Gene expression profiling: canonical molecular changes and clinicopathological features in sporadic colorectal cancers.
ABSTRACT: AIM:To investigate alternative or subordinate pathways involved in colorectal tumorigenesis and tumor growth, possibly determining at-risk populations and predicting responses to treatment. METHODS:Using microarray gene-expression analysis, we analyzed patterns of gene expression relative to canonical molecular changes and clinicopathological features in 84 sporadic colorectal cancer patients, standardized by tumor location. Subsets of differentially expressed genes were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS:The largest number of genes identified as being differentially expressed was by tumor location, and the next largest number by lymphovascular or neural invasion of tumor cells and by mismatch repair (MMR) defects. Amongst biological processes, the immune response was significantly implicated in entire molecular changes observed during colorectal tumorigenesis (P < 0.001). Amongst 47 differentially expressed genes, seven (PISD, NIBP, BAI2, STOML1, MRPL21, MRPL16, and MKKS) were newly found to correlate with tumorigenesis and tumor growth. Most location-associated molecular changes had distinct effects on gene expression, but the effects of the latter were sometimes contradictory. CONCLUSION:We show that several differentially expressed genes were associated with canonical molecular changes in sporadic colorectal cancers, possibly constituting alternative or subordinate pathways of tumorigenesis. As tumor location was the dominant factor influencing differential gene expression, location-specific analysis may identify location-associated pathways and enhance the accuracy of class prediction.
Project description:Gene expression was analyzed in terms of canonical molecular changes and clinicopathological features to elucidate alternative or subordinate pathways during colorectal tumorigenesis and tumor growth. Eighty-four sporadic colorectal cancer patients, standardized by tumor location, were consecutively enrolled. Representative molecular changes including APC, TP53, Wnt, RAF, and mismatch repair defect (MMR) were recorded for each sample. Keywords: disease state analysis; sub-type analysis within colorectal cancers Overall design: 84 samples from colorectal patients were analyzed. Paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from the same patient were used for hybridization onto custom-made, 21k dual channel cDNA arrays. We prepared a similar number of samples from each of the three tumor locations (ascending 27, descending 29, and rectum 28) and recorded for each sample important molecular changes such as APC, TP53, RAF, WNT, and MMR mutations.
Project description:Gene expression was analyzed in terms of canonical molecular changes and clinicopathological features to elucidate alternative or subordinate pathways during colorectal tumorigenesis and tumor growth. Eighty-four sporadic colorectal cancer patients, standardized by tumor location, were consecutively enrolled. Representative molecular changes including APC, TP53, Wnt, RAF, and mismatch repair defect (MMR) were recorded for each sample. Keywords: disease state analysis; sub-type analysis within colorectal cancers 84 samples from colorectal patients were analyzed. Paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from the same patient were used for hybridization onto custom-made, 21k dual channel cDNA arrays. We prepared a similar number of samples from each of the three tumor locations (ascending 27, descending 29, and rectum 28) and recorded for each sample important molecular changes such as APC, TP53, RAF, WNT, and MMR mutations.
Project description:Hereditary colorectal cancer develops through a series of well-defined genetic and histological changes. However, elucidation of the canonical pathway based on hereditary colorectal cancer has not provided a clear explanation of the molecular mechanisms of sporadic colorectal cancer. To identify the alterative pathways involved in sporadic colorectal tumorigenesis, we performed gene expression analysis in patients with sporadic colorectal tumors. A comparison analysis of gene expression profiles revealed a pattern of upregulation of small proline rich repeat protein 3 (SPRR3) in tumor samples. SPRR3 has previously been reported to be downregulated in esophageal cancer. However, in the present study, we observed that SPRR3 was strongly upregulated in 31 of 35 samples of sporadic colorectal tumors (88%). We also determined that overexpression of SPRR3 not only accelerates colorectal cancer cell proliferation but also is associated with lymphovascular invasion in colorectal cancer. Moreover, AKT was activated and p53 levels were decreased in cells that overexpressed SPRR3. In contrast to the pattern seen in esophageal cancer, these results suggest that increased expression of SPRR3 is involved in colorectal tumorigenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This study aimed to find novel biomarkers for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Fluorescent mRNA differential display PCR (DD-PCR) was used to screen the genes differentially expressed in colorectal cancer tissues and their adjacent tissues. The differentially expressed genes were confirmed by real-time PCR and then their clinical relevance (such as association with tumor location and lymph gland metastasis) was further investigated. RESULTS: We identified by DD-PCR a novel RNA helicase, DHX32, which showed higher expression in colorectal cancer tissues than their adjacent tissues, and this result was confirmed by real time RT-PCR. In addition, we found that the level of DHX32 gene expression in colorectal cancer was significantly associated with cancer location, lymph gland metastasis, cancer nodal status, differentiation grade, and Dukes, stage. CONCLUSION: DHX32 may play an important role in the development of colorectal cancer and could serve as a novel biomarker for colorectal cancer after additional investigation.
Project description:The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is mutated in sporadic and familial colorectal tumors. APC stimulates the activity of the Cdc42- and Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Asef and promotes the migration and invasion of colorectal tumor cells. Furthermore, Asef is overexpressed in colorectal tumors and is required for colorectal tumorigenesis. It is also known that NOTCH signaling plays critical roles in colorectal tumorigenesis and fate determination of intestinal progenitor cells. Here we show that NOTCH3 up-regulates Asef expression by activating the Asef promoter in colorectal tumor cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that microRNA-1 (miR-1) is down-regulated in colorectal tumors and that miR-1 has the potential to suppress NOTCH3 expression through direct binding to its 3'-UTR region. These results suggest that the miR-1-NOTCH3-Asef pathway is important for colorectal tumor cell migration and may be a promising molecular target for the treatment of colorectal tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>One of the main glycoproteins responsible for angiogenesis is the vascular endothelial growth factor. It is believed that C936T polymorphism, located in the VEGF gene, is correlated with susceptibility towards development of sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to identify the frequencies of the genotypes of C936T polymorphism of the VEGF gene in patients with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma, in comparison with controls, and whether this correlates with the degree of tumor invasion, lymph node involvement and occurrence of metastases at the time of the diagnosis. The analysis was done on 261 patients with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma and 261 controls. The genotypes of C936T polymorphism were evaluated by means of the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion, using peripheral blood samples.<h4>Results</h4>The occurrences of genotype 936CC were similar in the two groups (80.5% versus 78.5%, p = 0.2288). In relation to tumor location, lymph node involvement, infiltration and tumor metastasis, no statistically significant results were obtained (p = 0.3116, p = 0.8485, p = 0.9408 and p = 0.2861, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>C936T polymorphism of the VEGF gene did not influence the occurrence of sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma development and did not correlated with the degree of tumor invasion, lymph node involvement and occurrence of metastases.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Biological processes are controlled by transcription networks. Expression changes of transcription factor (TF) genes in precancerous lesions are therefore crucial events in tumorigenesis. Our aim was to obtain a comprehensive picture of these changes in colorectal adenomas. METHODS: Using a 3-pronged selection procedure, we analyzed transcriptomic data on 34 human tissue samples (17 adenomas and paired samples of normal mucosa, all collected with ethics committee approval and written, informed patient consent) to identify TFs with highly significant tumor-associated gene expression changes whose potential roles in colorectal tumorigenesis have been under-researched. Microarray data were subjected to stringent statistical analysis of TF expression in tumor vs. normal tissues, MetaCore-mediated identification of TF networks displaying enrichment for genes that were differentially expressed in tumors, and a novel quantitative analysis of the publications examining the TF genes' roles in colorectal tumorigenesis. RESULTS: The 261 TF genes identified with this procedure included DACH1, which plays essential roles in the proper proliferation and differentiation of retinal and leg precursor cell populations in Drosophila melanogaster. Its possible roles in colorectal tumorigenesis are completely unknown, but it was found to be markedly overexpressed (mRNA and protein) in all colorectal adenomas and in most colorectal carcinomas. However, DACH1 expression was absent in some carcinomas, most of which were DNA mismatch-repair deficient. When networks were built using the set of TF genes identified by all three selection procedures, as well as the entire set of transcriptomic changes in adenomas, five hub genes (TGFB1, BIRC5, MYB, NR3C1, and TERT) where identified as putatively crucial components of the adenomatous transformation process. CONCLUSION: The transcription-regulating network of colorectal adenomas (compared with that of normal colorectal mucosa) is characterized by significantly altered expression of over 250 TF genes, many of which have never been investigated in relation to colorectal tumorigenesis.
Project description:The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, ?-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.
Project description:Recent studies have suggested that aberrant K-ras signaling is responsible for triggering immunological responses and inflammation-driven tumorigenesis. Interleukins IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 have been reported in various types of malignancies, but the exact mechanistic role of these molecules remains to be elucidated. Given the role of K-ras and the involvement of interleukins in colorectal tumorigenesis, research efforts are reported for the first time, showing that differentially expressed interleukin IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 levels are associated with K-ras in a stage-specific fashion along colorectal cancer progression. Specifically, a) the effect of K-ras signaling was investigated in the overall expression of interleukins in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls, and b) an association was established between mutant K-ras and cytokines GM-CSF and IFN-?. The results indicate that specific interleukins are differentially expressed in K-ras positive patients and the use of K-ras inhibitor Manumycin A decreases both interleukin levels and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by inhibiting cell viability. Finally, inflammation-driven GM-CSF and IFN-? levels are modulated through interleukin expression in tumor patients, with interleukin expression in the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue mediated by aberrant K-ras signaling. Collectively, the findings a) indicate that interleukin expression is influenced by ras signaling and specific interleukins play an oncogenic promoter role in colorectal cancer, highlighting the molecular link between inflammation and tumorigenesis, and b) accentuate the interwoven molecular correlations as leads to new therapeutic approaches in the future.
Project description:Sporadic colorectal cancer initiates with mutations in APC or its degradation target ?-catenin, producing TCF-dependent nuclear transcription driving tumorigenesis. The intestinal epithelial receptor, GUCY2C, with its canonical paracrine hormone guanylin, regulates homeostatic signaling along the crypt-surface axis opposing tumorigenesis. Here, we reveal that expression of the guanylin hormone, but not the GUCY2C receptor, is lost at the earliest stages of transformation in APC-dependent tumors in humans and mice. Hormone loss, which silences GUCY2C signaling, reflects transcriptional repression mediated by mutant APC-?-catenin-TCF programs in the nucleus. These studies support a pathophysiological model of intestinal tumorigenesis in which mutant APC-?-catenin-TCF transcriptional regulation eliminates guanylin expression at tumor initiation, silencing GUCY2C signaling which, in turn, dysregulates intestinal homeostatic mechanisms contributing to tumor progression. They expand the mechanistic paradigm for colorectal cancer from a disease of irreversible mutations in APC and ?-catenin to one of guanylin hormone loss whose replacement, and reconstitution of GUCY2C signaling, could prevent tumorigenesis.