here, using reconstituted Set1Cs and recombinant H2Bub chromatin, we identified Set1C subunits and domains involved in the H2Bub-dependent H3K4 methylation process, showing that the Spp1 PHDL domain, in conjunction with the Set1 n-SET domain, interacts with Swd1/Swd3 and that this interaction is essential for H2Bub-dependent H3K4 methylation. Importantly, Set1C containing an Spp1-Swd1 fusion bypasses the requirement for H2Bub for H3K4 methylation, suggesting that the role of H2Bub is to induce allosteric rearrangements of the subunit-interaction network within the active site of Set1C that are necessary for methylation activity. Moreover, the interaction between the Set1 N-terminal region and Swd1 renders the Spp1-lacking Set1C competent for H2Bub-dependent H3K4 methylation. Collectively, our results suggest that H2Bub induces conformational changes in Set1C that support H3K4 methylation activity.
Project description:Histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases are conserved from yeast to humans, assemble in multisubunit complexes, and are needed to regulate gene expression. The yeast H3K4 methyltransferase complex, Set1 complex or complex of proteins associated with Set1 (COMPASS), consists of Set1 and conserved Set1-associated proteins: Swd1, Swd2, Swd3, Spp1, Bre2, Sdc1, and Shg1. The removal of the WD40 domain-containing subunits Swd1 and Swd3 leads to a loss of Set1 protein and consequently a complete loss of H3K4 methylation. However, until now, how these WD40 domain-containing proteins interact with Set1 and contribute to the stability of Set1 and H3K4 methylation has not been determined. In this study, we identified small basic and acidic patches that mediate protein interactions between the C terminus of Swd1 and the nSET domain of Set1. Absence of either the basic or acidic patches of Set1 and Swd1, respectively, disrupts the interaction between Set1 and Swd1, diminishes Set1 protein levels, and abolishes H3K4 methylation. Moreover, these basic and acidic patches are also important for cell growth, telomere silencing, and gene expression. We also show that the basic and acidic patches of Set1 and Swd1 are conserved in their human counterparts SET1A/B and RBBP5, respectively, and are needed for the protein interaction between SET1A and RBBP5. Therefore, this charge-based interaction is likely important for maintaining the protein stability of the human SET1A/B methyltransferase complexes so that proper H3K4 methylation, cell growth, and gene expression can also occur in mammals.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) is methylated by the Set1 complex (Set1C or COMPASS). Besides the catalytic Set1 subunit, several proteins that form the Set1C (Swd1, Swd2, Swd3, Spp1, Bre2, and Sdc1) are also needed to mediate proper H3K4 methylation. Until this study, it has been unclear how individual Set1C members interact and how this interaction may impact histone methylation and gene expression. In this study, Bre2 and Sdc1 are shown to directly interact, and it is shown that the association of this heteromeric complex is needed for proper H3K4 methylation and gene expression to occur. Interestingly, mutational and biochemical analysis identified the C terminus of Bre2 as a critical protein-protein interaction domain that binds to the Dpy-30 domain of Sdc1. Using the human homologs of Bre2 and Sdc1, ASH2L and DPY-30, respectively, we demonstrate that the C terminus of ASH2L also interacts with the Dpy-30 domain of DPY-30, suggesting that this protein-protein interaction is maintained from yeast to humans. Because of the functionally conserved nature of the C terminus of Bre2 and ASH2L, this region was named the SDI (Sdc1 Dpy-30 interaction) domain. Finally, we show that the SDI-Dpy-30 domain interaction is physiologically important for the function of Set1 in vivo, because specific disruption of this interaction prevents Bre2 and Sdc1 association with Set1, resulting in H3K4 methylation defects and decreases in gene expression. Overall, these and other mechanistic studies on how H3K4 methyltransferase complexes function will likely provide insights into how human MLL and SET1-like complexes or overexpression of ASH2L leads to oncogenesis.
Project description:The SET1/MLL family of histone methyltransferases is conserved in eukaryotes and regulates transcription by catalyzing histone H3K4 mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. These enzymes form a common five-subunit catalytic core whose assembly is critical for their basal and regulated enzymatic activities through unknown mechanisms. Here, we present the crystal structure of the intact yeast COMPASS histone methyltransferase catalytic module consisting of Swd1, Swd3, Bre2, Sdc1, and Set1. The complex is organized by Swd1, whose conserved C-terminal tail not only nucleates Swd3 and a Bre2-Sdc1 subcomplex, but also joins Set1 to construct a regulatory pocket next to the catalytic site. This inter-subunit pocket is targeted by a previously unrecognized enzyme-modulating motif in Swd3 and features a doorstop-style mechanism dictating substrate selectivity among SET1/MLL family members. By spatially mapping the functional components of COMPASS, our results provide a structural framework for understanding the multifaceted functions and regulation of the H3K4 methyltransferase family.
Project description:Spp1 is the H3K4me3 reader subunit of the Set1 complex (COMPASS/Set1C) that contributes to the mechanism by which meiotic DNA break sites are mechanistically selected. We previously proposed a model in which Spp1 interacts with H3K4me3 and the chromosome axis protein Mer2 that leads to DSB formation. Here we show that spatial interactions of Spp1 and Mer2 occur independently of Set1C. Spp1 exhibits dynamic chromatin binding features during meiosis, with many de novo appearing and disappearing binding sites. Spp1 chromatin binding dynamics depends on its PHD finger and Mer2-interacting domain and on modifiable histone residues (H3R2/K4). Remarkably, association of Spp1 with Mer2 axial sites reduces the effective turnover rate and diffusion coefficient of Spp1 upon chromatin binding, compared with other Set1C subunits. Our results indicate that "chromosomal turnover rate" is a major molecular determinant of Spp1 function in the framework of meiotic chromatin structure that prepares recombination initiation sites for break formation.
Project description:Mating-type switching in Schizosaccharomyces pombe entails programmed gene conversion events regulated by DNA replication, heterochromatin, and the HP1-like chromodomain protein Swi6. The whole mechanism remains to be fully understood. Using a gene deletion library, we screened ~ 3400 mutants for defects in the donor selection step where a heterochromatic locus, mat2-P or mat3-M, is chosen to convert the expressed mat1 locus. By measuring the biases in mat1 content that result from faulty directionality, we identified in total 20 factors required for donor selection. Unexpectedly, these included the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase complex subunits Set1, Swd1, Swd2, Swd3, Spf1 and Ash2, the BRE1-like ubiquitin ligase Brl2 and the Elongator complex subunit Elp6. The mutant defects were investigated in strains with reversed donor loci (mat2-M mat3-P) or when the SRE2 and SRE3 recombination enhancers, adjacent to the donors, were deleted or transposed. Mutants in Set1C, Brl2 or Elp6 altered balanced donor usage away from mat2 and the SRE2 enhancer, towards mat3 and the SRE3 enhancer. The defects in these mutants were qualitatively similar to heterochromatin mutants lacking Swi6, the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2, or the Clr4, Raf1 or Rik1 subunits of the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase complex, albeit not as extreme. Other mutants showed clonal biases in switching. This was the case for mutants in the NAD+-independent deacetylase complex subunits Clr1, Clr2 and Clr3, the casein kinase CK2 subunit Ckb1, the ubiquitin ligase component Pof3, and the CENP-B homologue Cbp1, as well as for double mutants lacking Swi6 and Brl2, Pof3, or Cbp1. Thus, we propose that Set1C cooperates with Swi6 and heterochromatin to direct donor choice to mat2-P in M cells, perhaps by inhibiting the SRE3 recombination enhancer, and that in the absence of Swi6 other factors are still capable of imposing biases to donor choice.
Project description:The methylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) is carried out by an evolutionarily conserved family of methyltransferases referred to as complex of proteins associated with Set1 (COMPASS). The activity of the catalytic SET domain (su(var)3-9, enhancer-of-zeste, and trithorax) is endowed through forming a complex with a set of core proteins that are widely shared from yeast to humans. We obtained cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) maps of the yeast Set1/COMPASS core complex at overall 4.0- to 4.4-Å resolution, providing insights into its structural organization and conformational dynamics. The Cps50 C-terminal tail weaves within the complex to provide a central scaffold for assembly. The SET domain, snugly positioned at the junction of the Y-shaped complex, is extensively contacted by Cps60 (Bre2), Cps50 (Swd1), and Cps30 (Swd3). The mobile SET-I motif of the SET domain is engaged by Cps30, explaining its key role in COMPASS catalytic activity toward higher H3K4 methylation states.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several nonessential mechanisms including histone variant H2A.Z deposition and transcription-associated histone H3 methylation antagonize the local spread of Sir-dependent silent chromatin into adjacent euchromatic regions. However, it is unclear how and where these factors cooperate. To probe this question, we performed systematic genetic array screens for gene deletions that cause a synthetic growth defect in an htz1Delta mutant but not in an htz1Delta sir3Delta double mutant. Of the four genes identified, three, SET1, SWD1, and SWD3, encode components of the Set1 complex, which catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3-K4), a highly conserved modification that occurs in the coding sequences of transcribed genes. Using microarray-based transcriptional profiling, we find that H2A.Z and Set1 cooperate to prevent Sir-dependent repression of a large number of genes located across the genome, rather than the local effects reported previously for the individual mechanisms. This global, redundant function appears to be direct: using a DamID chromatin profiling method, we demonstrate ectopic association of Sir3 and Sir4 in htz1Delta set1Delta mutants at loci distant from silent chromatin domains. Antisilencing mechanisms may therefore cooperate to play a considerably broader role in regulating genome-wide transcription than previously thought.
Project description:The Set1 family of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases is highly conserved from yeast to humans. Here we show that the Set1 complex (Set1C) directly binds RNA in vitro through the regions that comprise the double RNA recognition motifs (dRRM) and N-SET domain within Set1 and its subunit Spp1. To investigate the functional relevance of RNA binding, we performed UV RNA cross-linking (CRAC) for Set1 and RNA polymerase II in parallel with ChIP-seq experiments. Set1 binds nascent transcripts through its dRRM. RNA binding is important to define the appropriate topology of Set1C distribution along transcription units and correlates with the efficient deposition of the H3K4me3 mark. In addition, we uncovered that Set1 binds to different classes of RNAs to levels that largely exceed the levels of binding to the general population of transcripts, suggesting the Set1 persists on these RNAs after transcription. This class includes RNAs derived from SET1, Ty1 retrotransposons, specific transcription factors genes and snRNAs. We propose that Set1 modulates adaptive responses, as exemplified by the posttranscriptional inhibition of Ty1 retrotransposition. Overall design: Investigation of the functional relevance of RNA binding in yeast using RNA cross-linking (CRAC) for Set1 and RNA polymerase II and ChIP-seq experiments.
Project description:The Set1 family of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases is highly conserved from yeast to humans. Here we show that the Set1 complex (Set1C) directly binds RNA in vitro through the regions that comprise the double RNA recognition motifs (dRRM) and N-SET domain within Set1 and its subunit Spp1. To investigate the functional relevance of RNA binding, we performed UV RNA cross-linking (CRAC) for Set1 and RNA polymerase II in parallel with ChIP-seq experiments. Set1 binds nascent transcripts through its dRRM. RNA binding is important to define the appropriate topology of Set1C distribution along transcription units and correlates with the efficient deposition of the H3K4me3 mark. In addition, we uncovered that Set1 binds to different classes of RNAs to levels that largely exceed the levels of binding to the general population of transcripts, suggesting the Set1 persists on these RNAs after transcription. This class includes RNAs derived from SET1, Ty1 retrotransposons, specific transcription factors genes and snRNAs. We propose that Set1 modulates adaptive responses, as exemplified by the posttranscriptional inhibition of Ty1 retrotransposition. Overall design: Investigation of the functional relevance of RNA binding in yeast using RNA cross-linking (CRAC) for Set1 and ChIP-seq experiments.