A spectroscopic investigation of a tridentate Cu-complex mimicking the tyrosine-histidine cross-link of cytochrome C oxidase.
ABSTRACT: Heme-copper oxidases have a crucial role in the energy transduction mechanism, catalyzing the reduction of dioxygen to water. The reduction of dioxygen takes place at the binuclear center, which contains heme a3 and CuB. The X-ray crystal structures have revealed that the C6' of tyrosine 244 (bovine heart numbering) is cross-linked to a nitrogen of histidine 240, a ligand to CuB. The role of the cross-linked tyrosine at the active site still remains unclear. In order to provide insight into the function of the cross-linked tyrosine, we have investigated the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of chemical analogues of the CuB-His-Tyr site. The analogues, a tridentate histidine-phenol cross-linked ether ligand and the corresponding Cu-containing complex, were previously synthesized in our laboratory (White, K.; et al. Chem. Commun. 2007, 3252-3254). Spectrophotometric titrations of the ligand and the Cu-complex indicate a pKa of the phenolic proton of 8.8 and 7.7, respectively. These results are consistent with the cross-linked tyrosine playing a proton delivery role at the cytochrome c oxidase active site. The presence of the phenoxyl radical was investigated at low temperature using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) difference spectroscopy. UV photolysis of the ligand, without bound copper, generated a narrow g=2.0047 signal, attributed to the phenoxyl radial. EPR spectra recorded before and after UV photolysis of the Cu-complex showed a g=2 signal characteristic of oxidized copper, suggesting that the copper is not spin-coupled to the phenoxyl radical. An EPR signal from the phenoxyl radical was not observed in the Cu-complex, either due to spin relaxation of the two unpaired electrons or to masking of the narrow phenoxyl radical signal by the strong copper contribution. Stable isotope (13C) labeling of the phenol ring (C1') Cu-complex, combined with photoinduced difference FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed bands at 1485 and 1483 cm(-1) in the 12C-minus-13C-isotope-edited spectra of the ligand and Cu-complex, respectively. These bands are attributed to the radical v7a stretching frequency and are shifted to 1468 and 1472 cm(-1), respectively, with 13C1' labeling. These results show that a radical is generated in both the ligand and the Cu-complex and support the unambiguous assignment of a vibrational band to the phenoxyl radical v7a stretching mode. These data are discussed with respect to a possible role of the cross-linked tyrosine radical in cytochrome c oxidase.
Project description:A calixarene ligand, in which two of the phenol functions are replaced by pyrazole units has been employed to mimic the His2 -Tyr2 (His: histidine, Tyr: tyrosine) ligand sphere within the active site of the galactose oxidase (GO). The calixarene backbone forces the corresponding copper(II) complex into a see-saw-type structure, which is hitherto unprecedented in GO modelling chemistry. It undergoes a one-electron oxidation that is centered at the phenolate donor leading to a copper-coordinated phenoxyl radical like in the GO. Accordingly, the complex was tested as a functional model and indeed proved capable of oxidizing benzyl alcohol to the respective aldehyde using two phenoxyl-radical equivalents as oxidants. Finally, the results show that the calixarene platform can be utilized to arrange donor functions to biomimetic binding pockets that allow for the creation of novel types of model compounds.
Project description:The copper complex [Cu((t)BuPhimp)(Cl)] (1) derived from tridentate ligand (t)BuPhimpH having N(2)O donors was synthesized, and its molecular structure was determined. A phenoxyl radical complex was generated in solution at room temperature using Ce(IV). The nuclease and anticancer activities of 1 were investigated. The roles of the tert-butyl group and singlet oxygen in the DNA cleavage activity were also discussed.
Project description:Integrating sulfanyl substituents into copper-bonded phenoxyls significantly alters their optical and redox properties and provides insight into the influence of cysteine modification of the tyrosine cofactor in the enzyme galactose oxidase. The model complexes [1(SR2)](+) are class II mixed-valent Cu(II)-phenoxyl-phenolate species that exhibit intervalence charge transfer bands and intense visible sulfur-aryl ? ? ?* transitions in the energy range, which provides a greater spectroscopic fidelity to oxidized galactose oxidase than non-sulfur-bearing analogs. The potentials for phenolate-based oxidations of the sulfanyl-substituted 1(SR2) are lower than the alkyl-substituted analogs by up to ca. 150 mV and decrease following the steric trend: -S(t)Bu > -S(i) Pr > -SMe. Density functional theory calculations suggest that reducing the steric demands of the sulfanyl substituent accommodates an in-plane conformation of the alkylsulfanyl group with the aromatic ring, which stabilizes the phenoxyl hole by ca. 8 kcal mol(-1) (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ; 350 mV) through delocalization onto the sulfur atom. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly indicates a contribution of ca. 8-13% to the hole from the sulfur atoms in [1(SR2)](+). The electrochemical results for the model complexes corroborate the ca. 350 mV (density functional theory) contribution of hole delocalization on to the cysteine-tyrosine cross-link to the stability of the phenoxyl radical in the enzyme, while highlighting the importance of the in-plane conformation observed in all crystal structures of the enzyme.
Project description:The nature of the ligand is an important aspect of controlling the structure and reactivity in coordination chemistry. In connection with our study of heme-copper-oxygen reactivity relevant to cytochrome c oxidase dioxygen-reduction chemistry, we compare the molecular and electronic structures of two high-spin heme-peroxo-copper [Fe(III)O(2)(2-)Cu(II)](+) complexes containing N(4) tetradentate (1) or N(3) tridentate (2) copper ligands. Combining previously reported and new resonance Raman and EXAFS data coupled to density functional theory calculations, we report a geometric structure and more complete electronic description of the high-spin heme-peroxo-copper complexes 1 and 2, which establish mu-(O(2)(2-)) side-on to the Fe(III) and end-on to Cu(II) (mu-eta(2):eta(1)) binding for the complex 1 but side-on/side-on (mu-eta(2):eta(2)) mu-peroxo coordination for the complex 2. We also compare and summarize the differences and similarities of these two complexes in their reactivity toward CO, PPh(3), acid, and phenols. The comparison of a new X-ray structure of mu-oxo complex 2a with the previously reported 1a X-ray structure, two thermal decomposition products respectively of 2 and 1, reveals a considerable difference in the Fe-O-Cu angle between the two mu-oxo complexes ( angleFe-O-Cu = 178.2 degrees in 1a and angleFe-O-Cu = 149.5 degrees in 2a). The reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of an exogenous nitrogen-donor axial base leads to the formation of a distinctive low-temperature-stable, low-spin heme-dioxygen-copper complex (2b), but under the same conditions, the addition of an axial base to 1 leads to the dissociation of the heme-peroxo-copper assembly and the release of O(2). 2b reacts with phenols performing H-atom (e(-) + H(+)) abstraction resulting in O-O bond cleavage and the formation of high-valent ferryl [Fe(IV)=O] complex (2c). The nature of 2c was confirmed by a comparison of its spectroscopic features and reactivity with those of an independently prepared ferryl complex. The phenoxyl radical generated by the H-atom abstraction was either (1) directly detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using phenols that produce stable radicals or (2) indirectly detected by the coupling product of two phenoxyl radicals.
Project description:Template condensation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde S-methylisothiosemicarbazone with pentane-2,4-dione and triethyl orthoformate at elevated temperatures resulted in metal complexes of the type M(II)L, where M = Ni and Cu and H(2)L = a novel tetradentate ligand. These complexes are relevant to the active site of the copper enzymes galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase. Demetalation of Ni(II)L with gaseous hydrogen chloride in chloroform afforded the metal-free ligand H(2)L. Then by the reaction of H(2)L with Zn(CH(3)COO)(2)·2H(2)O in a 1:1 molar ratio in 1:2 chloroform/methanol, the complex Zn(II)L(CH(3)OH) was prepared. The three metal complexes and the prepared ligand were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis, and NMR spectroscopy), X-ray crystallography, and DFT calculations. Electrochemically generated one-electron oxidized metal complexes [NiL](+), [CuL](+), and [ZnL(CH(3)OH)](+) and the metal-free ligand cation radical [H(2)L](+•) were studied by EPR/UV-vis-NIR and DFT calculations. These studies demonstrated the interaction between the metal ion and the phenoxyl radical.
Project description:The tetradentate mixed imino/amino phenoxide ligand (N-(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl))-trans-1,2-cyclohexanediamine (salalen) was complexed with CuII, and the resulting Cu complex (2) was characterized by a number of experimental techniques and theoretical calculations. Two quasi-reversible redox processes for 2, as observed by cyclic voltammetry, demonstrated the potential stability of oxidized forms, and also the increased electron-donating ability of the salalen ligand in comparison to the salen analogue. The electronic structure of the one-electron oxidized + was then studied in detail, and Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements confirmed a CuII-phenoxyl radical complex in solution. Subsequent resonance Raman (rR) and variable temperature 1H NMR studies, coupled with theoretical calculations, showed that [2• ]+ is a triplet (S = 1) CuII-phenoxyl radical species, with localization of the radical on the more electron-rich aminophenoxide. Attempted isolation of X-ray quality crystals of [2• ]+ afforded [2H]+, with a protonated phenol bonded to CuII, and an additional H-bonding interaction with the SbF6 - counterion. Stoichiometric reaction of dilute solutions of [2• ]+ with benzyl alcohol showed that the complex reacted in a similar manner as the oxidized CuII-salen analogue, and does not exhibit a substrate-binding pre-equilibrium as observed for the oxidized bisaminophenoxide CuII-salan derivative.
Project description:Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a well-studied, robust, mononuclear Zn-containing metalloprotein that serves as an excellent biological ligand system to study the thermodynamics associated with metal ion coordination chemistry in aqueous solution. The apo form of human carbonic anhydrase II (CA) binds 2 equiv of copper(II) with high affinity. The Cu(2+) ions bind independently forming two noncoupled type II copper centers in CA (CuA and CuB). However, the location and coordination mode of the CuA site in solution is unclear, compared to the CuB site that has been well-characterized. Using paramagnetic NMR techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we identified an N-terminal Cu(2+) binding location and collected information on the coordination mode of the CuA site in CA, which is consistent with a four- to five-coordinate N-terminal Cu(2+) binding site reminiscent to a number of N-terminal copper(II) binding sites including the copper(II)-amino terminal Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and copper(II)-?-amyloid complexes. Additionally, we report a more detailed analysis of the thermodynamics associated with copper(II) binding to CA. Although we are still unable to fully deconvolute Cu(2+) binding data to the high-affinity CuA site, we derived pH- and buffer-independent values for the thermodynamics parameters K and ?H associated with Cu(2+) binding to the CuB site of CA to be 2 × 10(9) and -17.4 kcal/mol, respectively.
Project description:Highly selective radical/radical cross-coupling is paid more attention in bond formations. However, due to their intrinsic active properties, radical species are apt to achieve homo-coupling instead of cross-coupling, which makes the selective cross-coupling as a great challenge and almost untouched. Herein a notable strategy to accomplish direct radical/radical oxidative cross-coupling has been demonstrated, that is metal tuning a transient radical to a persistent radical intermediate followed by coupling with another transient radical. Here, a transient nitrogen-centered radical is tuned to a persistent radical complex by copper catalyst, followed by coupling with a transient allylic carbon-centered radical. Firstly, nitrogen-centered radical generated from N-methoxybenzamide stabilized by copper catalyst was successfully observed by EPR. Then DFT calculations revealed that a triplet diradical Cu(II) complex formed from the chelation N-methoxybenzamide nitrogen-centered radical to Cu(II) is a persistent radical species. Moreover, conceivable nitrogen-centered radical Cu(II) complex was observed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Ultimately, various allylic amides derivatives were obtained in good yields by adopting this strategy, which might inspire a novel and promising landscape in radical chemistry.
Project description:The heme-copper oxidases constitute a superfamily of terminal dioxygen-reducing enzymes located in the inner mitochondrial or in the bacterial cell membrane. The presence of a mechanistically important covalent bond between a histidine ligand of the copper ion (Cu(B)) in the active site and a generally conserved tyrosine residue nearby has been shown to exist in the canonical cytochrome c oxidases. However, according to sequence alignment studies, this critical tyrosine is missing from the subfamily of cbb(3)-type oxidases found in certain bacteria. Recently, homology modeling has suggested that a tyrosine residue located in a different helix might fulfill this role in these enzymes. Here, we show directly by methods of protein chemistry and mass spectrometry that there is indeed a covalent link between this tyrosine and the copper-ligating histidine. The identity of the cross-linked tyrosine was determined by showing that the cross-link is not formed when this residue is replaced by phenylalanine, even though structural integrity is maintained. These results suggest a universal functional importance of the histidine-tyrosine cross-link in the mechanism of O(2) reduction by all heme-copper oxidases.
Project description:The binding of four anionic ligands, cyanide, fluoride, azide and formate, to cytochrome bo purified from Escherichia coli cells grown with a copper supplement (+Cu cyt.bo) is described. Membrane-bound cytochrome bo that lacks the copper component, CuB, of its active site can be prepared from cells grown under conditions where the availability of copper is limited by the presence of a CuI chelator, 2,2'-bicinchinonic acid. The ligand-binding properties of this copper-less enzyme (-Cu cyt.bo) are compared with those of +Cu cyt. bo. As judged from near-UV/visible spectroscopic changes, cyanide forms a low-spin complex with +Cu cyt.bo, whereas azide, fluoride and formate form high-spin complexes. The pH-dependences of binding suggest that for all four of these anionic ligands, both the rates of binding and the binding affinities are primarily dependent on the concentration of their protonated forms. -Cu cyt.bo, which shows less than 15% of the duroquinol oxidase activity of +Cu cyt.bo, binds cyanide, azide and fluoride, but with greatly decreased affinity (<1/30, 1/2000 and 1/2500 respectively at pH5.5 compared with +Cu cyt.bo). The complex of azide with -Cu cyt.bo still seems to be high-spin and azide binding to -Cu cyt.bo is still pH-dependent, although less so than azide binding to +Cu cyt.bo.