Regulatory effects of fenofibrate and atorvastatin on lipoprotein A-I and lipoprotein A-I:A-II kinetics in the metabolic syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Subjects with the metabolic syndrome have reduced HDL cholesterol concentration and altered metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (Lp)A-I and LpA-I:A-II particles. In the metabolic syndrome, fenofibrate and atorvastatin may have differential effects on HDL particle kinetics.Eleven men with metabolic syndrome were studied in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of 5-week intervention periods with placebo, fenofibrate (200 mg/day), and atorvastatin (40 mg/day). LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II kinetics were examined using stable isotopic techniques and compartmental modeling.Compared with placebo, fenofibrate significantly increased the production of both LpA-I:A-II (30% increase; P < 0.001) and apoA-II (43% increase; P < 0.001), accounting for significant increases of their corresponding plasma concentrations (10 and 23% increases, respectively), but it did not alter LpA-I kinetics or concentration. Atorvastatin did not significantly alter HDL concentration or the kinetics of HDL particles.In the metabolic syndrome, fenofibrate, but not atorvastatin, influences HDL metabolism by increasing the transport of LpA-I:A-II particles.
Project description:Low plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Rosuvastatin has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol concentration, but the mechanisms remain unclear.Twelve men with the metabolic syndrome were studied in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of 5-wk therapeutic periods with placebo, 10 mg/d rosuvastatin, or 40 mg/d rosuvastatin, with 2-wk placebo washout between each period. Compared with placebo, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in HDL cholesterol, HDL particle size, and concentration of HDL particles that contain apolipoprotein A-I (LpA-I). The increase in LpA-I concentration was associated with significant dose-dependent reductions in triglyceride concentration and LpA-I fractional catabolic rate, with no changes in LpA-I production rate. There was a significant dose-dependent reduction in the fractional catabolic rate of HDL particles containing both apolipoprotein A-I and A-II (LpA-I:A-II), with concomitant reduction in LpA-I:A-II production rate, and hence no change in LpA-I:A-II concentration.Rosuvastatin dose-dependently increased plasma HDL cholesterol and LpA-I concentrations in the metabolic syndrome. This could relate to reduction in plasma triglycerides with remodeling of HDL particles and reduction in LpA-I fractional catabolism. The findings contribute to understanding mechanisms for the HDL-raising effect of rosuvastatin in the metabolic syndrome with implications for reduction in cardiovascular disease.
Project description:High-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass LpA-I has been reported to promote cholesterol efflux from mouse adipose cells in vitro, whereas subclass LpA-I/A-II has no effect. To investigate whether the apolipoprotein composition of HDL plays a role in the selective delivery of cholesterol esters to the liver in vivo, we labelled HDL in its cholesterol ester moiety and separated [3H]cholesterol oleate-labelled HDL into subclasses LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II by immuno-affinity chromatography. Serum decay and liver association of LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II were compared for the apoprotein and cholesterol ester moieties. Both LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II selectively delivered cholesterol esters to the liver with similar kinetics. The kinetics of biliary secretion of processed cholesterol esters, initially associated with LpA-I or LpA-I/A-II, were studied in rats equipped with permanent catheters in bile, duodenum and heart. For both LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II, liver association was coupled to bile acid synthesis, with an increase in secretion rate during the night. During the first night period, the biliary secretion of LpA-I-derived radio-activity was significantly greater than for LpA-I/A-II. The data indicate that with both LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II selective delivery of cholesterol esters from HDL to the liver occurs, but that cholesterol esters delivered by LpA-I are more efficiently coupled to bile acid synthesis.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To compare extra-lipid effects of statins and fibrates in relation to the baseline metabolic status of patients.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>The study involved a group of 242 metabolic syndrome patients with or without pre-diabetes and randomized to atorvastatin, fenofibrate, or placebo.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with matched healthy subjects, metabolic syndrome patients exhibited higher plasma levels/activities of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, factor VII, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and enhanced monocyte cytokine release. These abnormalities were alleviated by both atorvastatin and fenofibrate treatment. CRP-lowering and monocyte-suppressing actions were more pronounced for atorvastatin in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and for fenofibrate in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The presence of pre-diabetes potentiates metabolic syndrome-induced abnormalities in plasma markers of inflammation and hemostasis and in monocyte secretory function. Both atorvastatin and fenofibrate exhibit multidirectional pleiotropic effects in subjects with metabolic syndrome, the strength of which seem to be partially determined by the type of pre-diabetes.
Project description:It is expected that the attendant structural heterogeneity of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) complexes is a determinant of its varied metabolic functions. To determine the structural heterogeneity of HDL, we determined major apolipoprotein stoichiometry profiles in human HDL. First, HDL was separated into two main populations, with and without apolipoprotein (apo) A-II, LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II, respectively. Each main population was further separated into six individual subfractions using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Protein proximity profiles (PPPs) of major apolipoproteins in each individual subfraction was determined by optimally cross-linking apolipoproteins within individual particles with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)), a bifunctional cross-linker, followed by molecular mass determination by MALDI-MS. The PPPs of LpA-I subfractions indicated that the number of apoA-I molecules increased from two to three to four with an increase in the LpA-I particle size. On the other hand, the entire population of LpA-I/A-II demonstrated the presence of only two proximal apoA-I molecules per particle, while the number of apoA-II molecules varied from one dimeric apoA-II to two and then to three. For most of the PPPs described above, an additional population that contained a single molecule of apoC-III in addition to apoA-I and/or apoA-II was detected. Upon composition analyses of individual subpopulations, LpA-I/A-II exhibited comparable proportions for total protein (?58%), phospholipids (?21%), total cholesterol (?16%), triglycerides (?5%), and free cholesterol (?4%) across subfractions. LpA-I components, on the other hand, showed significant variability. This novel information about HDL subfractions will form a basis for an improved understanding of particle-specific functions of HDL.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) polymorphisms associated with increased ABCA1 expression result in increased small HDL (high-density lipoprotein) subclass particle concentration. This study examines the effect of treatment with fenofibrate, a drug known to bind peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) which increases the expression of ABCA1 gene, on lipoprotein subclass profiles of individuals stratified by ABCA1 genotypes.Participants of Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) were treated with fenofibrate over a three week period. We analyzed six ABCA1 polymorphisms in 287 GOLDN participants with triglyceride concentrations >or=150mg/dL and studied their associations with HDL subclass particle concentrations, as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, before and after treatment.Fenofibrate treatment did not result in significant changes in small HDL subclass particle concentration. When changes in HDL subclasses were stratified by ABCA1 polymorphism genotypes, there were no statistically significant associations between ABCA1 genotypes and small HDL subclasses before fenofibrate treatment. However, after fenofibrate treatment the KK genotype of R1587K (mean 4.40micromol/L; p=0.004) and the RK genotype of R219K (mean 1.60micromol/L; p=0.02) polymorphisms were associated with significantly increased small HDL. The R1587KKK genotype (mean 4.80micromol/L; p=0.0002) and the R219K KK genotype (mean 2.50micromol/L; p=0.02) were also associated with increased HDL particle concentrations.There is a synergistic effect between ABCA1 polymorphisms and fenofibrate. Thus, our study indirectly confirms the role of fenofibrate and genotype in increasing cholesterol efflux, as evidenced by increased small HDL particles.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>We explored whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the effects of fenofibrate differed in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome and according to various features of metabolic syndrome defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) in subjects with type 2 diabetes in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its features was calculated. Cox proportional models adjusted for age, sex, CVD status, and baseline A1C levels were used to determine the independent contributions of metabolic syndrome features to total CVD event rates and the effects of fenofibrate.<h4>Results</h4>More than 80% of FIELD participants met the ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Each ATP III feature of metabolic syndrome, apart from increased waist circumference, increased the absolute risk of CVD events over 5 years by at least 3%. Those with marked dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides >or=2.3 mmol/l and low HDL cholesterol) were at the highest risk of CVD (17.8% over 5 years). Fenofibrate significantly reduced CVD events in those with low HDL cholesterol or hypertension. The largest effect of fenofibrate to reduce CVD risk was observed in subjects with marked dyslipidemia in whom a 27% relative risk reduction (95% CI 9-42, P = 0.005; number needed to treat = 23) was observed. Subjects with no prior CVD had greater risk reductions than the entire group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Metabolic syndrome components identify higher CVD risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes, so the absolute benefits of fenofibrate are likely to be greater when metabolic syndrome features are present. The highest risk and greatest benefits of fenofibrate are seen among those with marked hypertriglyceridemia.
Project description:Some patients administered cholesterol-lowering therapies may experience an increase in the proportion of small LDL particles, which may be misinterpreted as a worsening of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk. This study assessed the lipid effects of adding ezetimibe to atorvastatin or doubling the atorvastatin dose on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (and the cholesterol content of LDL subclasses), LDL particle number (approximated by apolipoprotein B), and LDL particle size. This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study of hypercholesterolemic, high atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk patients. After stabilization of atorvastatin 40 mg, 579 patients with LDL-C >70 mg/dL were randomized to 6 weeks of ezetimibe + atorvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg. Efficacy parameters included changes from baseline in LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and lipoprotein subclasses (Vertical Auto Profile II) and pattern for the overall population, as well as patient subgroups with baseline triglyceride levels <150 mg/dL or ?150 mg/dL.Both treatments significantly reduced LDL-C (and the cholesterol content of most LDL subfractions [LDL1-4]) apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C levels, but did not reduce the proportion of smaller, more dense LDL particles; in fact, the proportion of Pattern B was numerically increased. Results were generally similar in patients with triglyceride levels <150 or ?150 mg/dL.When assessing the effects of escalating cholesterol-lowering therapy, effects upon Pattern B alone to assess coronary heart disease risk may be misleading when interpreted without considerations of other lipid effects, such as reductions in LDL-C, atherogenic lipoprotein particle concentration, and non-HDL-C levels.(Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: Clinical trial # NCT00276484).
Project description:A shift towards overall larger very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and smaller low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) diameters occurs in insulin resistance (IR), which reflects shifts in the distribution of the subfraction concentrations. Fenofibrate, indicated for hypertriglyceridemia, simultaneously reduces IR and shifts in lipoprotein diameter. Individual responses to fenofibrate vary, and we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify genetic differences that could contribute to such differences.Association analysis was conducted between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Affymetrix 6.0 array and fasting particle diameter responses to a 12-week fenofibrate trial, in 817 related Caucasian participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network. Linear models were conducted, which adjusted for age, sex and study center as fixed effects, and pedigree as a random effect. The top three SNPs associated with each fraction were examined subsequently for associations with changes in subfraction concentrations.SNPs in AHCYL2 and CD36 genes reached, or closely approached, genome-wide levels of significance with VLDL and HDL diameter responses to fenofibrate, respectively (P=4×10(-9) and 8×10(-8)). SNPs in AHCYL2 were associated with a decrease in the concentration of the large VLDL subfraction only (P=0.002). SNPs associated with HDL diameter change were not associated with a single subfraction concentration change (P>0.05) indicating small shifts across all subfractions.We report novel associations between lipoprotein diameter responses to fenofibrate and the AHCYL2 and CD36 genes. Previous associations of these genes with IR emphasize the role of IR in mediating lipoprotein response to fenofibrate.
Project description:Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of HDL cholesteryl ester to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). This study aimed to determine the effects of CETP inhibition with torcetrapib on TRL composition and apoB-48 metabolism. Study subjects with low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl), either untreated (n = 9) or receiving atorvastatin 20 mg daily (n = 9), received placebo for 4 weeks, followed by torcetrapib 120 mg once daily for the next 4 weeks. A subset of the subjects not treated with atorvastatin participated in a third phase (n = 6), in which they received torcetrapib 120 mg twice daily for an additional 4 weeks. At the end of each phase, all subjects received a primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]L-leucine, while in the constantly fed state, to determine the kinetics of TRL apoB-48 and TRL composition. Relative to placebo, torcetrapib markedly reduced TRL CE levels in all groups (?-69%; P < 0.005). ApoB-48 pool size (PS) and production rate (PR) decreased in the nonatorvastatin once daily (PS: -49%, P = 0.007; PR: -49%, P = 0.005) and twice daily (PS: -30%, P = 0.01; PR: -27%, P = 0.13) cohorts. In the atorvastatin cohort, apoB-48 PS and PR, which were already lowered by atorvastatin, did not change with torcetrapib. Our findings indicate that CETP inhibition reduced plasma apoB-48 concentrations by reducing apoB-48 production but did not have this effect in subjects already treated with atorvastatin.
Project description:Anacetrapib (ANA), an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, increases plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA)-I, apoA-II, and CETP. The mechanisms responsible for these treatment-related increases in apolipoproteins and plasma CETP are unknown. We performed a randomized, placebo (PBO)-controlled, double-blind, fixed-sequence study to examine the effects of ANA on the metabolism of HDL apoA-I and apoA-II and plasma CETP.Twenty-nine participants received atorvastatin (ATV) 20 mg/d plus PBO for 4 weeks, followed by ATV plus ANA 100 mg/d for 8 weeks (ATV-ANA). Ten participants received double PBO for 4 weeks followed by PBO plus ANA for 8 weeks (PBO-ANA). At the end of each treatment, we examined the kinetics of HDL apoA-I, HDL apoA-II, and plasma CETP after D3-leucine administration as well as 2D gel analysis of HDL subspecies. In the combined ATV-ANA and PBO-ANA groups, ANA treatment increased plasma HDL-C (63.0%; P<0.001) and apoA-I levels (29.5%; P<0.001). These increases were associated with reductions in HDL apoA-I fractional clearance rate (18.2%; P=0.002) without changes in production rate. Although the apoA-II levels increased by 12.6% (P<0.001), we could not discern significant changes in either apoA-II fractional clearance rate or production rate. CETP levels increased 102% (P<0.001) on ANA because of a significant reduction in the fractional clearance rate of CETP (57.6%, P<0.001) with no change in CETP production rate.ANA treatment increases HDL apoA-I and CETP levels by decreasing the fractional clearance rate of each protein.