Diverse enterotoxin gene profiles among clonal complexes of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the Bronx, New York.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) can cause toxin-mediated disease, and those that function as superantigens are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The prevalence of 19 enterotoxin genes was determined by PCR in clinical S. aureus strains derived from wounds (108) and blood (99). We performed spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine clonal origin, and for selected strains staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Strains carried a median of five SE genes. For most SE genes, the prevalence rates among methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates, as well as wound- and blood-derived isolates, did not differ. At least one SE gene was detected in all except two S. aureus isolates (>99%). Complete egc clusters were found in only 11% of S. aureus isolates, whereas the combination of sed, sej, and ser was detected in 24% of clinical strains. S. aureus strains exhibited distinct combinations of SE genes, even if their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST patterns demonstrated clonality. USA300 strains also showed considerable variability in SE content, although they contained a lower number of SE genes (mean, 3). By contrast, SE content was unchanged in five pairs of serial isolates. SEB production by individual strains varied up to 200-fold, and even up to 15-fold in a pair of serial isolates. In conclusion, our results illustrate the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains with respect to enterotoxin genes and suggest that horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements encoding virulence genes occurs frequently.
Project description:Staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases, results from ingestion of one or more staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In the present study, 64 S. aureus isolates recovered from foods and food handlers, associated or not associated with food-poisoning outbreaks in Spain, were investigated. They were assigned to 31 strains by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), exotoxin gene content, and antimicrobial resistance. The strains belonged to 10 clonal complexes (CCs): CC5 (29.0%), CC30 (25.8%), CC45 (16.1%), CC8, CC15 (two strains each), CC1, CC22, CC25, CC59, and CC121 (one strain each). They contained hemolysin genes (90.3%); lukED (77.4%); exfoliatin genes eta, etd (6.5% each), and etb (3.2%); tst (25.8%); and the following enterotoxin or enterotoxin-like genes or clusters: sea (38.7%), seb (12.9%), sec (16.1%), sed-selj with or without ser (22.9%), selk-selq (6.5%), seh, sell, selp (9.7% each), egc1 (32.3%), and egc2 (48.4%). The number of se and sel genes ranged from zero to 12. All isolates carrying tst, and most isolates with genes encoding classical enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), expressed the corresponding toxin(s). Two CC5 isolates from hamburgers (spa type t002, sequence type 5 [ST5]; spa type t2173, ST5) were methicillin resistant and harbored staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IVd. Six (19.4%) were mupirocin resistant, and one (spa type t120, ST15) from a food handler carried mupA (MIC, 1,250 ?g/ml). Resistance to ampicillin (blaZ) (61.3%), erythromycin (ermA-ermC or ermC) (25.8%), clindamycin (msrA-msrB or msrB) (16.1%), tetracycline (tetK) (3.2%), and amikacin-gentamicin-kanamycin-tobramycin (aphA with aacA plus aphD or aadD) (6.5%) was also observed. The presence of S. aureus strains with an important repertoire of virulence and resistance determinants in the food chain represents a potential health hazard for consumers and merits further observation.
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize the subtypes and virulence profiles of 69 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from retail ready-to-eat food in China. The isolates were analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of important virulence factor genes, including the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej), the exfoliative toxin genes (eta and etb), the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene (tst), and the Panton-Valentine leucocidin-encoding gene (pvl). The isolates encompassed 26 different sequence types (STs), including four new STs (ST3482, ST3484, ST3485, ST3504), clustered in three clonal complexes and 17 singletons. The most prevalent STs were ST1, ST6, and ST15, constituting 34.8% of all isolates. Most STs (15/26, 57.7%) detected have previously been associated with human infections. All 13 toxin genes examined were detected in the S. aureus isolates, with 84.1% of isolates containing toxin genes. The three most prevalent toxin genes were seb (36.2%), sea (33.3%), and seg (33.3%). The classical SE genes (sea-see), which contribute significantly to staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), were detected in 72.5% of the S. aureus isolates. In addition, pvl, eta, etb, and tst were found in 11.6, 10.1, 10.1, and 7.2% of the S. aureus isolates, respectively. Strains ST6 carrying sea and ST1 harboring sec-seh enterotoxin profile, which are the two most common clones associated with SFP, were also frequently detected in the food samples in this study. This study indicates that these S. aureus isolates present in Chinese ready-to-eat food represents a potential public health risk. These data are valuable for epidemiological studies, risk management, and public health strategies.
Project description:Background:Staphylococcus aureus is a human colonizer with high potential for virulence, and the spread of the virulent strains from the colonized hosts to non-carriers in the community is on the increase. However, there are few reports on comprehensive analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes with clonal lineage in S. aureus in Africa. This is essential because of diversity of cultures and habits of the people. This study analyzed spa types and enterotoxin genes in S. aureus strains previously isolated from the human nostrils, poultry and clinical samples in Southern Nigeria. Methods:Forty-seven S. aureus isolates were obtained from humans nostrils (n = 13), clinical strains (n = 21) and poultry (n = 13) from previous studies in Southern Nigeria. The strains were analyzed for mecA gene, selected toxins genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq, ser, seu) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene (lukS-PV/lukF-PV) by PCR. Population structures of the strains were detected by Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Results:Twenty different spa types were obtained with the highest percentages, 17% observed in spa type t091 from clinical, nasal and poultry samples while t069 was the most prevalent spa type in poultry. Two MRSA were only detected in human strains. The poultry strains had the highest occurrence of SE genes (18%) followed by nasal strains (15%) and clinical strains (10%). Eighty-nine percent of all tested isolates harbored at least one SE gene; seo was the most prevalent (34%) followed by seg (30%) and sea (21%), while sec, see and sej were absent in all strains. Spa type t355 was associated with lukS-PV/lukF-PV gene and complete absence of all studied SE. Sea, seq, seb, sek were associated with spa type t069; sea was associated with t127 while sep was associated with spa type t091. There were coexistences of seo/seg and sei/seg. Conclusions:The higher carriage of staphylococci enterotoxin genes by the nasal and poultry S. aureus strains suggests a high potential of spread of staphylococcal food poisoning through poultry and healthy carriers in the community. This is the first report of high occurrence of staphylococcal enterotoxins genes in poultry from Nigeria.
Project description:Food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) toxins is considered one of the foremost public health threat that usually occurs through the ingestion of raw milk contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxins. The current study spotlights on the prevalence, antibiogram and genetic diversity of S. aureus enterotoxin genes. One hundred and fifty of raw milk (90) and ice cream (60) samples were randomly collected from local markets from Sadat city, Egypt. S. aureus was recovered from 44% of raw milk and 20% of ice cream samples. The identification for the obtained S. aureus isolates was confirmed through targeting the nuc gene. Antibiogram pattern of 32 S. aureus isolates showed high resistance to Cefoxitin, Sulpha/Trimethoprim, Tetracycline, Norfloxacin, Penicillin and Cephradine. However, high susceptibility to Gentamycin and Vancomycin were observed. Multiplex PCR was a competent practise for the recognition of Staphylococcus enterotoxin (SE) genes (SEA, SEB and SED). The phylogenetic analysis of the SED gene of enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains showed identical similarity with 100% to each other and high similarity with other international isolates in GenBank from different localities and sources. The frequency of enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains in milk products could have serious hazardous effects on humans. These results suggested possible strains transmission between different geographical areas through the food and milk product trades.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of zoonotic agent in the world, which are attributable to the contamination of food with enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 1,150 S. aureus isolates were cultured from 27,000 retail foods items from 203 cities of 24 provinces in China in 2015 and were test for antimicrobial susceptibility. Additionally, the role of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), methicillin resistance (mecA) and the toxigenic capabilities were also assessed. The results showed that 4.3% retail foods were contaminated with S. aureus, and 7.9% retail foods isolates were mecA positive. Some 97.6% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial compound, and 57.5% of these were multi drug resistant (MDR). Resistance to penicillin (83.7%, 963/1,150), was common, followed by linezolid (67.7%, 778/1,150) and erythromycin (52.1%, 599/1,150). The isolates cultured from raw meats showed high levels of resistant to tetracycline (42.8%), ciprofloxacin (17.4%), and chloramphenicol (12.0%) and expressed a MDR phenotype (62.4%). A total of 29.7% S. aureus isolates harbored the classical SEs genes (sea, seb, sec, and sed). The sea and seb genes were the most frequent SEs genes detected. Of note, 22% of the SEs genes positive S. aureus harbored two or three SEs genes, and 16 isolates were confirmed with the capacity to simultaneously produce two or three enterotoxin types. Moreover, nearly 50% of the MRSA isolates were positive for at least one SE gene in this study. Therefore, it is important to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility and enterotoxigenicity of MDR S. aureus and MRSA in the food chain and to use these data to develop food safety measures, designed to reduce the contamination and transmission of this bacterium.
Project description:A total of 108 S. aureus isolates from 16 major hospitals located in 14 different provinces in China were characterized for the profiles of 18 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes, 3 exfoliatin genes (eta, etb and etd), and the toxic shock syndrome toxin gene (tsst) by PCR. The genomic diversity of each isolate was also evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and accessory gene regulator (agr) typing. Of these strains, 90.7% (98/108) harbored toxin genes, in which tsst was the most prevalent toxin gene (48.1%), followed by sea (44.4%), sek (42.6%) and seq (40.7%). The see and etb genes were not found in any of the isolates tested. Because of high-frequency transfer of toxin gene-containing mobile genetic elements between S. aureus strains, a total of 47 different toxin gene combinations were detected, including a complete egc cluster in 19 isolates, co-occurrence of sea, sek and seq in 38 strains, and sec and sel together in 11 strains. Genetic typing by PFGE grouped all the strains into 25 clusters based on 80% similarity. MLST revealed 25 sequence types (ST) which were assigned into 16 clonal complexes (CCs) including 2 new singletons. Among these, 11 new and 6 known STs were first reported in the S. aureus strains from China. Overall, the genotyping results showed high genetic diversity of the strains regardless of their geographical distributions, and no strong correlation between genetic background and toxin genotypes of the strains. For genotyping S. aureus, PFGE appears to be more discriminatory than MLST. However, toxin gene typing combined with PFGE or MLST could increase the discriminatory power of genotyping S. aureus strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Widespread in the environment, Staphylococcus spp. infect animals and humans as normal flora or pathogens. By extending our recent report of multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. aureus in dairy goats, this study investigated the staphylococcal infection and characterized the MDR-S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from goats in 2008 to elucidate the appearance of MRSA in goats and the mastitis associated staphylococcus enterotoxin (SE) types. A total of 555 samples were collected from six goat parts and three environmental sources among four dairy goat farms in southern Taiwan. Coagulase-positive and negative Staphylococcus spp. (CPS and CNS, respectively) were also identified. Furthermore, predominant SE genes of nine enterotoxin genes sea through sej along with antimicrobial resistance and genetic variations were determined. RESULTS: In total, 137 staphylococcal strains were identified and found predominantly in milk, and in the vagina, anus, and nasal cavity. The most prevalent species was S. lentus, followed by S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. xylosus. Enterotoxin genes were not identified in any CNS isolates, however sec and see were identified only in S. aureus associated with mastitis in goat. In compared to the isolates from 2006 to 2007, 27 S. aureus isolates from 2008 were found to be more resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, and tetracycline. Eleven MRSA isolates were identified and belonged to SCCmec type III (nine isolates) as the major type and SCCmec type II (two isolates). These MRSA isolates revealed pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern A (five isolates), C (one isolate), and D (one isolate) of human isolates. The other two isolates without pulsotypes belonged to ST59. CONCLUSION: The prevalence and infection sites of CNS differed from those of CPS. Genetic analyses indicated that genetic divergence, possible zoonotic transfer of MRSA, and the involvement of sec as important virulence factors for of S. aureus that lead to mastitis in goats.
Project description:Staphylococcus argenteus is an emerging pathogen that is recognized as non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus. However, the molecular characteristics of S. argenteus and its virulence factors have not been well studied. The present study analyzed 96 isolates of S. argenteus recovered from blood. Identification of S. argenteus was based on results of MALDI-TOF MS and lacking crtM gene. All 96 isolates were methicillin-susceptible. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed four sequence types: ST2250 (n = 72), ST2793 (n = 12), ST1223 (n = 10), and ST2198 (n = 2). All 72 ST2250 isolates harbored CRISPR loci with polymorphism of direct repeats and spacers, but no other STs carried CRISPR loci. To date, ST2793 isolates have rarely been reported in other countries. Collagen-binding adhesin gene (cna) and staphylococcal enterotoxin type C (sec) were detected in 12 (100%) and 8 (67%) ST2793 isolates, respectively. ST1223 has been reported as food poisoning pathogens, and enterotoxin gene clusters (egc) were detected in all 10 isolates, while seb gene was detected in three isolates. Two ST2198 isolates carried bone sialoprotein-binding protein gene (bbp), belonging to agr type IV. Our focus on the heterogeneity of molecular characterization in four ST types of S. argenteus revealed that S. argenteus had been isolated as early as 2000. Each ST type of S. argenteus harbors particular genetic markers that may contribute to their virulence.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The role of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in food poisoning is well known, however its role in other diseases remains to be explored. The aim of this study is the molecular screening and characterization of the SEB gene in clinically isolated strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this experimentally study, 300 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains isolated from clinical samples were assayed. The isolated strains were confirmed by conventional bacteriological methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the enterotoxin B (ent B) gene. Assessment of toxin production in all strains that contained the ent B gene was then performed. Finally, using specific antibody against SEB, a Western-blot was applied to confirm detection of enterotoxin B production. RESULTS:RESULTS indicated that only 5% of the 300 clinically isolated S. aureus contained the ent B gene. All strains which contained the ent B gene produced a proteinous enterotoxin B. The results of sequence determination of the PCR product were compared with the gene bank database and 98% similarity was achieved. The results of the Western-blot confirmed that enterotoxin B was produced in strains that contained the ent B gene. CONCLUSION:The results of this study indicate that 5% of clinically isolated S. aureus strains produce enterotoxin B. Considering that the enterotoxin B is an important superantigen, it is possible that a delay in diagnosis and lack of early proper treatment can cause an incidence of late complications, particularly in staphylococcal chronic infections. For this reason, it is suggested that in addition to detecting bacteria, an enterotoxin B detection test should be performed to control its toxigenicity.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major food contaminants worldwide, and its enterotoxins are documented as food poisoning and bioterrorism agents. In the present study, an attempt was made to account on the incidences of toxigenic S. aureus and its antibiotic resistance profiles in ready to eat bakery food products from different parts of Southern India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana). A total of 100 food samples, including milk, cake, cheese and chicken products were assessed for S. aureus and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) by PCR. Among the subjected food samples, a total of 51 isolates belong to genus Staphylococcus and out of that, 34 isolates were S. aureus. Among 34 S. aureus isolates, 14 isolates were found positive for SEB. The PCR results were further co-evaluated with in-house developed aptamer linked immunosorbent assay (ALISA) for the specific and sensitive detection of SEB. The obtained ALISA results were promising and found consistent with PCR analysis. Furthermore, 24%, 47%, 91%, 82%, 59%, and 47% of S. aureus isolates were found resistant to chloramphenicol, methicillin, penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and oxacillin, respectively and concluded as a multidrug resistance (MDR). In conclusion, the present study revealed high presence of toxigenic and MDR resistant S. aureus species among the studied regions of Southern India. The present study cautions the need of stringent food safety regulations in India to control the toxigenic and MDR S. aureus from food sources and to minimize the risks associated with S. aureus.