Novel broad-spectrum bis-(imidazolinylindole) derivatives with potent antibacterial activities against antibiotic-resistant strains.
ABSTRACT: Given the limited number of structural classes of clinically available antimicrobial drugs, the discovery of antibacterials with novel chemical scaffolds is an important strategy in the development of effective therapeutics for both naturally occurring and engineered resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, several diarylamidine derivatives were evaluated for their ability to protect macrophages from cell death following infection with Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. Four bis-(imidazolinylindole) compounds were identified with potent antibacterial activity as measured by the protection of macrophages and by the inhibition of bacterial growth in vitro. These compounds were effective against a broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species, including several antibiotic-resistant strains. Minor structural variations among the four compounds correlated with differences in their effects on bacterial macromolecular synthesis and mechanisms of resistance. In vivo studies revealed protection by two of the compounds of mice lethally infected with B. anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, or Yersinia pestis. Taken together, these results indicate that the bis-(imidazolinylindole) compounds represent a new chemotype for the development of therapeutics for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species as well as against antibiotic-resistant infections.
Project description:New antibiotics that are active against multi-drug-resistant strains and difficult-to-treat bacterial infections are needed. Synthetic modification of spectinomycin, a bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor, has been shown to increase antibacterial activity compared with spectinomycin. Aminomethyl spectinomycins are active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. In this study, the ability of aminomethyl spectinomycins to treat biothreat pathogens is examined by MIC profiling, synergy testing, and in vivo efficacy experiments. Compound 1950 exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative pathogens Brucella spp., Burkholderia mallei, and Francisella tularensis, but showed little to no growth inhibition against Burkholderia pseudomallei, Bacillus anthracis, and Yersinia pestis. Combination testing in checkerboard assays revealed that aminomethyl spectinomycin-antibiotic combinations had mainly an additive effect against the susceptible biodefense pathogens. The in vivo efficacy of compound 1950 was also demonstrated in mice infected with B. mallei (FMH) or F. tularensis (SchuS4). These results suggest that aminomethyl spectinomycins are promising new candidates for development of therapeutics against biodefense bacterial agents.
Project description:Nitric oxide generated by bacterial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) increases the susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis to oxidative stress, including antibiotic-induced oxidative stress. Not surprisingly, NOS inhibitors also improve the effectiveness of antimicrobials. Development of potent and selective bacterial NOS inhibitors is complicated by the high active site sequence and structural conservation shared with the mammalian NOS isoforms. To exploit bacterial NOS for the development of new therapeutics, recognition of alternative NOS surfaces and pharmacophores suitable for drug binding is required. Here, we report on a wide number of inhibitor-bound bacterial NOS crystal structures to identify several compounds that interact with surfaces unique to the bacterial NOS. Although binding studies indicate that these inhibitors weakly interact with the NOS active site, many of the inhibitors reported here provide a revised structural framework for the development of new antimicrobials that target bacterial NOS. In addition, mutagenesis studies reveal several key residues that unlock access to bacterial NOS surfaces that could provide the selectivity required to develop potent bacterial NOS inhibitors.
Project description:The current epidemic of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria requires the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new therapeutics. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall polymer of gram-positive bacteria, consists of 1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid. LTA synthase (LtaS) polymerizes polyglycerol-phosphate from phosphatidylglycerol, a reaction that is essential for the growth of gram-positive bacteria. We screened small molecule libraries for compounds inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus but not of gram-negative bacteria. Compound 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] blocked phosphatidylglycerol binding to LtaS and inhibited LTA synthesis in S. aureus and in Escherichia coli expressing ltaS. Compound 1771 inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria and prolonged the survival of mice with lethal S. aureus challenge, validating LtaS as a target for the development of antibiotics.
Project description:The increasing threat of drug-resistant bacteria establishes a continuing need for the development of new strategies to fight infection. We examine the inhibition of the essential single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) SSBA and SSBB as a potential antimicrobial therapy due to their importance in DNA replication, activating the SOS response and promoting competence-based mechanisms of resistance by incorporating new DNA.Purified recombinant SSBs from Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Francisella tularensis) bacteria were assessed in a high-throughput screen for inhibition of duplex DNA unwinding by small molecule inhibitors. Secondary electrophoretic mobility shift assays further validated the top hits that were then tested for MICs using in vitro assays.We have identified compounds that show cross-reactivity in vitro, as well as inhibition of both F. tularensis and B. anthracis SSBA. Five compounds were moderately toxic to at least two of the four bacterial strains in vivo, including two compounds that were selectively non-toxic to human cells, 9-hydroxyphenylfluoron and purpurogallin. Three of the SSBA inhibitors also inhibited S. aureus SSBB in Gram-positive bacteria.Results from our study support the potential for SSB inhibitors as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, with dual targeting capabilities against Gram-positive bacteria.
Project description:Synthetic 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-amines have been shown in previous studies to possess several biological activities, such as antifungal and antiprotozoal. In the present study, we describe the antibacterial activity of new synthetic 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-amines against Gram-positive pathogens (Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus) including Methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. Our compounds showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 2.5-10 ?g/ml (5.99-28.58 ?M), against different bacterial strains. The minimal bactericidal concentrations found were similar to MIC, suggesting a bactericidal mechanism of action of these compounds. Furthermore, possible molecular targets were suggested by chemical similarity search followed by docking approaches. Our compounds are similar to known ligands targeting the cell division protein FtsZ, Quinolone resistance protein norA and the Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase FabI. Taken together, our data show that synthetic 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-amines are active against Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains and can be a promising lead in the development of new antibacterial compounds for the treatment of these infections.
Project description:Bacterial infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibacterial drugs. Therefore, new bacterial targets and new antimicrobials are unmet medical needs. Rhodanine derivatives have been shown to possess potent antimicrobial activity via a novel mechanism. However, their potential use as antibacterials has not been fully examined. In this study, we determined the spectrum of activity of seven rhodanine derivatives (compounds Rh 1-7) against clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and Candida albicans. We also synthesized and tested three additional compounds, ethyl ester and amide of rhodanine 2 (Rh 8 and Rh 10, respectively) and ethyl ester of rhodanine 3 (Rh 9) to determine the significance of the carboxyl group modification towards antibacterial activity and human serum albumin binding. A broth microdilution assay confirmed Rh 1-7 exhibit bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens. Rh 2 had significant activity against various vancomycin-resistant (MIC90 = 4 ?M) and methicillin-resistant (MIC90 = 4 ?M) Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA and MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC = 4 ?M) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) strains (MIC90 = 8 ?M). The rhodanine compounds exhibited potent activity against Bacillus spp., including Bacillus anthracis, with MIC range of 2-8 ?M. In addition, they had potent activity against Clostridium difficile. The most potent compound, Rh 2, at 4 and 8 times its MIC, significantly decreased S. epidermidis biofilm mass by more than 35% and 45%, respectively. None of the rhodanine compounds showed antimicrobial activity (MIC > 128 ?M) against various 1) Gram-negative pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella Typhimurium) or 2) strains of Candida albicans (MIC > 64 ?M). The MTS assay confirmed that rhodanines were not toxic to mouse murine macrophage (J774.1A) up to 64 ?M, human keratinocytes (HaCat) up to 32 ?M, and human ileocecal colorectal cell (HRT-18) up to 128 ?M. Overall, these data suggest that certain rhodanine compounds may have potential use for the treatment of several multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections.
Project description:Polysaccharide deacetylases are bacterial enzymes that catalyze the deacetylation of acetylated sugars on the membranes of Gram-positive bacteria, allowing them to be unrecognized by host immune systems. Inhibition of these enzymes would disrupt such pathogenic defensive mechanisms and therefore offers a promising route for the development of novel antibiotic therapeutics. Here, the first X-ray crystal structure of BA0150, a putative polysaccharide deacetylase from Bacillus anthracis, is reported to 2.0 Å resolution. The overall structure maintains the conserved (?/?)8 fold that is characteristic of this family of enzymes. The lack of a catalytic metal ion and a distinctive metal-binding site, however, suggest that this enzyme is not a functional polysaccharide deacetylase.
Project description:Quinoline compounds have been extensively explored as anti-malaria and anti-cancer agents for decades and show profound functional bioactivities, however, the studies of these compounds in other medicinal fields have lagged dramatically. In this study, we report the development of a series of facilely accessible quinoline derivatives that display potent antibacterial activity against a panel of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial strains, especially C. difficile. We also demonstrated that these molecules are effective in vivo against C. difficile. These results revealed that these types of quinoline compounds could serve as prototypes for the development of an appealing class of antibiotic agents used to combat Gram-positive drug-resistant bacterial strains, including C. difficile.
Project description:Extracellular vesicle production is a ubiquitous process in Gram-negative bacteria, but little is known about such process in Gram-positive bacteria. We report the isolation of extracellular vesicles from the supernatants of Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive bacillus that is a powerful agent for biological warfare. B. anthracis vesicles formed at the outer layer of the bacterial cell had double-membrane spheres and ranged from 50 to 150 nm in diameter. Immunoelectron microscopy with mAbs to protective antigen, lethal factor, edema toxin, and anthrolysin revealed toxin components and anthrolysin in vesicles, with some vesicles containing more than one toxin component. Toxin-containing vesicles were also visualized inside B. anthracis-infected macrophages. ELISA and immunoblot analysis of vesicle preparations confirmed the presence of B. anthracis toxin components. A mAb to protective antigen protected macrophages against vesicles from an anthrolysin-deficient strain, but not against vesicles from Sterne 34F2 and Sterne ?T strains, consistent with the notion that vesicles delivered both toxin and anthrolysin to host cells. Vesicles were immunogenic in BALB/c mice, which produced a robust IgM response to toxin components. Furthermore, vesicle-immunized mice lived significantly longer than controls after B. anthracis challenge. Our results indicate that toxin secretion in B. anthracis is, at least, partially vesicle-associated, thus allowing concentrated delivery of toxin components to target host cells, a mechanism that may increase toxin potency. Our observations may have important implications for the design of vaccines, for passive antibody strategies, and provide a previously unexplored system for studying secretory pathways in Gram-positive bacteria.
Project description:Licensed to kill: A new antibiotic, anthracimycin (see scheme), produced by a marine-derived actinomycete in saline culture, shows significant activity toward Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax infections. Chlorination of anthracimycin gives a dichloro derivative that retains activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax, but also shows activity against selected Gram-negative bacteria.