Gene silencing of HPV16 E6/E7 induced by promoter-targeting siRNA in SiHa cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, transcriptional gene silencing induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was found in mammalian and human cells. However, previous studies focused on endogenous genes. METHODS: In this study, we designed siRNA targeting the promoter of human papillomavirus 16 E6/E7 and transfected it into the cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression were detected in cells treated by promoter-targeting siRNA. Futhermore, cellular growth, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence were detected. Thereafter, we investigated promoter DNA methylation and histone methylation status in cells treated with promoter-targeting siRNA. RESULTS: We found that E6/E7 mRNA and protein were simultaneously reduced, cell growth and proliferation were inhibited and cell death, especially senescence, was remarkably increased. Meanwhile, we also found a significantly increasing histone H3-Lys9 methylation on the promoter when E6/E7 gene expression was inhibited. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that promoter-targeting siRNA effectively and simultaneously knocks down both extraneous HPV 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, and consequently inhibits proliferation and induces death in HPV 16-infected cells. This transcriptional repression is probably induced by histone modification rather than by alteration of DNA methylation.
Project description:Cervical cancer is the most fourth common cancer in women worldwide. The E6 and E7 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are the main cause of this cancer. Several studies have revealed that promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes is induced by HPV E7. Recently, it was found that HPV16-E7 and the DNA methyltransferase 1 complex could bind at the cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter, resulting in CCNA1 promoter methylation. Therefore, there is a need to study other tumor suppressor genes for which HPV may induce promoter methylation. The present study investigated whether HPV induced cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) promoter methylation. C33a (no HPV infection) and SiHa (HPV 16 infection) cell lines were used for methylation status and expression observation. It was found that CADM1 and DAPK1 promoter methylation, no expression of CADM1 and decreased expression of DAPK1, was presented in SiHa cells. While no promoter methylation of these two genes was observed in C33a cells, with positive expression of the genes. It was subsequently investigated whether E6 and/or E7 could induce promoter methylation and decrease the expression of these two genes. Methylation-specific primer PCR and quantitative PCR were performed to elucidate the promoter methylation status and expression of CADM1 and DAPK1 in C33a cells transfected with HPV16 E6-PCDNA3 or HPV16 E7-PCDNA3.1 myc-his, compared to empty vector-transfected cells. The results showed that HPV E7 could induce CADM1 promoter methylation and decrease the gene expression in HPV E7 transfected C33a cells, while HPV E6 could induce DAPK1 promoter methylation and decrease its expression in C33a cells transfected with HPV E6. Finally, the mechanism by which HPV E7 induced CADM1 promoter methylation was observed by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation; the data showed that E7 induced CADM1 methylation by the same mechanism as that for CCNA1, by binding at the CADM1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of its expression in cervical cancer.
Project description:The functional inactivation of TP53 and Rb tumor suppressor proteins by the HPV-derived E6 and E7 oncoproteins is likely an important step in cervical carcinogenesis. We have previously shown siRNA technology to selectively silence both E6/E7 oncogenes and demonstrated that the synthetic siRNAs could specifically block its expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the potentiality of E6/E7 siRNA candidates as radiosensitizers of radiotherapy for the human cervical carcinomas. HeLa and SiHa cells were transfected with HPV E6/E7 siRNA; the combined cytotoxic effect of E6/E7 siRNA and radiation was assessed by using the cell viability assay, flow cytometric analysis and the senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) assay. In addition, we also investigated the effect of combined therapy with irradiation and E6/E7 siRNA intravenous injection in an in vivo xenograft model. Combination therapy with siRNA and irradiation efficiently retarded tumor growth in established tumors of human cervical cancer cell xenografted mice. In addition, the chemically-modified HPV16 and 18 E6/E7 pooled siRNA in combination with irradiation strongly inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells. Our results indicated that simultaneous inhibition of HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression with radiotherapy can promote potent antitumor activity and radiosensitizing activity in human cervical carcinomas.
Project description:In SiHa and CaSki cells, E6 and E7-targeting shRNA specifically and effectively knocked down human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, reduced the E6 and E7 mRNA levels by more than 80% compared with control cells that expressed a scrambled-sequence shRNA. E6 and E7 repression resulted in down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase mRNA and protein expression, decreased DNA methylation and increased mRNA expression levels of tumor suppressor genes, induced a certain apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in E6 and E7 shRNA-infected SiHa and CaSki cells compared with the uninfected cells. Repression of E6 and E7 oncogenes resulted in restoration of DNA methyltransferase suppressor pathways and induced apoptosis in HPV16-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the potential carcinogenic mechanism of HPV16 through influencing DNA methylation pathway to activate the development of cervical cancer exist, and maybe as a candidate therapeutic strategy for cervical and other HPV-associated cancers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-16 is a paradigm for "high-risk" HPVs, the causative agents of virtually all cervical carcinomas. HPV E6 and E7 viral genes are usually expressed in these tumors, suggesting key roles for their gene products, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, in inducing malignant transformation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:By protein-protein interaction analysis, using mass spectrometry, we identified glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1) as a novel cellular partner of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein. Following mapping of the region in the HPV-16 E7 sequence that is involved in the interaction, we generated a three-dimensional molecular model of the complex between HPV-16 E7 and GSTP1, and used this to engineer a mutant molecule of HPV-16 E7 with strongly reduced affinity for GSTP1.When expressed in HaCaT human keratinocytes, HPV-16 E7 modified the equilibrium between the oxidized and reduced forms of GSTP1, thereby inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and its ability to induce apoptosis. Using GSTP1-deficient MCF-7 cancer cells and siRNA interference targeting GSTP1 in HaCaT keratinocytes expressing either wild-type or mutant HPV-16 E7, we uncovered a pivotal role for GSTP1 in the pro-survival program elicited by its binding with HPV-16 E7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This study provides further evidence of the transforming abilities of this oncoprotein, setting the groundwork for devising unique molecular tools that can both interfere with the interaction between HPV-16 E7 and GSTP1 and minimize the survival of HPV-16 E7-expressing cancer cells.
Project description:It is well known that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. The integration of HPV genes into the host genome causes the upregulation of E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 and E7 proteins inactivate and degrade tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma, respectively, leading to malignant progression. HPV E6 and E7 antigens are ideal targets for the development of therapies for cervical cancer and precursor lesions because they are constitutively expressed in infected cells and malignant tumors but not in normal cells and they are essential for cell immortalization and transformation. Immunotherapies are being developed to target E6/E7 by eliciting antigen-specific immune responses. siRNA technologies target E6/E7 by modulating the expression of the oncoproteins. Proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors are being developed to indirectly target E6/E7 by interfering with their oncogenic activities. The ultimate goal for HPV-targeted therapies is the progression through clinical trials to commercialization.
Project description:Enhanced aerobic glycolysis constitutes an additional source of energy for tumor proliferation and metastasis. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer (CC); however, the associated molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined, as does the relationship between CC and aerobic glycolysis. To investigate whether HPV 16/18 E6/E7 can enhance aerobic glycolysis in CC, E6/E7 expression was knocked down in SiHa and HeLa cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Then, glucose uptake, lactate production, ATP levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were evaluated. RNA-seq was used to probe the molecular mechanism involved in E6/E7-driven aerobic glycolysis, and identified IGF2BP2 as a target of E6/E7. The regulatory effect of IGF2BP2 was confirmed by qRT-PCR, western blot, and RIP assay. The biological roles and mechanisms underlying how HPV E6/E7 and IGF2BP2 promote CC progression were confirmed <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Human CC tissue microarrays were used to analyze IGF2BP2 expression in CC. The knockdown of E6/E7 and IGF2BP2 attenuated the aerobic glycolytic capacity and growth of CC cells, while IGF2BP2 overexpression rescued this effect <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. IGF2BP2 expression was higher in CC tissues than in adjacent tissues and was positively correlated with tumor stage. Mechanistically, E6/E7 proteins promoted aerobic glycolysis, proliferation, and metastasis in CC cells by regulating MYC mRNA m<sup>6</sup>A modifications through IGF2BP2. We found that E6/E7 promote CC by regulating MYC methylation sites via activating IGF2BP2 and established a link between E6/E7 and the promotion of aerobic glycolysis and CC progression. Blocking the HPV E6/E7-related metabolic pathway represents a potential strategy for the treatment of CC.
Project description:We have previously shown a functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in lung cells suggesting cooperation during carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of such interaction, however, remain to be elucidated. Here we first present evidence showing that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has the ability to activate the HPV-16 p97 promoter by acting on the long control region (LCR) in lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, we observed that CSC-induced p97 promoter activation occurs in a dose-dependent manner in both tumor A-549 (lung adenocarcinoma), H-2170 (bronchial carcinoma), SiHa or Hela (cervical carcinoma) cells but not in non-tumor BEAS-2B (bronchial) or NL-20 (alveolar) lung cells unless they ectopically expressed the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. In addition, we also observed a significant increase of primary DNA damage in tumor and non-tumor CSC-treated lung cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes suggesting a cooperative effect in this process, even though the contribution of E7 was significantly higher. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that tobacco smoke is able to induce the activation of the HPV-16 p97 promoter in cooperation with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes that, in turn, sensitize lung cells to tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage.
Project description:Persistent HPV infection is recognized as the main etiologic factor for cervical cancer. HPV expresses the oncoproteins E6 and E7, both of which play key roles in maintaining viral infection and promoting carcinogenesis. While siRNA-mediated targeting of E6 and E7 transcripts temporarily induces apoptosis in HPV-positive cells, it does not eliminate viral DNA within the host genome, which can harbor escape mutants. Here, we demonstrated that specifically targeting E6 and E7 within host DNA with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) induces apoptosis, inhibits growth, and reduces tumorigenicity in HPV-positive cell lines. TALEN treatment efficiently disrupted E6 and E7 oncogenes, leading to the restoration of host tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), which are targeted by E6 and E7, respectively. In the K14-HPV16 transgenic mouse model of HPV-driven neoplasms, direct cervical application of HPV16-E7-targeted TALENs effectively mutated the E7 oncogene, reduced viral DNA load, and restored RB1 function and downstream targets transcription factor E2F1 and cycling-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), thereby reversing the malignant phenotype. Together, the results from our study suggest that TALENs have potential as a therapeutic strategy for HPV infection and related cervical malignancy.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 can integrate into the host genome, thereby rendering the viral coding genes susceptible to epigenetic modification. Using bisulfite genomic sequencing, we determined the methylation status of all 110 CpG sites within the viral epigenome in advanced stage III/IV HPV-16-associated head and neck cancers. We found that the viral genome was hypomethylated in the majority of head and neck cancers, in particular within the viral regulatory region, long control region (LCR), which controls transcription of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. The hypomethylation status of LCR correlated with detectable levels of E6 and E7 expression, which suggests that the tumors may still be dependent on these viral oncogenes to maintain the malignant phenotype. In addition to the methylation status of LCR, we report other potential factors which may influence intratumoral E6 and E7 expression including viral copy number and integration site. We were able to detect the viral epigenetic alterations in sampled body fluids, such as serum and saliva, which correlated with the changes observed in the primary tumors. Because viral epigenetic changes occur in the setting of viral integration into the human genome, the detection of methylated HPV genes in the serum and/or saliva may have diagnostic potential for early detection strategies of viral integration and assessment of risk for cancer development in high-risk individuals. Our findings also support continued targeting of the E6 and/or E7 antigens through various vaccine strategies against HPV-associated cancers.