Catalytic asymmetric allylic and homoallylic diamination of terminal olefins via formal C-H activation.
ABSTRACT: This paper describes a catalytic asymmetric diamination process for terminal olefins at allylic and homoallylic carbons via formal C-H activation using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source with a catalyst generated from Pd2(dba)3 and chiral phosphorus amidite ligand. A wide variety of readily available terminal olefins can be effectively diaminated in good yields with high regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities.
Project description:CONSPECTUS: Vicinal diamines are important structural motifs present in various biologically and chemically significant molecules. Direct diamination of olefins provides an effective approach to this class of compounds. Unlike well-established oxidation processes such as epoxidation, dihydroxylation, and aminohydroxylation, direct diamination of olefins had remained a long-standing challenge and had been less well developed. In this Account, we summarize our recent studies on Pd(0)- and Cu(I)-catalyzed diaminations of olefins using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone and its related analogues as nitrogen sources via N-N bond activation. A wide variety of imidazolidinones, cyclic sulfamides, indolines, imidazolinones, and cyclic guanidines can be obtained from conjugated dienes and terminal olefins. For conjugated dienes, the diamination proceeds regioselectively at the internal double bond with the Pd(0) catalyst. Mechanistic studies show that the diamination likely involves a four-membered Pd(II) species resulting from the insertion of Pd(0) into the N-N bond of di-tert-butyldiaziridinone. Interestingly, the Cu(I)-catalyzed process occurs regioselectively at either the terminal or internal double bond depending on the reaction conditions via two mechanistically distinct pathways. The Cu(I) catalyst cleaves the N-N bond of di-tert-butyldiaziridinone to form a Cu(II) nitrogen radical and a four-membered Cu(III) species, which are likely in rapid equilibrium. The Cu(II) nitrogen radical and the four-membered Cu(III) species lead to the terminal and internal diamination, respectively. Terminal olefins are effectively C-H diaminated at the allylic and homoallylic carbons with Pd(0) as catalyst and di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source, likely involving a diene intermediate generated in situ from the terminal olefin via formation of a π-allyl Pd complex and subsequent β-hydride elimination. When di-tert-butylthiadiaziridine 1,1-dioxide is used as nitrogen source, cyclic sulfamides are installed at the terminal carbons via a dehydrogenative diamination process. When α-methylstyrenes (lacking homoallylic hydrogens) react with Pd(0) and di-tert-butyldiaziridinone, spirocyclic indolines are formed with generation of four C-N bonds and one spiro quaternary carbon via allylic and aromatic C-H amination. With Cu(I) catalysts, various terminal olefins can be effectively diaminated at the double bonds using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone, di-tert-butylthiadiaziridine 1,1-dioxide, and 1,2-di-tert-butyl-3-(cyanimino)-diaziridine as nitrogen sources, giving a variety of imidazolidinones, cyclic sulfamides, and cyclic guanidines in good yields, respectively. In the case of monosubstituted olefins using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source, the resulting diamination products (imidazolidinones) are readily dehydrogenated under the reaction conditions, leading to the corresponding imidazolinones in good yields. Esters can also be diaminated to form the corresponding hydantoins with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone in the presence of a Cu(I) catalyst. A radical mechanism is likely to be operating in these Cu(I)-catalyzed reaction processes. Asymmetric processes have also been developed for the Pd(0)- and Cu(I)-catalyzed diamination reactions. Biologically active compounds such as (+)-CP-99,994 and Sch 425078 have been synthesized via the diamination processes. The diamination reactions described herein provide efficient methods to access a wide variety of vicinal diamines from readily available olefins and show great potential for synthetic applications.
Project description:This paper describes a diamination process using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source and CuCl as catalyst. A wide variety of disubstituted terminal olefins can be efficiently diaminated in good yields under mild condition. This diamination process was used to synthesize potent NK(1) antagonist Sch 425078.
Project description:Various dienes and a triene can be regioselectively diaminated at the internal double bond with good yields and high diastereoselectivity using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone (5) as the nitrogen source and Pd(PPh(3))(4) (1-10 mol %) as the catalyst. Kinetic studies with (1)H NMR spectroscopy show that the diamination is first-order in total Pd catalyst and inverse first-order in PPh(3). For reactive dienes, such as 1-methoxybutadiene (6g) and alkyl 1,3-butadienes (6a, 6j), the diamination is first-order in di-tert-butyldiaziridinone (5) and zero-order in the olefin. For olefins with relatively low reactivity, such as (E)-1-phenylbutadiene (6b) and (3E,5E)-1,3,5-decatriene (6i), similar diamination rates were observed when 3.5 equiv of olefins were used. Pd(PPh(3))(2) is likely to be the active species for the insertion of Pd(0) into the N-N bond of di-tert-butyldiaziridinone (5) to form a four-membered Pd(II) complex (A), which can be detected by NMR spectroscopy. The olefin complex (B), formed from intermediate A via ligand exchange between the olefin substrate and the PPh(3), undergoes migratory insertion and reductive elimination to give the diamination product and regenerate the Pd(0) catalyst.
Project description:Various achiral and chiral Cu(I) salts have been prepared from mesitylcopper(I) and investigated for the diamination of conjugated olefins with 1,3-di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source. It has been found that copper(I) phosphate has high catalytic activity for the diamination, and encouraging ee's have also been achieved with chiral phosphates as anionic counterions.
Project description:This paper describes the Cu(I)-catalyzed regioselective diamination of conjugated dienes using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source. The internal diamination and terminal diamination likely proceed via two mechanistic pathways. Various dienes can be efficiently diaminated at the internal double bonds with high regio- and diasteroselectivity in good yield using inexpensive CuBr as catalyst.
Project description:Conjugated dienes can be diaminated at the internal and/or terminal double bonds using Cu(I) as catalyst and N,N-di-t-butyldiaziridinone (1) as nitrogen source. The regioselectivity is highly dependent upon the choice of Cu(I) catalyst and the substituents on diene substrates. The diamination likely proceeds via two mechanistically distinct pathways. The N-N bond of N,N-di-t-butyldiaziridinone (1) is first homolytically cleaved by the Cu(I) catalyst to form four-membered Cu(III) species A and Cu(II) radical species B, which are in rapid equilibrium. The internal diamination likely proceeds in a concerted manner via Cu(III) species A, and the terminal diamination likely involves Cu(II) radical species B. Kinetic studies have shown that the diamination is first-order in N,N-di-t-butyldiaziridinone (1), zero-order in olefin, and first-order in total Cu(I) catalyst, and the cleavage of the N-N bond of 1 by the Cu(I) catalyst is the rate-determining step. The internal diamination is favored by use of CuBr without ligand and electron-rich dienes. The terminal diamination is favored when using CuCl-L and dienes with radical-stabilizing groups.
Project description:The enantioselective, vicinal diamination of alkenes represents one of the stereocontrolled additions that remains an outstanding challenge in organic synthesis. A general solution to this problem would enable the efficient and selective preparation of widely useful, enantioenriched diamines for applications in medicinal chemistry and catalysis. In this article, we describe the first enantioselective, syn-diamination of simple alkenes mediated by a chiral, enantioenriched organoselenium catalyst together with a N,N'-bistosyl urea as the bifunctional nucleophile and N-fluorocollidinium tetrafluoroborate as the stoichiometric oxidant. Diaryl, aryl-alkyl, and alkyl-alkyl olefins bearing a variety of substituents are all diaminated in consistently high enantioselectivities but variable yields. The reaction likely proceeds through a Se(II)/Se(IV) redox catalytic cycle reminiscent of the syn-dichlorination reported previously. Furthermore, the syn-stereospecificity of the transformation shows promise for highly enantioselective diaminations of alkenes with no strong steric or electronic bias.
Project description:This paper describes an asymmetric synthesis of the potent substance P receptor antagonist (+)-CP-99,994 from 4-phenyl-1-butene via Pd(0)-catalyzed asymmetric allylic and homoallylic C-H diamination.
Project description:A Cu(I)-catalyzed asymmetric diamination for a variety of conjugated dienes and a triene with encouraging ee's has been effectively achieved using (R)-DTBM-SEGPHOS as a chiral ligand and di- tert-butyldiaziridinone as the nitrogen source.
Project description:Vicinal diamines are ubiquitous materials in organic and medicinal chemistry. The direct coupling of olefins and amines would be an ideal approach to construct these motifs. However, alkene diamination remains a long-standing challenge in organic synthesis, especially when using two different amine components. We report a general strategy for the direct and selective assembly of vicinal 1,2-diamines using readily available olefin and amine building blocks. This mild and straightforward approach involves in?situ formation and photoinduced activation of N-chloroamines to give aminium radicals that enable efficient alkene aminochlorination. Owing to the ambiphilic nature of the ?-chloroamines produced, conversion into tetra-alkyl aziridinium ions was possible, thus enabling diamination by regioselective ring-opening with primary or secondary amines. This strategy streamlines the preparation of vicinal diamines from multistep sequences to a single chemical transformation.