Selective labeling of living cells by a photo-triggered click reaction.
ABSTRACT: Phototriggering of the metal-free azide to acetylene cycloaddition reaction was achieved by masking the triple bond of dibenzocyclooctynes as cyclopropenone. Such masked cyclooctynes do not react with azides in the dark. Irradiation of cyclopropenones results in the efficient (Phi(355) = 0.33) and clean regeneration of the corresponding dibenzocyclooctynes, which then undergo facile catalyst-free cycloadditions with azides to give corresponding triazoles under ambient conditions. In situ light activation of a cyclopropenone linked to biotin made it possible to label living cells expressing glycoproteins containing N-azidoacetyl-sialic acid. The cyclopropenone-based phototriggered click chemistry offers exciting opportunities to label living organisms in a temporally and spatially controlled manner and may facilitate the preparation of microarrays.
Project description:Oxa-dibenzocyclooctynes (ODIBO, 2a-c) are prepared by photochemical decarbonylation of corresponding cyclopropenones (photo-ODIBO, 1a-c). While photo-ODIBO does not react with azides, ODIBO is one of the most reactive cyclooctynes exhibiting rates of cycloaddition over 45 M(-1) s(-1) in aqueous solutions. ODIBO is stable under ambient conditions and has low reactivity towards thiols. Photo-ODIBO survives heating up to 160 °C and does not react with thiols.
Project description:Although metal-free cycloadditions of cyclooctynes and azides to give stable 1,2,3-triazoles have found wide utility in chemical biology and material sciences, there is an urgent need for faster and more versatile bioorthogonal reactions. We have found that nitrile oxides and diazocarbonyl derivatives undergo facile 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions with cyclooctynes. Cycloadditions with diazocarbonyl derivatives exhibited similar kinetics as compared to azides, whereas the reaction rates of cycloadditions with nitrile oxides were much faster. Nitrile oxides could conveniently be prepared by direct oxidation of the corresponding oximes with BAIB, and these conditions made it possible to perform oxime formation, oxidation, and cycloaddition as a one-pot procedure. The methodology was employed to functionalize the anomeric center of carbohydrates with various tags. Furthermore, oximes and azides provide an orthogonal pair of functional groups for sequential metal-free click reactions, and this feature makes it possible to multifunctionalize biomolecules and materials by a simple synthetic procedure that does not require toxic metal catalysts.
Project description:Strain-promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of cyclooctynes with 1,3-dipoles such as azides, nitrones, and nitrile oxides, are of interest for the functionalization of polymers. In this study, we have explored the use of a 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO)-containing chain transfer agent in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerizations. The controlled radical polymerization resulted in well-defined DIBO-terminating polymers that could be modified by 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions using nitrones, nitrile oxides, and azides having a hydrophilic moiety. The self-assembly properties of the resulting block copolymers have been examined. The versatility of the methodology was further demonstrated by the controlled preparation of gold nanoparticles coated with the DIBO-containing polymers to produce materials that can be further modified by strain-promoted cycloadditions.
Project description:Although strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadditions (SPAAC) have found wide utility in biological and material sciences, the low polarity and limited water solubility of commonly used cyclooctynes represent a serious shortcoming. To address this problem, an efficient synthetic route has been developed for highly polar sulfated dibenzocyclooctynylamides (S-DIBO) by a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of 1,2-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)ethylamides with trichlorocyclopropenium cation followed by a controlled hydrolysis of the resulting dichlorocyclopropenes to give bis(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclooctacyclopropenones, which were subjected to methoxy group removal of the phenols, O-sulfation, and photochemical unmasking of the cyclopropenone moiety. Accurate rate measurements of the reaction of benzyl azide with various dibenzylcyclooctyne derivatives demonstrated that aromatic substitution and the presence of the amide function had only a marginal impact on the rate constants. Biotinylated S-DIBO 8 was successfully used for labeling azido-containing glycoconjugates of living cells. Furthermore, it was found that the substitution pattern of the dibenzylcyclooctynes influences subcellular location, and in particular it has been shown that DIBO derivative 4 can enter cells, thereby labeling intra- and extracellular azido-modified glycoconjugates, whereas S-DIBO 8 cannot pass the cell membrane and therefore is ideally suited for selective labeling of cell surface molecules. The ability to selectively label cell surface molecules will yield unique opportunities for glycomic analysis and the study of glycoprotein trafficking.
Project description:Chemical reactions that enable selective biomolecule labeling in living organisms offer a means to probe biological processes in vivo. Very few reactions possess the requisite bioorthogonality, and, among these, only the Staudinger ligation between azides and triarylphosphines has been employed for direct covalent modification of biomolecules with probes in the mouse, an important model organism for studies of human disease. Here we explore an alternative bioorthogonal reaction, the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and cyclooctynes, also known as "Cu-free click chemistry," for labeling biomolecules in live mice. Mice were administered peracetylated N-azidoacetylmannosamine (Ac(4)ManNAz) to metabolically label cell-surface sialic acids with azides. After subsequent injection with cyclooctyne reagents, glycoconjugate labeling was observed on isolated splenocytes and in a variety of tissues including the intestines, heart, and liver, with no apparent toxicity. The cyclooctynes tested displayed various labeling efficiencies that likely reflect the combined influence of intrinsic reactivity and bioavailability. These studies establish Cu-free click chemistry as a bioorthogonal reaction that can be executed in the physiologically relevant context of a mouse.
Project description:The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of cyclooctynes with azides, also called "copper-free click chemistry", is a bioorthogonal reaction with widespread applications in biological discovery. The kinetics of this reaction are of paramount importance for studies of dynamic processes, particularly in living subjects. Here we performed a systematic analysis of the effects of strain and electronics on the reactivity of cyclooctynes with azides through both experimental measurements and computational studies using a density functional theory (DFT) distortion/interaction transition state model. In particular, we focused on biarylazacyclooctynone (BARAC) because it reacts with azides faster than any other reported cyclooctyne and its modular synthesis facilitated rapid access to analogues. We found that substituents on BARAC's aryl rings can alter the calculated transition state interaction energy of the cycloaddition through electronic effects or the calculated distortion energy through steric effects. Experimental data confirmed that electronic perturbation of BARAC's aryl rings has a modest effect on reaction rate, whereas steric hindrance in the transition state can significantly retard the reaction. Drawing on these results, we analyzed the relationship between alkyne bond angles, which we determined using X-ray crystallography, and reactivity, quantified by experimental second-order rate constants, for a range of cyclooctynes. Our results suggest a correlation between decreased alkyne bond angle and increased cyclooctyne reactivity. Finally, we obtained structural and computational data that revealed the relationship between the conformation of BARAC's central lactam and compound reactivity. Collectively, these results indicate that the distortion/interaction model combined with bond angle analysis will enable predictions of cyclooctyne reactivity and the rational design of new reagents for copper-free click chemistry.
Project description:Little is known about the reactivity of strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reagents with inorganic azides. We explore the reactions of a variety of popular SPAAC reagents with sodium azide and hydrozoic acid. We find that the reactions proceed in water at rates comparable to those with organic azides, yielding in all cases a triazole adduct. The azide ion's utility as a cyclooctyne quenching reagent is demonstrated by using it to spatially pattern uniformly doped hydrogels. The facile quenching of cyclooctynes demonstrated here should be useful in other bioorthogonal ligation techniques in which cyclooctynes are employed, including SPANC, Diels-Alder, and thiol-yne.
Project description:The application of new chemical reactions in a biological context has advanced bioconjugation methods for both fundamental research and commercial arenas. Recent adaptations of reactions such as Huisgen 1,3-dipolar or Diels-Alder cycloadditions have enabled the labeling of specific residues in biomolecules by the attachment of molecules carrying azides, alkynes, or strained alkenes. Although these are fundamental tools, there is a need for the discovery of reactions that can label native proteins. We report herein the adaptation of the Paal-Knorr reaction to label lysine residues in proteins via pyrrole linkages.
Project description:Inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloadditions (iEDDAC) between tetrazines and strained alkenes/alkynes have emerged as essential tools for studying and manipulating biomolecules. A light-triggered version of iEDDAC (photo-iEDDAC) is presented that confers spatio-temporal control to bioorthogonal labeling in?vitro and in?cellulo. A cyclopropenone-caged dibenzoannulated bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne probe (photo-DMBO) was designed that is unreactive towards tetrazines before light-activation, but engages in iEDDAC after irradiation at 365?nm. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs were discovered for efficient site-specific incorporation of tetrazine-containing amino acids into proteins in living cells. In?situ light activation of photo-DMBO conjugates allows labeling of tetrazine-modified proteins in living E.?coli. This allows proteins in living cells to be modified in a spatio-temporally controlled manner and may be extended to photo-induced and site-specific protein labeling in animals.
Project description:Cyclooctyne-based probes that become fluorescent upon reaction with azides are important targets for real-time imaging of azide-labeled biomolecules. The concise synthesis of a coumarin-conjugated cyclooctyne, coumBARAC, that undergoes a 10-fold enhancement in fluorescence quantum yield upon triazole formation with organic azides is reported. The design principles embodied in coumBARAC establish a platform for generating fluorogenic cyclooctynes suited for biological imaging.