The role of tenascin-C in tissue injury and tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-C is highly expressed during embryonic development, tissue repair and in pathological situations such as chronic inflammation and cancer. Tenascin-C interacts with several other extracellular matrix molecules and cell-surface receptors, thus affecting tissue architecture, tissue resilience and cell responses. Tenascin-C modulates cell migration, proliferation and cellular signaling through induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oncogenic signaling molecules amongst other mechanisms. Given the causal role of inflammation in cancer progression, common mechanisms might be controlled by tenascin-C during both events. Drugs targeting the expression or function of tenascin-C or the tenascin-C protein itself are currently being developed and some drugs have already reached advanced clinical trials. This generates hope that increased knowledge about tenascin-C will further improve management of diseases with high tenascin-C expression such as chronic inflammation, heart failure, artheriosclerosis and cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tenascin-C, an adhesion modulatory extracellular matrix molecule, is highly expressed in numerous human malignancies; thus, it may contribute to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We explored the clinicopathological significance of Tenascin-C as a prognostic determinant of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).<h4>Methods</h4>In ESCC patient tissues and cell lines, the presence of isoforms were examined using western blotting. We then investigated Tenascin-C immunohistochemical expression in 136 ESCC tissue samples. The clinical relevance of Tenascin-C expression and the correlation between Tenascin-C expression and expression of other factors related to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were also determined.<h4>Results</h4>Both 250 and 350 kDa sized isoforms of Tenascin-C were expressed only in esophageal cancer tissue not in normal tissue. Furthermore, both isoforms were also identified in all of four CAFs derived from esophageal cancer tissues. Tenascin-C expression was remarkably higher in ESCC than in adjacent non-tumor esophageal epithelium (p < 0.001). Tenascin-C expression in ESCC stromal fibroblasts was associated with patient's age, tumor (pT) stage, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, and cancer recurrence. Tenascin-C expression in cancer cells was correlated with an increase in tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) population, cancer recurrence, and hypoxia inducible factor1? (HIF1?) expression. Moreover, Tenascin-C overexpression in cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts was an independent poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). In the Cox proportional hazard regression model, Tenascin-C overexpression in cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts was a significant independent hazard factor for OS and DFS in ESCC patients in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, Tenascin-C expression in stromal fibroblasts of the ESCC patients was positively correlated with platelet-derived growth factor ? (PDGFR?), PDGFR?, and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression. The 5-year OS and DFS rates were remarkably lower in patients with positive expressions of both Tenascin-C and PDGFR? (p < 0.001), Tenascin-C and PDGFR? (p < 0.001), Tenascin-C and SMA (p < 0.001), Tenascin-C and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) (p < 0.001), and Tenascin-C and fibroblast-stimulating protein-1 (FSP1) (p < 0.001) in ESCC stromal fibroblasts than in patients with negative expressions of both Tenascin-C and one of the abovementioned CAF markers.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results show that Tenascin-C is a reliable and significant prognostic factor in ESCC. Tenascin-C may thus be a potent ESCC therapeutic target.
Project description:The extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule tenascin-C (TNC) promotes tumor progression. This has recently been demonstrated in the stochastic murine RIP1-Tag2 insulinoma model, engineered to either express TNC abundantly or to be devoid of TNC. However, our knowledge about organization of the TNC microenvironment is scant. Here we determined the spatial distribution of TNC together with other ECM molecules in murine RIP1-Tag2 insulinoma and human cancer tissue (insulinoma and colorectal carcinoma). We found that TNC is organized in matrix tracks together with other ECM molecules of the AngioMatrix signature, a previously described gene expression profile that characterizes the angiogenic switch. Moreover, stromal cells including endothelial cells, fibroblasts and leukocytes were enriched in the TNC tracks. Thus, TNC tracks may provide niches for stromal cells and regulate their behavior. Given similarities of TNC rich niches for stromal cells in human insulinoma and colon cancer, we propose that the RIP1-Tag2 model may be useful for providing insights into the contribution of the tumor stroma specific ECM as promoter of cancer progression.
Project description:Endogenous molecules generated upon pathogen invasion or tissue damage serve as danger signals that activate host defense; however, their precise immunological role remains unclear. Tenascin-C is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is specifically induced upon injury and infection. Here, we show that its expression is required to generate an effective immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during experimental sepsis in vivo. Tenascin-C enables macrophage translation of proinflammatory cytokines upon LPS activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and suppresses the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines. It mediates posttranscriptional control of a specific subset of inflammatory mediators via induction of the microRNA miR-155. Thus, tenascin-C plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory axis during pathogenic activation of TLR signaling.
Project description:Tenascins are a family of multifunctional glycoproteins found in the extracellular matrix of chordates. Two of the tenascins, tenascin-C and tenascin-W, form hexabrachions. In this review, we describe the discovery and domain architecture of tenascin-W, its evolution and patterns of expression during embryogenesis and in tumors, and its effects on cells in culture. In avian and mammalian embryos tenascin-W is primarily expressed at sites of osteogenesis, and in the adult tenascin-W is abundant in certain stem cell niches. In primary cultures of osteoblasts tenascin-W promotes cell migration, the formation of mineralized foci and increases alkaline phosphatase activity. Tenascin-W is also prominent in many solid tumors, yet it is missing from the extracellular matrix of most adult tissues. This makes it a potential candidate for use as a marker of tumor stroma and a target for anti-cancer therapies.
Project description:Fetal variants of tenascin-C are not expressed in healthy adult myocardium. But, there is a relevant re-occurrence during pathologic cardiac tissue and vascular remodeling. Thus, these molecules, in particular B and C domain containing tenascin-C, might qualify as promising novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis estimation. Since a stable extracellular deposition of fetal tenascin-C variants is present in diseased cardiac tissue, the molecules are excellent target structures for antibody-based delivery of diagnostic (e.g., radionuclides) or therapeutic (bioactive payloads) agents directly to the site of disease. Against the background that fetal tenascin-C variants are functionally involved in cardiovascular tissue remodeling, therapeutic functional blocking strategies could be experimentally tested in the future.
Project description:Adhesion modulatory proteins are important effectors of cell-matrix interactions during tissue remodeling and regeneration. They comprise a diverse group of matricellular proteins that confer antiadhesive properties to the extracellular matrix (ECM). We compared the inhibitory effects of two adhesion modulatory proteins, fibulin-1 and tenascin-C, both of which bind to the C-terminal heparin-binding (HepII) domain of fibronectin (FN) but are structurally distinct. Here, we report that, like tenascin-C, fibulin-1 inhibits fibroblast spreading and cell-mediated contraction of a fibrin-FN matrix. These proteins act by modulation of focal adhesion kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. The inhibitory effects were bypassed by lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of RhoA GTPase. Fibroblast response to fibulin-1, similar to tenascin-C, was dependent on expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-4, which also binds to the HepII domain. Therefore, blockade of HepII-mediated signaling by competitive binding of fibulin-1 or tenascin-C represents a shared mechanism of adhesion modulation among disparate modulatory proteins.
Project description:Tenascin-C is a large, multimodular, extracellular matrix glycoprotein that exhibits a very restricted pattern of expression but an enormously diverse range of functions. Here, we discuss the importance of deciphering the expression pattern of, and effects mediated by, different forms of this molecule in order to fully understand tenascin-C biology. We focus on both post transcriptional and post translational events such as splicing, glycosylation, assembly into a 3D matrix and proteolytic cleavage, highlighting how these modifications are key to defining tenascin-C function.
Project description:Extrahepatic cancers of the biliary system are typically asymptomatic until after metastasis, which contributes to their poor prognosis. Here we examined intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (n = 8), carcinomas of perihilar bile ducts (n = 7), carcinomas of the gallbladder (n = 11) and hepatic metastasis from carcinomas of the gallbladder (n = 4) for the expression of the extracellular matrix glycoproteins tenascin-C and tenascin-W. Anti-tenascin-C and anti-tenascin-W immunoreactivity was found in all biliary tract tumors examined. Unlike tenascin-C, tenascin-W was not detected in normal hepatobiliary tissue. Tenascin-W was also expressed by the cholangiocarcinoma-derived cell line Huh-28. However, co-culture of Huh-28 cells with immortalized bone marrow-derived stromal cells was necessary for the formation and organization of tenascin-W fibrils <i>in vitro</i>. Our results indicate that tenascin-W may be a novel marker of hepatobiliary tumor stroma, and its absence from many normal tissues suggests that it may be a potential target for biotherapies.
Project description:Pattern recognition underpins innate immunity; the accurate identification of danger, including infection, injury, or tumor, is key to an appropriately targeted immune response. Pathogen detection is increasingly well defined mechanistically, but the discrimination of endogenous inflammatory triggers remains unclear. Tenascin-C, a matrix protein induced upon tissue damage and expressed by tumors, activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sterile inflammation. Here we map three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with TLR4. We also identify a conserved inflammatory epitope in related proteins from diverse families, and demonstrate that its presence targets molecules for TLR detection, while its absence enables escape of innate immune surveillance. These data reveal a unique molecular code that defines endogenous proteins as inflammatory stimuli by marking them for recognition by TLRs.