Recognition and coupling of A-to-I edited sites are determined by the tertiary structure of the RNA.
ABSTRACT: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing has been shown to be an important mechanism that increases protein diversity in the brain of organisms from human to fly. The family of ADAR enzymes converts some adenosines of RNA duplexes to inosines through hydrolytic deamination. The adenosine recognition mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, to investigate it, we analyzed a set of selectively edited substrates with a cluster of edited sites. We used a large set of individual transcripts sequenced by the 454 sequencing technique. On average, we analyzed 570 single transcripts per edited region at four different developmental stages from embryogenesis to adulthood. To our knowledge, this is the first time, large-scale sequencing has been used to determine synchronous editing events. We demonstrate that edited sites are only coupled within specific distances from each other. Furthermore, our results show that the coupled sites of editing are positioned on the same side of a helix, indicating that the three-dimensional structure is key in ADAR enzyme substrate recognition. Finally, we propose that editing by the ADAR enzymes is initiated by their attraction to one principal site in the substrate.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA bind double-stranded and structured RNAs and convert adenosines to inosines by hydrolytic deamination. Inosines are recognized as guanosines, and, hence, RNA editing alters the sequence information but also structure of RNAs. Editing by ADARs is widespread and essential for normal life and development. Precursors of miRNAs are abundantly edited by ADARs, but neither the abundance nor the consequences of miRNA editing has been firmly established. Using transgenic mouse embryos that are deficient in the two enzymatically active editing enzymes ADAR and ADARB1, we compare relative frequencies but also sequence composition of miRNAs in these genetically modified backgrounds to wild-type mice by "next-generation sequencing." Deficiency of ADARB1 leads to a reproducible change in abundance of specific miRNAs and their predicted targets. Changes in miRNA abundance seem unrelated to editing events. Additional deletion of ADAR has surprisingly little impact on the mature miRNA repertoire, indicating that miRNA expression is primarily dependent on ADARB1. A-to-G transitions reflecting A-to-I editing events can be detected at few sites and at low frequency during the early embryonic stage investigated. Again, most editing events are ADARB1-dependent with only few editing sites being specifically edited by ADAR. Besides known editing events in miRNAs, a few novel, previously unknown editing events were identified. Some editing events are located to the seed region of miRNAs, opening the possibility that editing leads to their retargeting.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) deaminate adenosines in dsRNA to produce inosines. ADARs are essential in mammals and are particularly important in the nervous system. Altered levels of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing are observed in several diseases. The extent to which an adenosine is edited depends on sequence context. Human ADAR2 (hADAR2) has 5' and 3' neighbor preferences, but which amino acids mediate these preferences, and by what mechanism, is unknown. We performed a screen in yeast to identify mutations in the hADAR2 catalytic domain that allow editing of an adenosine within a disfavored triplet. Binding affinity, catalytic rate, base flipping, and preferences were monitored to understand the effects of the mutations on ADAR reactivity. Our data provide information on the amino acids that affect preferences and point to a conserved loop as being of key importance. Unexpectedly, our data suggest that hADAR2's preferences derive from differential base flipping rather than from direct recognition of neighboring bases. Our studies set the stage for understanding the basis of altered editing levels in disease and for developing therapeutic reagents.
Project description:ADARs (Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) "edit" RNA by converting adenosines to inosines within double-stranded regions. The primary targets of ADARs are long duplexes present within noncoding regions of mRNAs, such as introns and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Because adenosine and inosine have different base-pairing properties, editing within these regions can alter splicing and recognition by small RNAs. However, despite numerous studies identifying multiple editing sites in these genomic regions, little is known about the extent to which editing sites co-occur on individual transcripts or the functional output of these combinatorial editing events. To begin to address these questions, we performed an ultra-deep sequencing analysis of 4 Caenorhabditis elegans 3' UTRs that are known ADAR targets. Synchronous editing events were determined for the long duplexes in vivo. Furthermore, the validity of each editing event was confirmed by sequencing the same regions of mRNA from worms that lack A-to-I editing. This analysis identified a large number of editing sites that can occur within each 3' UTR, but interestingly, each individual transcript contained only a small fraction of these A-to-I editing events. In addition, editing patterns were not random, indicating that an editing event can affect the efficiency of editing at subsequent adenosines. Furthermore, we identified specific sites that can be both positively and negatively correlated with additional sites leading to mutually exclusive editing patterns. These results suggest that editing in noncoding regions is selective and hyper-editing of cellular RNAs is rare.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A-to-I RNA editing is a co-/post-transcriptional modification catalyzed by ADAR enzymes, that deaminates Adenosines (A) into Inosines (I). Most of known editing events are located within inverted ALU repeats, but they also occur in coding sequences and may alter the function of encoded proteins. RNA editing contributes to generate transcriptomic diversity and it is found altered in cancer, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Emerging evidences indicate that editing process could be influenced by genetic variations, biological and environmental variables. RESULTS:We analyzed RNA editing levels in human blood using RNA-seq data from 459 healthy individuals and identified 2079 sites consistently edited in this tissue. As expected, analysis of gene expression revealed that ADAR is the major contributor to editing on these sites, explaining ~?13% of observed variability. After removing ADAR effect, we found significant associations for 1122 genes, mainly involved in RNA processing. These genes were significantly enriched in genes encoding proteins interacting with ADARs, including 276 potential ADARs interactors and 9 ADARs direct partners. In addition, our analysis revealed several factors potentially influencing RNA editing in blood, including cell composition, age, Body Mass Index, smoke and alcohol consumption. Finally, we identified genetic loci associated with editing levels, including known ADAR eQTLs and a small region on chromosome 7, containing LOC730338, a lincRNA gene that appears to modulate ADARs mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS:Our data provides a detailed picture of the most relevant RNA editing events and their variability in human blood, giving interesting insights on potential mechanisms behind this post-transcriptional modification and its regulation in this tissue.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNAs (ADARs) interact with double-stranded RNAs, deaminating adenosines to inosines. Previous studies of Caenorhabditis elegans indicated an antagonistic interaction between ADAR and RNAi machineries, with ADAR defects suppressed upon additional knockout of RNAi. This suggests a pool of common RNA substrates capable of engaging both pathways. To define and characterize such substrates, we examined small RNA and mRNA populations of ADAR mutants and identified a distinct set of loci from which RNAi-dependent short RNAs are markedly upregulated. At these same loci, we observed populations of multiply edited transcripts, supporting a specific role for ADARs in preventing access to the RNAi pathway for an extensive population of dsRNAs. Characterization of these loci revealed a substantial overlap with noncoding and intergenic regions, suggesting that the landscape of ADAR targets may extend beyond previously annotated classes of transcripts.
Project description:Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing contributes to transcript diversity and modulates gene expression in a dynamic, cell type-specific manner. During mammalian brain development, editing of specific adenosines increases, whereas the expression of A-to-I editing enzymes remains unchanged, suggesting molecular mechanisms that mediate spatiotemporal regulation of RNA editing exist. Herein, by using a combination of biochemical and genomic approaches, we uncover a molecular mechanism that regulates RNA editing in a neural- and development-specific manner. Comparing editomes during development led to the identification of neural transcripts that were edited only in one life stage. The stage-specific editing is largely regulated by differential gene expression during neural development. Proper expression of nearly one-third of the neurodevelopmentally regulated genes is dependent on <i>adr-2</i>, the sole A-to-I editing enzyme in <i>C. elegans</i> However, we also identified a subset of neural transcripts that are edited and expressed throughout development. Despite a neural-specific down-regulation of <i>adr-2</i> during development, the majority of these sites show increased editing in adult neural cells. Biochemical data suggest that ADR-1, a deaminase-deficient member of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family, is competing with ADR-2 for binding to specific transcripts early in development. Our data suggest a model in which during neural development, ADR-2 levels overcome ADR-1 repression, resulting in increased ADR-2 binding and editing of specific transcripts. Together, our findings reveal tissue- and development-specific regulation of RNA editing and identify a molecular mechanism that regulates ADAR substrate recognition and editing efficiency.
Project description:<h4>Motivation</h4>A-to-I RNA editing is an important mechanism that consists of the conversion of specific adenosines into inosines in RNA molecules. Its dysregulation has been associated to several human diseases including cancer. Recent work has demonstrated a role for A-to-I editing in microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene expression regulation. In fact, edited forms of mature miRNAs can target sets of genes that differ from the targets of their unedited forms. The specific deamination of mRNAs can generate novel binding sites in addition to potentially altering existing ones.<h4>Results</h4>This work presents miR-EdiTar, a database of predicted A-to-I edited miRNA binding sites. The database contains predicted miRNA binding sites that could be affected by A-to-I editing and sites that could become miRNA binding sites as a result of A-to-I editing.<h4>Availability</h4>miR-EdiTar is freely available online at http://microrna.osumc.edu/mireditar.<h4>Contact</h4>firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com<h4>Supplementary information</h4>Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:RNA editing catalyzed by ADAR1 and ADAR2 involves the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine within imperfectly duplexed RNA. ADAR1- and ADAR2-mediated editing occurs within transcripts of glutamate receptors (GluR) in the brain and in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA in the liver. Although the Q/R site within the GluR-B premessage is edited more efficiently by ADAR2 than it is by ADAR1, the converse is true for the +60 site within this same transcript. ADAR1 and ADAR2 are homologs having two common functional regions, an N-terminal double-stranded RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal deaminase domain. It is neither understood why only certain adenosines within a substrate molecule serve as targets for ADARs, nor is it known which domain of an ADAR confers its specificity for particular editing sites. To assess the importance of several aspects of RNA sequence and structure on editing, we evaluated 20 different mutated substrates, derived from four editing sites, for their ability to be edited by either ADAR1 or ADAR2. We found that when these derivatives contained an A:C mismatch at the editing site, editing by both ADARs was enhanced compared to when A:A or A:G mismatches or A:U base pairs occurred at the same site. Hence substrate recognition and/or catalysis by ADARs could involve the base that opposes the edited adenosine. In addition, by using protein chimeras in which the deaminase domains were exchanged between ADAR1 and ADAR2, we found that this domain played a dominant role in defining the substrate specificity of the resulting enzyme.
Project description:An important molecular mechanism to create protein diversity from a limited set of genes is A-to-I RNA editing. RNA editing converts single adenosines into inosines in pre-mRNA. These single base conversions can have a wide variety of consequences. Editing can lead to codon changes and, consequently, altered protein function. Moreover, editing can alter splice sites and influences miRNA biogenesis and target recognition. The two enzymes responsible for editing in mammals are adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) 1 and 2. However, it is currently largely unknown how the activity of these enzymes is regulated in vivo. Editing activity does not always correlate with ADAR expression levels, suggesting posttranscriptional or posttranslational mechanisms for controlling activity. To investigate how editing is regulated in mammalian cells, we have developed a straightforward quantitative reporter system to detect editing levels. By employing luciferase activity as a readout, we could easily detect different levels of editing in a cellular context. In addition, increased levels of ADAR2 correlated with increased levels of luciferase activity. This reporter system therefore sets the stage for the effective screening of cDNA libraries or small molecules for strong modulators of intracellular editing to ultimately elucidate how A-to-I editing is regulated in vivo.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing by ADARs affects thousands of adenosines in an organism's transcriptome. However, adenosines are not edited at equal levels nor do these editing levels correlate well with ADAR expression levels. Therefore, additional mechanisms are utilized by the cell to dictate the editing efficiency at a given adenosine. To examine cis-and trans-acting factors that regulate A-to-I editing levels specifically in neural cells, we utilized the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans We demonstrate that a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein, ADR-1, inhibits editing in neurons, which is largely masked when examining editing levels from whole animals. Furthermore, expression of ADR-1 and mRNA expression of the editing target can act synergistically to regulate editing efficiency. In addition, we identify a dsRNA region within the Y75B8A.83' UTR that acts as acis-regulatory element by enhancing ADR-2 editing efficiency. Together, this work identifies mechanisms that regulate editing efficiency of noncoding A-to-I editing sites, which comprise the largest class of ADAR targets.