Differences in gait patterns, pain, function and quality of life between males and females with knee osteoarthritis: a clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the gender differences in knee osteoarthritis (OA) by evaluating the differences in gait spatio-temporal parameters and the differences in pain, quality of life and function between males and females suffering from knee OA.49 males and 85 females suffering from bilateral medial compartment knee OA participated in this study. Each patient underwent a computerized gait test and completed the WOMAC questionnaire and the SF-36 health survey. Independent t-tests were performed to examine the differences between males and females in age, BMI, spatio-temporal parameters, the WOMAC questionnaire and the SF-36 health survey.Males and females had different gait patterns. Although males and females walked at the same walking speed, cadence and step length, they presented significant differences in the gait cycle phases. Males walked with a smaller stance and double limb support, and with a larger swing and single limb support compared to females. In addition, males walked with a greater toe out angle compared to females. While significant differences were not found in the WOMAC subscales, females consistently reported higher levels of pain and disability.The spatio-temporal differences between genders may suggest underlying differences in the gait strategies adopted by males and females in order to reduce pain and cope with the loads acting on their affected joints, two key aspects of knee OA. These gender effects should therefore be taken into consideration when evaluating patients with knee OA.The study is registered in the NIH clinical trial registration, protocol No. NCT00599729.
Project description:Viscosupplementation by hyaluronic acid (HA) is recommended for non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the efficacy and safety of a single i.a. (32 mg/4 ml) Hymovis MO.RE. injection, a new HA derivative hydrogel, for the treatment of adult regular sports players affected by knee OA arising from overuse injuries. Patients were prospectively enrolled if regularly practicing sports and diagnosed with Kellgren-Lawrence grade I-III OA. They received a single Hymovis MO.RE. intra-articular (i.a.) injection and were evaluated 30, 90, 180, and 360 days thereafter. The assessment involved measuring changes in knee function, pain, the activity of daily living (ADL), and quality of life (QOL) by using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), GAIT analysis, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores for knee pain (WOMAC A) and function (WOMAC C), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score. The study involved thirty-one patients, 23 women and eight men, whose median age was 49. KOOS function subscore, as well as GAIT cadence and velocity, showed a statistically significant increase at each time-point after injection (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). WOMAC, KOOS pain, symptoms, ADL, and QOL scores also significantly improved at all control visits. No severe adverse events or treatment-related events were detected. A single Hymovis MO.RE. (32 mg/4 ml) intra-articular injection provides a rapid, lasting, and safe response in regular sports players affected by knee OA, possibly representing a viable therapeutic option for this demanding patient subgroup. Further investigations are necessary to confirm these findings.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine if varus thrust, a bowing out of the knee during gait (i.e., the first appearance or worsening of varus alignment during stance), is associated with incident and progressive knee osteoarthritis (OA), we undertook an Osteoarthritis Initiative ancillary study. We further considered hypothesized associations adjusted for static alignment, anticipating some attenuation. METHODS:Gait was observed for the presence of thrust by 1 of 2-3 examiners per study site at 4 sites. In eligible knees, incident OA was defined as subsequent incident Kellgren/Lawrence grade ?2, whole- and partial-grade medial joint space narrowing (JSN), and annualized loss of joint space width (JSW); progression was defined as medial JSN and JSW loss. Outcome measures were assessed for up to 7 years of follow-up. Analyses were knee-level, using multivariable logistic and linear regression with generalized estimating equations to account for between-limb correlation. RESULTS:The incident OA sample included 4,187 knees (2,610 persons); the progression sample included 3,421 knees (2,284 persons). In knees with OA, thrust was associated with progression as assessed by each outcome measure, with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and pain on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale. In knees without OA, varus thrust was not associated with incident OA or other outcomes. After adjustment for alignment, the thrust-progression association was attenuated, but an independent association persisted for partial-grade JSN and JSW loss outcome models. WOMAC pain and alignment were consistently associated with all outcome measures. Within the stratum of varus knees, thrust was associated with an increased risk of progression. CONCLUSION:Varus thrust visualized during gait is associated with knee OA progression and should be a target of intervention development.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of a new foot-worn device on the gait, physical function and pain in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis (OA) who had a low-impact injury to the medial meniscus causing a degenerative meniscal tear.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective analysis of 34 patients with knee OA and a degenerative medial meniscal tear was performed. Patients underwent a gait evaluation, using an electronic walkway mat, and completed the SF-36 health survey and the WOMAC questionnaire at baseline and after 3 and 12 months of therapy. AposTherapy is a functional, biomechanical, non-invasive rehabilitation therapy consisting of a foot-worn device that is individually calibrated to each patient and is used during activities of daily living. Repeated-measures analyses were performed to compare gait parameters and self-evaluation questionnaires between baseline, and 3 and 12 months.<h4>Results</h4>Significant improvements were found in gait velocity, step length and single-limb support of the involved knee following 12 weeks of therapy (all p < 0.01), alongside an improvement in limb symmetry. These results were maintained at the 12-month follow-up examination. Significant improvements were also found in all three domains of the WOMAC index (pain, stiffness and physical function) and in the SF-36 Physical Health Scale and the SF-36 Mental Health Scale (all p < 0.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients with knee OA and a degenerative medial meniscal tear using a biomechanical foot-worn device for a year showed improvement in gait, physical function and pain. Based on the findings of this study, it can be postulated that this biomechanical device might have a positive effect on this population.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>Therapeutic study, Level IV.
Project description:Several biomechanics treatments for knee osteoarthritis (OA) have emerged with the goal of reducing pain and improving function. Through this, researchers have hoped to achieve a transition from the pathological gait patterns to coordinated motor responses. The purpose of the study was to determine the long-term effects of a therapy using a biomechanical device in patients with knee OA. Patients with knee OA were enrolled to active and control groups. The biomechanical device used in therapy (AposTherapy) was individually calibrated to each patient in the active group. Patients in the control group received standard treatment. Outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Aggregated Locomotor Function (ALF), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and Knee Society Score assessments. The active and control groups were similar at the baseline (group difference in all scores P > 0.05). The active group showed a larger improvement over time between groups in all three WOMAC categories (F = 16.8, 21.7, and 18.1 for pain, stiffness, and function; all P < 0.001), SF-36 Physical Scale (F = 5.8; P = 0.02), Knee Society Knee Score (F = 4.3; P = 0.044 ), and Knee Society Function Score (F = 6.5; P = 0.014 ). At the two-year endpoint, the active group showed significantly better results (all P ? 0.001). The groups showed a difference of 4.9, 5.6, and 4.7 for the WOMAC pain, stiffness, and function scores, respectively, 10.8 s in ALF score, 30.5 in SF-36 Physical Scale, 16.9 in SF-36 Mental Scale, 17.8 in Knee Society Knee Score, and 25.2 in Knee Society Function Score. The biomechanical therapy examined was shown to significantly reduce pain and improve function and quality of life of patients with knee OA over the long term.
Project description:Early-onset knee osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with gait asymmetries after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Women have higher risks of sustaining non-contact injuries, and are more likely to present with aberrant movement patterns associated with the mechanism of injury (MOI). We hypothesized that sex and MOI would influence gait after ACLR. Seventy participants, grouped by sex and MOI, completed biomechanical testing during over-ground walking when they had full knee range of motion, trace or less knee effusion, greater than 80% quadriceps strength limb symmetry index, ability to hop on each leg without pain, and initiated running. Bilateral knee kinetics, kinematics, and joint contact forces were compared using mixed-model analysis of variance (α = .05). There was a three-way interaction effect of sex × MOI × limb for peak medial compartment contact force (P = .002), our primary outcome measure previously associated with OA development. Men with non-contact injuries walked with asymmetry characterized by underloading of the involved limb. Men with contact injuries walked with the most symmetrical loading. In women, no clear pattern emerged based on MOI. Targeting, and possibly prioritizing interventions for athletes who present with gait asymmetries after ACLR based on sex and MOI, may be necessary to optimize outcomes. Statement of Clinical Significance: Sex and MOI may influence walking mechanics, and could be considered in future interventions to target gait symmetry, as a response to interventions may vary based on differences in sex and MOI.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To estimate the dynamic causal effects of depressive symptoms on osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain.<h4>Methods</h4>Marginal structural models were used to examine dynamic associations between depressive symptoms and pain over 48 months among older adults (n = 2,287) with radiographic knee OA (Kellgren/Lawrence grade 2 or 3) in the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Depressive symptoms at each annual visit were assessed (threshold ?16) using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. OA knee pain was measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale, rescaled to range from 0 to 100.<h4>Results</h4>Depressive symptoms at each visit were generally not associated with greater OA knee pain at subsequent time points. Causal mean differences in WOMAC pain score comparing depressed to nondepressed patients ranged from 1.78 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.73, 4.30) to 2.58 (95% CI 0.23, 4.93) within the first and fourth years, and the depressive symptoms by time interaction were not statistically significant (P = 0.94). However, there was a statistically significant dose-response relationship between the persistence of depressive symptoms and OA knee pain severity (P = 0.002). Causal mean differences in WOMAC pain score comparing depressed to nondepressed patients were 0.89 (95% CI -0.17, 1.96) for 1 visit with depressive symptoms, 2.35 (95% CI 0.64, 4.06) for 2 visits with depressive symptoms, and 3.57 (95% CI 0.43, 6.71) for 3 visits with depressive symptoms.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The causal effect of depressive symptoms on OA knee pain does not change over time, but pain severity significantly increases with the persistence of depressed mood.
Project description:Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) take a variety of health supplements in an attempt to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in treating patients with knee OA.This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Forty nine men and women 45-90 (mean 68 ± SD 7.3) years of age with knee OA according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria for OA of the knee and with radiographic confirmed knee OA were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into 2 groups: One received MSM in doses of 1.125 grams 3 times daily for 12 weeks and the other received a placebo in the same dosing frequency. The primary outcomes were the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index for pain, stiffness and physical function, the Aggregated Locomotor Function (ALF) test that evaluates each patient's physical function, the SF-36 quality of life health survey and the visual-analogue-scale (VAS) for pain. The secondary outcomes were Knee Society Clinical Rating System for Knee Score (KSKS) and Function Score (KSFS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. All continuous variables were tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for Normal distribution. Changes within the groups and differences between the groups were calculated by repeated measures of analysis (ANOVA) with one nested variable.There were significant differences between treatment groups over time in WOMAC physical function (14.6 mm [CI: 4.3, 25.0]; p = 0.04) and in WOMAC total score (15.0 mm [CI: 5.1, 24.9]; p = 0.03). Treatment groups did not differ significantly in WOMAC pain (12.4 mm [CI: 0.0, 24.8]); p = 0.08) or WOMAC stiffness (27.2 mm [CI: 8.2, 46.2]; p = 0.08). There was a non-significant difference in SF-36 total score between treatment groups (11.6 [CI: 1.0, 22.1]; p = 0.54). A significant difference was found between groups in VAS for pain (0.7 s [CI: -0.9, 2.4]; p = 0.05). Secondary outcomes showed non-significant differences between the two groups.Patients with OA of the knee taking MSM for 12 weeks showed an improvement in pain and physical function. These improvements, however, are small and it is yet to be determined if they are of clinical significance.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01188213.
Project description:Physical activity decreases the risk of osteoarthritis (OA)-related disability; however, pain and lack of confidence represent barriers for older adults with knee OA. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the baseline associations among self-efficacy and physical activity, function, and pain; (b) longitudinal changes in self-efficacy; and (c) whether self-efficacy mediates treatment effects on clinical outcomes. The Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial was a single-blind, randomized controlled 18-month study including 454 overweight/obese older adults (M age = 66 years) with knee OA. Participants were randomized to one of three interventions: exercise (E), diet-induced weight loss (D), or both (D+E). Self-efficacy for gait, balance, and walking duration were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. Baseline associations were tested using Pearson correlations, and group least squares means were compared using mixed linear models at follow-up. Participants with higher self-efficacy reported significantly better physical function and less knee pain at baseline, walked farther (6-min walk), and were more physically active (all |r| > 0.12, all p < .01). Significant differences between groups were detected for all self-efficacy measures at 18 months; the D+E group reported significantly (all p < .005) higher self-efficacy for gait, walking duration, and balance compared with the D- or E-only groups. Self-efficacy significantly (p < .05) mediated treatment effects on physical function and pain at 18 months. A combined intervention of diet-induced weight loss and exercise is the treatment of choice to maximize self-efficacy, improve physical function, and reduce pain in overweight/obese adults with knee OA.
Project description:This small, pilot study evaluated the impact of treatment with a natural multi-mineral supplement from seaweed (Aquamin) on walking distance, pain and joint mobility in subjects with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the knee.Subjects (n = 70) with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to four double-blinded treatments for 12 weeks: (a) Glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg/d); (b) Aquamin (2400 mg/d); (c) Combined treatment composed of Glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg/d) plus Aquamin (2400 mg/d) and (d) Placebo. Primary outcome measures were WOMAC scores and 6 Minute Walking Distances (6 MWD). Laboratory based blood tests were used as safety measures.Fifty subjects completed the study and analysis of the data showed significant differences between the groups for changes in WOMAC pain scores over time (p = 0.009 ANCOVA); however, these data must be reviewed with caution since significant differences were found between the groups at baseline for WOMAC pain and stiffness scores (p = 0.0039 and p = 0.013, respectively, ANOVA). Only the Aquamin and Glucosamine groups demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms over the course of the study. The combination group (like the placebo group) did not show any significant improvements in OA symptoms in this trial. Within group analysis demonstrated significant improvements over time on treatment for the WOMAC pain, activity, composite and stiffness (Aquamin only) scores as well as the 6 minute walking distances for subjects in the Aquamin and Glucosamine treatment groups. The Aquamin and Glucosamine groups walked 101 feet (+7%) and 56 feet (+3.5%) extra respectively. All treatments were well tolerated and the adverse events profiles were not significantly different between the groups.This small preliminary study suggested that a multi mineral supplement (Aquamin) may reduce the pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis of the knee over 12 weeks of treatment and warrants further study.ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00452101.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown.Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction.Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA.Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: -0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak medial compartment contact forces of the involved limb than did the group without OA at 6 months (2.89 ± 0.52 body weight [nonOA] vs 2.10 ± 0.69 body weight [OA], P = .036).Patients who had radiographic knee OA 5 years after ACL reconstruction walked with lower knee adduction moments and medial compartment joint contact forces than did those patients without OA early after injury and reconstruction.