Common polymorphisms influencing serum uric acid levels contribute to susceptibility to gout, but not to coronary artery disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recently, a large meta-analysis including over 28,000 participants identified nine different loci with association to serum uric acid (UA) levels. Since elevated serum UA levels potentially cause gout and are a possible risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), we performed two large case-control association analyses with participants from the German MI Family Study. In the first study, we assessed the association of the qualitative trait gout and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers that showed association to UA serum levels. In the second study, the same genetic polymorphisms were analyzed for association with CAD. METHODS AND FINDINGS:A total of 683 patients suffering from gout and 1,563 healthy controls from the German MI Family Study were genotyped. Nine SNPs were identified from a recently performed genome-wide meta-analysis on serum UA levels (rs12129861, rs780094, rs734553, rs2231142, rs742132, rs1183201, rs12356193, rs17300741 and rs505802). Additionally, the marker rs6855911 was included which has been associated with gout in our cohort in a previous study. SNPs rs734553 and rs6855911, located in SLC2A9, and SNP rs2231142, known to be a missense polymorphism in ABCG2, were associated with gout (p=5.6*10(-7), p=1.1*10(-7), and p=1.3*10(-3), respectively). Other SNPs in the genes PDZK1, GCKR, LRRC16A, SLC17A1-SLC17A3, SLC16A9, SLC22A11 and SLC22A12 failed the significance level. None of the ten markers were associated with risk to CAD in our study sample of 1,473 CAD cases and 1,241 CAD-free controls. CONCLUSION:SNP markers in SLC2A9 and ABCG2 genes were found to be strongly associated with the phenotype gout. However, not all SNP markers influencing serum UA levels were also directly associated with the clinical manifestation of gout in our study sample. In addition, none of these SNPs showed association with the risk to CAD in the German MI Family Study.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (UA) levels have recently been shown to be genetically influenced by common polymorphisms in the GLUT9 gene in two genome-wide association analyses of Italian and British populations. Elevated serum UA levels are often found in conjunction with the metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is the major risk factor for gout and has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the association of polymorphisms in GLUT9 with gout and coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI). To test our hypotheses, we performed two large case-control association analyses of individuals from the German MI Family Study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: First, 665 patients with gout and 665 healthy controls, which were carefully matched for age and gender, were genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or near the GLUT9 gene. All four SNPs demonstrated highly significant association with gout. SNP rs6855911, located within intron 7 of GLUT9, showed the strongest signal with a protective effect of the minor allele with an allelic odds ratio of 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.75; p = 3.2*10(-7)). Importantly, this finding was not influenced by adjustment for components of the metabolic syndrome or intake of diuretics. Secondly, 1,473 cases with severe CAD or MI and 1,241 healthy controls were tested for the same four GLUT9 SNPs. The analyses revealed, however, no significant association with CAD or with MI. Additional screening of genome-wide association data sets showed no signal for CAD or MI within the GLUT9 gene region. CONCLUSION: Thus, our results provide compelling evidence that common genetic variations within the GLUT9 gene strongly influence the risk for gout but are unlikely to have a major effect on CAD or MI in a German population.
Project description:Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2x10(-201)), ABCG2 (p = 3.1x10(-26)), SLC17A1 (p = 3.0x10(-14)), SLC22A11 (p = 6.7x10(-14)), SLC22A12 (p = 2.0x10(-9)), SLC16A9 (p = 1.1x10(-8)), GCKR (p = 1.4x10(-9)), LRRC16A (p = 8.5x10(-9)), and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7x10(-9)). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0x10(-26)) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0x10(-8)) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4x10(-57) and p = 8.1x10(-54), respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Replication studies showed conflicting effects of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 polymorphisms on gout and serum urate. This meta-analysis therefore aimed to pool their effects across studies. METHODS:Studies were located from MEDLINE and Scopus from inception to 17th June 2018. Observational studies in adults with any polymorphism in ABCG2 or SLC2A9, and outcome including gout, hyperuricemia, and serum urate were included for pooling. Data extractions were performed by two independent reviewers. Genotype effects were pooled stratified by ethnicity using a mixed-effect logistic model and a multivariate meta-analysis for dichotomous and continuous outcomes. RESULTS:Fifty-two studies were included in the analysis. For ABCG2 polymorphisms, mainly studied in Asians, carrying 1-2 minor-allele-genotypes of rs2231142 and rs72552713 were respectively about 2.1-4.5 and 2.5-3.9 times higher odds of gout than non-minor-allele-genotypes. The two rs2231142-risk-genotypes also had higher serum urate about 11-18??mol/l. Conversely, carrying 1-2 minor alleles of rs2231137 was about 36-57% significantly lower odds of gout. For SLC2A9 polymorphisms, mainly studied in Caucasians, carrying 1-2 minor alleles of rs1014290, rs6449213, rs6855911, and rs7442295 were about 25-43%, 31-62%, 33-64%, and 35-65% significantly lower odds of gout than non-minor-allele-genotypes. In addition, 1-2 minor-allele-genotypes of the latter three polymorphisms had significantly lower serum urate about 20-49, 21-51, and 18-54??mol/l than non-minor-allele-genotypes. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings should be useful in identifying patients at risk for gout and high serum urate and these polymorphisms may be useful in personalized risk scores. TRIAL REGISTRATION:PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018105275 .
Project description:Uric acid (UA) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions. Current genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a variety of genetic determinants of UA in Europeans; however, such studies in Asians, especially in Chinese populations remain limited.A two-stage GWAS was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with serum uric acid (UA) in a Chinese population of 12,281 participants (GWAS discovery stage included 1452 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort (DFTJ-cohort) and 1999 participants from the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). The validation stage included another independent 8830 individuals from the DFTJ-cohort). Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 chips and Illumina Omni-Express platform were used for genotyping for DFTJ-cohort and FAMHES, respectively. Gene-environment interactions on serum UA levels were further explored in 10,282 participants from the DFTJ-cohort.Briefly, we identified two previously reported UA loci of SLC2A9 (rs11722228, combined P = 8.98 × 10-31) and ABCG2 (rs2231142, combined P = 3.34 × 10-42). The two independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 explained 1.03% and 1.09% of the total variation of UA levels, respectively. Heterogeneity was observed across different populations. More importantly, both independent SNPs rs11722228 and rs2231142 were nominally significantly interacted with gender on serum UA levels (P for interaction = 4.0 × 10-2 and 2.0 × 10-2, respectively). The minor allele (T) for rs11722228 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in elevating serum UA levels in females compared to males and the minor allele (T) of rs2231142 in ABCG2 had stronger effects on serum UA levels in males than that in females.Two genetic loci (SLC2A9 and ABCG2) were confirmed to be associated with serum UA concentration. These findings strongly support the evidence that SLC2A9 and ABCG2 function in UA metabolism across human populations. Furthermore, we observed these associations are modified by gender.
Project description:High serum uric acid levels are associated with gout, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Three genes (SLC2A9, ABCG2, and SLC17A3) were reported to be involved in the regulation of uric acid levels.SNPs rs2231142 (ABCG2) and rs1165205 (SLC17A3) were genotyped in three cohorts (n=4492) and combined with previously genotyped SNPs within SLC2A9 (rs6855911, rs7442295, rs6449213, rs12510549).Each copy of the minor allele decreased uric acid levels by 0.30-0.38 mg/dL for SLC2A9 (p values: 10(-20)-10(-36)) and increased levels by 0.34 mg/dL for ABCG2 (p=1.1x10(-16)). SLC17A3 influenced uric acid levels only modestly. Together the SNPs showed graded associations with uric acid levels of 0.111 mg/dL per risk allele (p=3.8x10(-42)). In addition, we observed a sex-specific interaction of age with the association of SLC2A9 SNPs with uric acid levels, where increasing age strengthened the association of SNPs in women and decreased the association in men.Genetic variants within SLC2A9,ABCG2 and SLC17A3 show highly significant associations with uric acid levels, and for SNPs within SLC2A9 this association is strongly modified by age and sex.
Project description:Gout is a common inf lammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid in the joints. Serum uric acid levels are highly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic component. Independent studies to confirm the genetic associations with gout in various ethnic populations are warranted. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes with gout in Korean patients and healthy individuals.We consecutively enrolled 109 patients with gout and 102 healthy controls. The diagnosis of gout was based on the preliminary criteria of the America College of Rheumatology. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changes in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes using a direct sequencing technique. rs2231142 in ABCG2 and rs6449213 and rs16890979 in SLC2A9 and nearby regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction.Patients with gout had significantly higher A/A genotype (29.3% vs. 4.9%, respectively) and A allele (52.8% vs. 26.5%, respectively) frequencies of rs2231142 in ABCG2 than did controls (?(2) = 29.42, p < 0.001; odds ratio, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 5.20). We found novel polymorphisms (c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A) in the SLC2A9 gene. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A SNPs were significantly higher in patients than in controls.We demonstrated a significant association between rs2231142 in the ABCG2 gene and gout and identified novel SNPs, c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A, in the SLC2A9 gene that may be associated with gout in a Korean population.
Project description:Tophi contribute to musculoskeletal disability, joint damage and poor health-related quality of life in people with gout. The aim of this study was to examine the role of SLC2A9 and ABCG2 variants in tophaceous disease in people with gout.Participants (n?=?1778) with gout fulfilling the 1977 American Rheumatism Association (ARA) classification criteria, who were recruited from primary and secondary care, attended a detailed study visit. The presence of palpable tophi was recorded. SLC2A9 rs11942223, ABCG2 rs2231142 and ABCG2 rs10011796 were genotyped. Data were analysed according to tophus status.Compared to participants without tophi, those with tophi were older, had longer disease duration and higher serum creatinine, and were more likely to be of M?ori or Pacific (Polynesian) ancestry. SLC2A9 rs11942223 was not associated with tophi. However, the risk alleles for both ABCG2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were present more frequently in those with tophi (OR (95% CI) 1.24 (1.02-1.51) for rs2231142 and 1.33 (1.01-1.74) for rs10011796, p?<?0.05 for both). The effect of rs2231142 was limited to participants of M?ori or Pacific ancestry (OR 1.50 (1.14-1.99), p?=?0.004), with a significant effect observed in those of Western Polynesian ancestry only (OR 1.71 (1.07-2.72), p?=?0.017). The rs10011796 risk allele was strongly associated with tophi in the Western Polynesian group (OR 3.76 (1.61-8.77), p?=?0.002), but not in the Eastern Polynesian group (OR 0.87 (0.52-1.46), p?=?0.60) nor in the non-Polynesian group (OR 1.16 (0.81-1.66), p?=?0.32). The ABCG2 associations persisted in the Western Polynesian group after adjusting for serum urate, creatinine, and disease duration, and when including both ABCG2 variants in the regression models.Variation in ABCG2 function may play a role in the development of tophaceous disease in some populations with high prevalence of severe gout.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The ABCG2 Q141K (rs2231142) and rs10011796 variants associate with hyperuricaemia (HU). The effect size of ABCG2 rs2231142 on urate is ~?60% that of SLC2A9, yet the effect size on gout is greater. We tested the hypothesis that ABCG2 plays a role in the progression from HU to gout by testing for association of ABCG2 rs2231142 and rs10011796 with gout using HU controls. METHODS:We analysed 1699 European gout cases and 14,350 normouricemic (NU) and HU controls, and 912 New Zealand (NZ) Polynesian (divided into Eastern and Western Polynesian) gout cases and 696 controls. Association testing was performed using logistic and linear regression with multivariate adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS:In Europeans and Polynesians, the ABCG2 141K (T) allele was associated with gout using HU controls (OR?=?1.85, P?=?3.8E-?21 and ORmeta?=?1.85, P?=?1.3E-?03, respectively). There was evidence for an effect of 141K in determining HU in European (OR?=?1.56, P?=?1.7E-?18) but not in Polynesian (ORmeta?=?1.49, P?=?0.057). For SLC2A9 rs11942223, the T allele associated with gout in the presence of HU in European (OR?=?1.37, P?=?4.7E-?06), however significantly weaker than ABCG2 rs2231142 141K (PHet?=?0.0023). In Western Polynesian and European, there was epistatic interaction between ABCG2 rs2231142 and rs10011796. Combining the presence of the 141K allele with the rs10011796 CC-genotype increased gout risk, in the presence of HU, 21.5-fold in Western Polynesian (P?=?0.009) and 2.6-fold in European (P?=?9.9E-?06). The 141K allele of ABCG2 associated with increased gout flare frequency in Polynesian (Pmeta = 2.5E-?03). CONCLUSION:These data are consistent with a role for ABCG2 141K in gout in the presence of established HU.
Project description:AIMS: The SLC2A9 gene encodes the glucose transporter 9, with the abilities of transporting both glucose and uric acid and is involved in the pancreatic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SLC2A9 accounted for 5% variance of serum uric acid (UA). UA was identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We investigated whether the SLC2A9 gene variations are associated with type 2 DM in Han Chinese. METHODS: Three common SNPs of the SLC2A9, rs1014290, rs2280205, and rs3733591, were genotyped in 1003 Han Chinese randomly selected from Kaohsiung, Taiwan. RESULTS: The variant SNP rs1014290 is associated with decreased 0.12-fold risk of type 2 DM (P = .002). Per-copy increase in the minor C-allele results in 0.13?mmol/L (P = .037) and 10.03??mol/L (P = .016) decrease in serum glucose and UA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SNP rs1014290 within the SLC2A9 gene is associated with type 2 DM in Han Chinese.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperuricemia predicts a high risk for CKD progression but there is no large clinical trial in humans indicating that this relationship is causal in nature. The rs734553 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the GLUT9 urate transporter gene was strongly associated with uric acid (UA) levels in a large meta-analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This prospective study adopted the Mendelian randomization approach. The rs734553 SNP was used as an instrumental variable to investigate the relationship between UA and renal outcomes in a cohort of 755 patients with CKD who were enrolled between October 18, 2005, and October 2, 2008. The association between the polymorphism and UA was preliminary confirmed in a series of 211 healthy volunteers enrolled between January 1, 2001, and July 12, 2011, from the same geographic area as the patients with CKD. The study end point was a composite renal-end point (i.e., >30% decrease in the GFR, dialysis, or transplantation). Patients were followed up for a median of 36 months. RESULTS: In healthy individuals, serum UA levels were highest in homozygotes for the T allele (risk allele), intermediate in heterozygotes for the same allele, and lowest in those without the risk allele (P<0.001), but no such relationship was found in patients with CKD. In the CKD cohort, homozygotes (TT) and heterozygotes (GT) for the risk allele had a 2.35 times higher risk (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 4.42; P=0.008) of CKD progression. The risk for CKD progression by rs734553 remained unmodified in analyses adjusting for proteinuria, GFR, and other classical and CKD-peculiar risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: A GLUT9 polymorphism, which is strongly associated with serum UA levels in healthy individuals of the general population with normal renal function, holds a strong predictive power for CKD progression. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that the link between UA and CKD progression is causal in nature.