Loss of the plant DEAD-box protein ISE1 leads to defective mitochondria and increased cell-to-cell transport via plasmodesmata.
ABSTRACT: Plants have intercellular channels, plasmodesmata (PD), that span the cell wall to enable cell-to-cell transport of micro- and macromolecules. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana embryo lethal mutant increased size exclusion limit 1 (ise1) that results in increased PD-mediated transport of fluorescent tracers. The ise1 mutants have a higher frequency of branched and twinned PD than wild-type embryos. Silencing of ISE1 in mature Nicotiana benthamiana leaves also leads to increased PD transport, as monitored by intercellular movement of a GFP fusion to the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein. ISE1 encodes a putative plant-specific DEAD-box RNA helicase that localizes specifically to mitochondria. The N-terminal 100 aa of ISE1 specify mitochondrial targeting. Mitochondrial metabolism is compromised severely in ise1 mutant embryos, because their mitochondrial proton gradient is disrupted and reactive oxygen species production is increased. Although mitochondria are essential for numerous cell-autonomous functions, the present studies demonstrate that mitochondrial function also regulates the critical cell non-cell-autonomous function of PD.
Project description:Plasmodesmata (PD) transport developmentally important nucleic acids and proteins between plant cells. Primary PD form during cell division and are simple, linear channels. Secondary PD form in existing cell walls after cell division and are simple, twinned, or branched. PD function undergoes a marked reduction at the mid-torpedo stage of Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Two mutants, increased size exclusion limit (ise)1 and ise2, fail to undergo this transition, and their null mutations are embryonically lethal. We investigated the ultrastructure of PD in early-, mid-, and late-torpedo-stage embryos and in young leaves. Wild-type (WT) embryos contain twinned and branched (T/B) PD at all stages, but ise1 and ise2 embryos contain significantly higher proportions of T/B PD than WT embryos. WT T/B PD formation occurs in a stage- and tissue-specific pattern that is reversed in ise1 embryos. Silencing ISE1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves increases the frequency of secondary PD in existing cell walls. Silencing ISE2 increases the proportion of T/B secondary PD formed. Silenced tissues exhibit increased PD-mediated movement of green fluorescent protein tracers. Thus, silencing of ISE1 and ISE2 phenocopies ise1 and ise2 mutant embryos: when wild-type ISE1 and ISE2 functions are lost, de novo production of PD occurs, leading to increased intercellular transport.
Project description:Intercellular transport of viruses through cytoplasmic connections, termed plasmodesmata (PD), is essential for systemic infection in plants by viruses. Previous genetic and ultrastructural data revealed that the potyvirus cyclindrical inclusion (CI) protein is directly involved in cell-to-cell movement, likely through the formation of conical structures anchored to and extended through PD. In this study, we demonstrate that plasmodesmatal localization of CI in N. benthamiana leaf cells is modulated by the recently discovered potyviral protein, P3N-PIPO, in a CI:P3N-PIPO ratio-dependent manner. We show that P3N-PIPO is a PD-located protein that physically interacts with CI in planta. The early secretory pathway, rather than the actomyosin motility system, is required for the delivery of P3N-PIPO and CI to PD. Moreover, CI mutations that disrupt virus cell-to-cell movement compromise PD-localization capacity. These data suggest that the CI and P3N-PIPO complex coordinates the formation of PD-associated structures that facilitate the intercellular movement of potyviruses in infected plants.
Project description:In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) serve as channels for micromolecular and macromolecular cell-to-cell transport. Based on structure, PD in immature tissues are classified into two types, simple and branched (X- and Y-shaped) or twinned. The maximum size of molecules capable of PD transport defines PD aperture, known as the PD size exclusion limit. Here we report an Arabidopsis mutation, decreased size exclusion limit1 (dse1), that exhibits reduced cell-to-cell transport of the small (524 Da) fluorescent tracer 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid at the midtorpedo stage of embryogenesis. Correspondingly, the fraction of X- and Y-shaped and twinned PD was reduced in dse1 embryos compared with WT embryos at this stage, suggesting that the frequency of PD is related to transport capability. dse1 is caused by a point mutation in At4g29860 (previously termed TANMEI) at the last donor splice site of its transcript, resulting in alternative splicing in both the first intron and the last intron. AtDSE1 is a conserved eukaryotic 386-aa WD-repeat protein critical for Arabidopsis morphogenesis and reproduction. Similar to its homologs in mouse, null mutants are embryo-lethal. The weak loss-of-function mutant dse1 exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes, including retarded vegetative growth, delayed flowering time, dysfunctional male and female organs, and delayed senescence. Finally, silencing of DSE1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves leads to reduced movement of GFP fused to tobacco mosaic virus movement protein. Thus, DSE1 is important for regulating PD transport between plant cells.
Project description:We use Arabidopsis thaliana embryogenesis as a model system for studying intercellular transport via plasmodesmata (PD). A forward genetic screen for altered PD transport identified ise1 and ise2 mutants with increased intercellular transport of fluorescent 10-kDa tracers. Both ise1 and ise2 exhibit increased formation of twinned and branched PD. ISE1 encodes a mitochondrial DEAD-box RNA helicase, while ISE2 encodes a DEVH-type RNA helicase. Here we show that ISE2 foci are localized to the chloroplast stroma. Surprisingly, plastid development is defective in both ise1 and ise2 mutant embryos. In an effort to understand how RNA helicases that localize to different organelles have similar impacts on plastid and PD development/function we performed whole genome expression analyses. The most significantly affected class of transcripts in both mutants encodes products that target to and enable plastid function. These results reinforce the importance of plastid-mitochondria-nucleus crosstalk, add PD as a critical player in the plant cell communication network, and thereby illuminate a new signaling pathway, dubbed organelle-nucleus-plasmodesmata signaling (ONPS). Several genes with roles in cell wall synthesis and modification are also differentially expressed in both mutants, providing new targets for investigating PD development and function. Three biological replicates each of either ise1 or ise2 mutant seeds vs. sister wild-type controls
Project description:Maize and Arabidopsis thaliana class 1 reversibly glycosylated polypeptides (C1RGPs) are plasmodesmata-associated proteins. Previously, over-expression of Arabidopsis C1RGP AtRGP2 in Nicotiana tabacum was shown to reduce intercellular transport of photoassimilate, resulting in stunted, chlorotic plants, and inhibition of local cell-to-cell spread of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Here, we used virus induced gene silencing to examine the effects of reduced levels of C1RGPs in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silenced plants show wild-type growth and development. Intercellular transport in silenced plants was probed using fluorescently labeled TMV and its movement protein, P30. P30 shows increased cell-to-cell movement and TMV exhibited accelerated systemic spread compared to control plants. These results support the hypothesis that C1RGPs act to regulate intercellular transport via plasmodesmata.
Project description:It has been hypothesized that reduced axonal transport contributes to the degeneration of neuronal processes in Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondria supply the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed to support axonal transport and contribute to many other cellular functions essential for the survival of neuronal cells. Furthermore, mitochondria in PD tissues are metabolically and functionally compromised. To address this hypothesis, we measured the velocity of mitochondrial movement in human transmitochondrial cybrid "cytoplasmic hybrid" neuronal cells bearing mitochondrial DNA from patients with sporadic PD and disease-free age-matched volunteer controls (CNT). The absorption of low level, near-infrared laser light by components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC) enhances mitochondrial metabolism, stimulates oxidative phosphorylation and improves redox capacity. PD and CNT cybrid neuronal cells were exposed to near-infrared laser light to determine if the velocity of mitochondrial movement can be restored by low level light therapy (LLLT). Axonal transport of labeled mitochondria was documented by time lapse microscopy in dopaminergic PD and CNT cybrid neuronal cells before and after illumination with an 810 nm diode laser (50 mW/cm2) for 40 seconds. Oxygen utilization and assembly of mtETC complexes were also determined.The velocity of mitochondrial movement in PD cybrid neuronal cells (0.175 +/- 0.005 SEM) was significantly reduced (p < 0.02) compared to mitochondrial movement in disease free CNT cybrid neuronal cells (0.232 +/- 0.017 SEM). For two hours after LLLT, the average velocity of mitochondrial movement in PD cybrid neurites was significantly (p < 0.003) increased (to 0.224 +/- 0.02 SEM) and restored to levels comparable to CNT. Mitochondrial movement in CNT cybrid neurites was unaltered by LLLT (0.232 +/- 0.017 SEM). Assembly of complexes in the mtETC was reduced and oxygen utilization was altered in PD cybrid neuronal cells. PD cybrid neuronal cell lines with the most dysfunctional mtETC assembly and oxygen utilization profiles were least responsive to LLLT.The results from this study support our proposal that axonal transport is reduced in sporadic PD and that a single, brief treatment with near-infrared light can restore axonal transport to control levels. These results are the first demonstration that LLLT can increase axonal transport in model human dopaminergic neuronal cells and they suggest that LLLT could be developed as a novel treatment to improve neuronal function in patients with PD.
Project description:The movement protein VP37 of broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV 2) forms tubules in the plasmodesmata (PD) for the transport of virions between cells. This paper reports a mutual association between the BBWV 2 VP37-tubule complex and PD at the cytological level as determined by transmission electron microscopy. The generation of VP37-tubules within different PD leads to a different occurrence frequency as well as different morphology lines of virus-like particles. In addition, the frequency of VP37-tubules was different between PD found at different cellular interfaces, as well as between single-lined PD and branched PD. VP37-tubule generation also induced structural alterations of PD as well as modifications to the cell wall (CW) in the vicinity of the PD. A structural comparison using three-dimensional (3D) electron tomography (ET), determined that desmotubule structures found in the center of normal PD were absent in PD containing VP37-tubules. Using gold labeling, modification of the CW by callose deposition and cellulose reduction was observable on PD containing VP37-tubule. These cytological observations provide evidence of a mutual association of MP-derived tubules and PD in a natural host, improving our fundamental understanding of interactions between viral MP and PD that result in intercellular movement of virus particles.
Project description:Plant viruses use movement proteins (MPs) to modify intercellular pores called plasmodesmata (PD) to cross the plant cell wall. Many viruses encode a conserved set of three MPs, known as the triple gene block (TGB), typified by Potato virus X (PVX). In this paper, using live-cell imaging of viral RNA (vRNA) and virus-encoded proteins, we show that the TGB proteins have distinct functions during movement. TGB2 and TGB3 established endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranous caps at PD orifices. These caps harbored the PVX replicase and nonencapsidated vRNA and represented PD-anchored viral replication sites. TGB1 mediated insertion of the viral coat protein into PD, probably by its interaction with the 5' end of nascent virions, and was recruited to PD by the TGB2/3 complex. We propose a new model of plant virus movement, which we term coreplicational insertion, in which MPs function to compartmentalize replication complexes at PD for localized RNA synthesis and directional trafficking of the virus between cells.
Project description:We use Arabidopsis thaliana embryogenesis as a model system for studying intercellular transport via plasmodesmata (PD). A forward genetic screen for altered PD transport identified ise1 and ise2 mutants with increased intercellular transport of fluorescent 10-kDa tracers. Both ise1 and ise2 exhibit increased formation of twinned and branched PD. ISE1 encodes a mitochondrial DEAD-box RNA helicase, while ISE2 encodes a DEVH-type RNA helicase. Here we show that ISE2 foci are localized to the chloroplast stroma. Surprisingly, plastid development is defective in both ise1 and ise2 mutant embryos. In an effort to understand how RNA helicases that localize to different organelles have similar impacts on plastid and PD development/function we performed whole genome expression analyses. The most significantly affected class of transcripts in both mutants encodes products that target to and enable plastid function. These results reinforce the importance of plastid-mitochondria-nucleus crosstalk, add PD as a critical player in the plant cell communication network, and thereby illuminate a new signaling pathway, dubbed organelle-nucleus-plasmodesmata signaling (ONPS). Several genes with roles in cell wall synthesis and modification are also differentially expressed in both mutants, providing new targets for investigating PD development and function. Overall design: Three biological replicates each of either ise1 or ise2 mutant seeds vs. sister wild-type controls
Project description:Cell-to-cell transport of molecules in plants must be properly regulated for plant growth and development. One specialized mechanism that plants have evolved involves transport through plasmodesmata (PD), but when and how transport of molecules via PD is regulated among individual cells remains largely unknown, particularly at the single-cell level. Here, we developed a tool for quantitatively analyzing cell-to-cell transport via PD at a single-cell level using protonemata of Physcomitrella patens and a photoconvertible fluorescent protein, Dendra2. In the filamentous protonemal tissues, one-dimensional intercellular communication can be observed easily. Using this system, we found that Dendra2 was directionally transported toward the apex of the growing protonemata. However, this directional transport could be eliminated by incubation in the dark or treatment with a metabolic inhibitor. Thus, we propose that directional transport of macromolecules can occur via PD in moss protonemata, and may be affected by the photosynthetic and metabolic activity of cells.