Regulatory mutations in Sin recombinase support a structure-based model of the synaptosome.
ABSTRACT: The resolvase Sin regulates DNA strand exchange by assembling an elaborate interwound synaptosome containing catalytic and regulatory Sin tetramers, and an architectural DNA-bending protein. The crystal structure of the regulatory tetramer was recently solved, providing new insights into the structural basis for regulation. Here we describe the selection and characterization of two classes of Sin mutations that, respectively, bypass or disrupt the functions of the regulatory tetramer. Activating mutations, which allow the catalytic tetramer to assemble and function independently at site I (the crossover site), were found at approximately 20% of residues in the N-terminal domain. The most strongly activating mutation (Q115R) stabilized a catalytically active synaptic tetramer in vitro. The positions of these mutations suggest that they act by destabilizing the conformation of the ground-state site I-bound dimers, or by stabilizing the altered conformation of the active catalytic tetramer. Mutations that block activation by the regulatory tetramer mapped to just two residues, F52 and R54, supporting a functional role for a previously reported crystallographic dimer-dimer interface. We suggest how F52/R54 contacts between regulatory and catalytic subunits might promote assembly of the active catalytic tetramer within the synaptosome.
Project description:An essential feature of many site-specific recombination systems is their ability to regulate the direction and topology of recombination. Resolvases from the serine recombinase family assemble an interwound synaptic complex that harnesses negative supercoiling to drive the forward reaction and promote recombination between properly oriented sites. To better understand the interplay of catalytic and regulatory functions within these synaptic complexes, we have solved the structure of the regulatory site synapse in the Sin resolvase system. It reveals an unexpected synaptic interface between helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domains that is also highlighted in a screen for synapsis mutants. The tetramer defined by this interface provides the foundation for a robust model of the synaptic complex, assembled entirely from available crystal structures, that gives insight into how the catalytic activity of Sin and other serine recombinases may be regulated.
Project description:Sin resolvase is a site-specific serine recombinase that is normally controlled by a complex regulatory mechanism. A single mutation, Q115R, allows the enzyme to bypass the entire regulatory apparatus, such that no accessory proteins or DNA sites are required. Here, we present a 1.86 Å crystal structure of the Sin Q115R catalytic domain, in a tetrameric arrangement stabilized by an interaction between Arg115 residues on neighboring subunits. The subunits have undergone significant conformational changes from the inactive dimeric state previously reported. The structure provides a new high-resolution view of a serine recombinase active site that is apparently fully assembled, suggesting roles for the conserved active site residues. The structure also suggests how the dimer-tetramer transition is coupled to assembly of the active site. The tetramer is captured in a different rotational substate than that seen in previous hyperactive serine recombinase structures, and unbroken crossover site DNA can be readily modeled into its active sites.
Project description:Previous studies have identified sin mutations that alleviate the requirement for the yeast SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which include point changes in the yeast genes encoding core histones. Here we characterise the biochemical properties of nucleosomes bearing these mutations. We find that sin mutant nucleosomes have a high inherent thermal mobility. As the SWI/SNF complex can alter nucleosome positioning, the higher mobility of sin mutant nucleosomes provides a means by which sin mutations may substitute for SWI/SNF function. The location of sin mutations also provides a new opportunity for insights into the mechanism for nucleosome mobilisation. We find that both mutations altering histone DNA contacts at the nucleosome dyad and mutations in the dimer-tetramer interface influence nucleosome mobility. Furthermore, incorporation of H2A.Z into nucleosomes, which also alters dimer-tetramer interactions, affects nucleosome mobility. Thus, variation of histone sequence or subtype provides a means by which eukaryotes may regulate access to chromatin through alterations to nucleosome mobility.
Project description:The ionophore valinomycin inhibited adult and neonatal synaptosome fraction protein synthesis with half-maximal inhibition at approximately 10nM. Valinomycin had no effect on [3H]leucine uptake into synaptosomes at high or low external [K+]. Synaptosome-fraction protein synthesis was dependent on [K+]e reaching a maximum at 25mM-K+. Valinomycin inhibition of protein synthesis was not reversed at high [K+]e. Valinomycin failed to influence the intrasynaptosomal [K+] even at zero [K+]e. A significant increase in State-4 respiration of synaptosomal fractions was found at 5nM-valinomycin with a decrease in the respiratory control index. At these concentrations of valinomycin there was no inhibition of the ADP-stimulated (State 3) respiration rate. Valinomycin had no effect on cerebral microsomal protein synthesis in vitro, which was inhibited by puromycin (100 micrograms/ml) or the absence of ATP. Valinomycin, 2,4-dinitrophenol and KCN inhibition of protein synthesis was not reversed by added ATP, suggesting impermeability of the membrane to ATP. Valinomycin induced a rapid fall in synaptosome ATP content not observed with atractylate or ouabain. Valinomycin inhibition of protein synthesis under these conditions is secondary to uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with a subsequent decrease in intraterminal ATP necessary for translation.
Project description:The gene DTNBP1 encodes the protein dysbindin and is among the most promising and highly investigated schizophrenia-risk genes. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbindin plays an important role in the regulation of neuroplasticity. Dysbindin was reported to be a stable component of BLOC-1 complex in the cytosol. However, little is known about the endogenous dysbindin-containing complex in the brain synaptosome. In this study, we investigated the associated proteome of dysbindin in the P2 synaptosome fraction of mouse brain. Our data suggest that dysbindin has three isoforms associating with different complexes in the P2 fraction of mouse brain. To facilitate immunopurification, BAC transgenic mice expressing a tagged dysbindin were generated, and 47 putative dysbindin-associated proteins, including all components of BLOC-1, were identified by mass spectrometry in the dysbindin-containing complex purified from P2. The interactions of several selected candidates, including WDR11, FAM91A1, snapin, muted, pallidin, and two proteasome subunits, PSMD9 and PSMA4, were verified by coimmunoprecipitation. The specific proteasomal activity is significantly reduced in the P2 fraction of the brains of the dysbindin-null mutant (sandy) mice. Our data suggest that dysbindin is functionally interrelated to the ubiquitin-proteasome system and offer a molecular repertoire for future study of dysbindin functional networks in brain.
Project description:1. Choline acetyltransferase may be isolated in either a bound or soluble form after hypo-osmotic treatment of a crude synaptosome fraction, depending on the conditions. 2. In the bound form, the enzyme appears to be associated with the larger membrane fragments rather than with synaptic vesicles. 3. The bound form is predominant at slightly acid pH values and low ionic strength, the soluble form under more physiological conditions of pH and ionic strength. 4. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride at similar ionic strengths solubilize the enzyme. 5. Choline acetyltransferase was found to be soluble under these conditions after release from synaptosomes from rat and pigeon cerebra, guinea-pig cortex and rabbit cortex, caudate nuclei, diencephalon and midbrain. 6. Certain isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase behaved similarly.
Project description:Protein copy numbers can be measured by biochemical methods ranging from quantitative Western Blotting to several mass spectrometry approaches. Such methods only provide average copy numbers, obtained over large cell numbers. However, copy number estimates for single cells or single organelles could be obtained by combining biochemical characterizations with an imaging approach. We performed this here for synaptic proteins, in a protocol that we termed comparative synaptosome imaging for semi-quantitative copy numbers (CosiQuant). In brief, in CosiQuant we immunostain in parallel biochemically-characterized synaptosomes, for which we have already determined the average protein copy numbers, and the samples of interest (such as neuronal cultures). We then derive the copy numbers in the samples of interest by comparing the immunofluorescence intensities. We measured the intensities not only in arbitrary fluorescence units, but also as numbers of antibodies per synaptosome, for a large number of targets. This implies that other groups can immediately apply CosiQuant for these targets, by simply estimating the number of antibodies per structure of interest. CosiQuant should therefore be a useful addition to the growing set of imaging techniques for synaptic neuroscience.
Project description:Serine recombinases promote specific DNA rearrangements by a cut-and-paste mechanism that involves cleavage of all four DNA strands at two sites recognized by the enzyme. Dissecting the order and timing of these cleavage events and the steps leading up to them is difficult because the cleavage reaction is readily reversible. Here, we describe assays using activated Sin mutants and a DNA substrate with a 3'-bridging phosphorothiolate modification that renders Sin-mediated DNA cleavage irreversible. We find that activating Sin mutations promote DNA cleavage rather than simply stabilize the cleavage product. Cleavage events at the scissile phosphates on complementary strands of the duplex are tightly coupled, and the overall DNA cleavage rate is strongly dependent on Sin concentration. When combined with analytical ultracentrifugation data, these results suggest that Sin catalytic activity and oligomerization state are tightly linked, and that activating mutations promote formation of a cleavage-competent oligomeric state that is normally formed only transiently within the full synaptic complex.
Project description:Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) constitutes a key event in the upregulation of secretory strength in neurons and neurosecretory cells during extensive stimulation, presumably by speeding up vesicle supply. However, the molecular targets and their mode of action remain elusive. We studied the only PKC-dependent phosphorylation site in the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex, Ser(187), in synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). This phosphorylation site is located within the negatively charged C-terminal end of SNAP-25, which has been shown to be of critical importance in calcium-triggered exocytosis. We combined mutational studies that used overexpression in chromaffin cells with capacitance measurements and flash photolysis of caged calcium, allowing for high time resolution during both the stimulation and measurement of exocytosis. Overexpression of mutants simulating the phosphorylated form of Ser(187) accelerated vesicle recruitment after the emptying of the releasable vesicle pools. Overexpression of mutants simulating the nonphosphorylated form, or block of PKC, impaired the refilling of the vesicle pools to similar extents. Biochemical studies verified the phosphorylation of a subpopulation of SNAP-25 after elevation of intracellular calcium concentrations. Some of the mutations led to a moderately decreased fast exocytotic burst component, which did not seem to be associated with the phosphorylation state of SNAP-25. Thus the C terminus of SNAP-25 plays a role for both fast exocytosis triggering and vesicle recruitment, and the latter process is regulated by PKC-dependent phosphorylation.
Project description:The evoked effects of the negatively charged drugs phenobarbital and barbituric acid, the positively charged imipramine, perphenazine and trifluoperazine, and the neutral primidone, on the synaptosome-associated acetylcholinesterase activity were studied. A marked increase in the enzyme activity was exhibited in the presence of low concentrations (up to 3 mM) of phenobarbital, barbituric acid and primidone. Higher concentrations (up to 10 mM), however, led to a progressive inhibition of the enzyme activity. However, the activity of the enzyme was not affected by imipramine, but it was decreased by perphenazine and trifluoperazine. Arrhenius plots of acetylcholinesterase activity exhibited a break point at 23.4 degrees C for the untreated (control) synaptosomes, which was shifted to around 16 degrees C in the synaptosomes treated with the charged drugs. The allosteric inhibition by F- of acetylcholinesterase was studied in control synaptosomes and in those treated with the charged drugs. Changes in the Hill coefficients in combination with changes in Arrhenius activation energy produced by the charged drugs would be expected if it is assumed that charged drugs 'fluidize' the synaptosomal plasma membranes.