WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health in Latin America: classifying caesarean sections.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. METHODS: We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. RESULTS: The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3) represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5) represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections). The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1) or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2), which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care providers to plan practical and effective actions targeting specific groups of women to improve maternal and perinatal care.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To analyse the current situation of caesarean section in Palestine using the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS).<h4>Design</h4>A population-based birth cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Obstetrical departments in three governmental hospitals in Gaza.<h4>Participants</h4>All women (18 908) who gave birth between 1 January 2016 and 30 April 2017.<h4>Methods</h4>The contributions of each group to the study population and to the overall rate of caesarean section were calculated, as well as the rate of caesarean section in each TGCS group. Differences in proportions between study hospitals were assessed by ?<sup>2</sup> test.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The main outcome was the contributions of each group to the overall caesarean section rate.<h4>Results</h4>The overall rate of caesarean section was 22.9% (4337 of 18 908), ranging from 20.6% in hospital 1 to 24.6% in hospital 3. The largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy who had undergone at least one caesarean section (group 5, 42.6%), women with multiple pregnancies (group 8, 11.6%) and those with single cephalic preterm labour (group 10, 8.1%). Statistically significant differences in caesarean section rates between the study hospitals were observed in group 1 (nulliparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy and spontaneous labour), group 4 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with induced labour or prelabour caesarean section), group 5 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with previous caesarean section) and in group 7 (multiparous with breech presentation).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Women in groups 5, 8 and 10 were the largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate in the study hospitals. Efforts to reduce the differences in obstetrical care between hospitals need to be directed towards increasing the proportion of vaginal births after caesarean section and by reducing primary caesarean section in multiple pregnancies and preterm labour.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To test the hypothesis that it is possible to select a group of low risk women who can start labour in midwife-led care without having increased rates of severe adverse maternal outcomes compared to women who start labour in secondary care.<h4>Design and methods</h4>We conducted a nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands, using data from 223 739 women with a singleton pregnancy between 37 and 42 weeks gestation without a previous caesarean section, with spontaneous onset of labour and a child in cephalic presentation. Information on all cases of severe acute maternal morbidity collected by the national study into ethnic determinants of maternal morbidity in the Netherlands (LEMMoN study), 1 August 2004 to 1 August 2006, was merged with data from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry of all births occurring during the same period. Our primary outcome was severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, i.e. admission to an intensive care unit, uterine rupture, eclampsia or severe HELLP, major obstetric haemorrhage, and other serious events). Secondary outcomes were postpartum haemorrhage and manual removal of placenta.<h4>Results</h4>Nulliparous and parous women who started labour in midwife-led care had lower rates of SAMM, postpartum haemorrhage and manual removal of placenta compared to women who started labour in secondary care. For SAMM the adjusted odds ratio's and 95% confidence intervals were for nulliparous women: 0.57 (0.45 to 0.71) and for parous women 0.47 (0.36 to 0.62).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that it is possible to identify a group of women at low risk of obstetric complications who may benefit from midwife-led care. Women can be reassured that we found no evidence that midwife-led care at the onset of labour is unsafe for women in a maternity care system with a well developed risk selection and referral system.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The rising rates of primary caesarean section have resulted in a larger obstetric population with scarred uteri. Subsequent pregnancies in these women are risk-prone and may complicate. Besides ensuring standardised management, care pathways could be used to evaluate for perinatal outcomes in these high risk pregnancies. We aim to demonstrate the use of a care pathway for vaginal birth after caesarean section as a service evaluation tool to determine perinatal outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective service evaluation by review of delivery case notes and records was undertaken at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya between January 2008 and December 2009. Women with ?2 previous caesarean sections, previous classical caesarean section, multiple gestation, breech presentation, severe pre-eclampsia, transverse lie, placenta praevia, conditions requiring induction of labour and incomplete records were excluded. Outcome measures included the proportion of eligible women who opted for test of scar (ToS), success rate of vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC); proportion on women opting for elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) and their perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 215 women with one previous caesarean section were followed up using a standard care pathway. The median parity (minimum-maximum) was 1.01234. The other demographic characteristics were comparable. Only 44.6% of eligible mothers opted to have a ToS. The success rate for VBAC was 49.4% with the commonest (31.8%) reason for failure being protracted active phase of labour. Maternal morbidity was comparable for the failed and successful VBAC group. The incidence of hemorrhage was 2.3% and 4.4% for the successful and failed VBAC groups respectively. The proportion of babies with acidotic arterial PH (< 7.10) was 3.1% and 22.2% among the successful and failed VBAC groups respectively. No perinatal mortality was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Besides ensuring standardised management, care pathways could be objective audit and service evaluation tools for determining perinatal outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To study the association between duration of second stage of labour and risks of maternal complications (infection, urinary retention, haematoma or ruptured sutures) in the early postpartum period.<h4>Design</h4>Population-based cohort study.<h4>Setting and sample</h4>We included 72 593 mothers with singleton vaginal deliveries at ?37 weeks of gestation in cephalic presentation, using the obstetric database from the Stockholm-Gotland region in Sweden, 2008-12.<h4>Methods</h4>Logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated and adjustments were made for maternal age, body mass index, height, smoking, cohabitation, gestational age, labour induction, epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation.<h4>Results</h4>Rates of any complication varied by parity from 7.3% in parous women with previous caesarean section, 4.8% in primiparas and 1.7% in parous women with no previous caesarean section. Compared with a second stage <1 hour, the adjusted ORs for any complication (95% CI) in primiparas were for 1 to <2 hours 1.28 (1.11-1.47); 2 to <3 hours 1.54 (1.32-1.79), 3 to <4 hours 1.63 (1.38-1.93) and ?4 hours 2.08 (1.74-2.49). The corresponding adjusted ORs for parous women without previous caesarean were 2.27 (1.78-2.90), 2.97 (2.09-4.22), 3.65 (2.25-5.94) and 3.16 (1.44-6.94), respectively. The adjusted ORs for women with previous caesarean were for 1 to <2 hours 1.62 (1.13-2.32); 2 to <3 hours 1.56 (1.00-2.43), 3 to <4 hours 2.42 (1.52-3.87), and ?4 hours 2.31 (1.25-4.24).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Risks of maternal complications in the postpartum period increase with duration of second stage of labour also after accounting for maternal, pregnancy and delivery characteristics. Special attention has to be given to parous women with previous caesarean deliveries.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To analyse caesarean section (CS) using Robson 10-group classification system in an Ethiopian university hospital. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:A university hospital in eastern, Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS:980 women who underwent CS from January 2016 to April 2017. MAIN OUTCOME:Robson groups (1-10-based on gestational age, fetal presentation, number of fetus, onset of labour and history of CS) and indications for CS. RESULTS:Robson group 3 (multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy in spontaneous labour with no history of CS), group 5 (multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with history of CS) and group 1 (single cephalic nulliparous women full-term pregnancy in spontaneous labour) were the major contributors to the overall CS at 21.4%, 21.1% and 19.3%, respectively. The three major indications for CS were fetal compromise (mainly fetal distress), obstructed labour (mainly cephalopelvic disproportion) and previous CS. CONCLUSION:Robson groups 3, 5 and 1 were the major contributors to the overall CS rate. Fetal compromise, obstructed labour and previous CS were the underlying indications for performing CS. Further study is required to assess the appropriateness of the indications and to reduce CS among the low-risk groups (groups 1 and 3).
Project description:To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China.Observational study.China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS).6?838?582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ?1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016.Obstetric risk was defined using a modified Robson classification. The main outcome measures were changes in parity and age distributions and relative frequency of each Robson group, crude and adjusted trends over time in caesarean section rates within each risk category (using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator), and trends in perinatal and pregnancy related mortality over time.Caesarean section rates declined steadily between 2012 and 2016 (crude relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.93), reaching an overall hospital based rate of 41.1% in 2016. The relaxation of the one child policy was associated with an increase in the proportion of multiparous births (from 34.1% in 2012 to 46.7% in 2016), and births in women with a uterine scar nearly doubled (from 9.8% to 17.7% of all births). Taking account of these changes, the decline in caesarean sections was amplified over time (adjusted relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.84). Caesarean sections declined noticeably in nulliparous women (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77) but also declined in multiparous women without a uterine scar (0.65, 0.62 to 0.77). The decrease in caesarean section rates was most pronounced in hospitals with the highest rates in 2012, consistent with the government's policy of targeting hospitals with the highest rates. Perinatal mortality declined from 10.1 to 7.2 per 1000 births over the same period (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91), and there was no change in pregnancy related mortality over time.China is the only country that has succeeded in reverting the rising trends in caesarean sections. China's success is remarkable given that the changes in obstetric risk associated with the relaxation of the one child policy would have led to an increase in the need for caesarean sections. China's experience suggests that change is possible when strategies are comprehensive and deal with the system level factors that underpin overuse as well as the various incentives at work during a clinical encounter.
Project description:The aim of the study was to identify which groups of women contribute to interinstitutional variation of caesarean delivery (CD) rates and which are the reasons for this variation. In this regard, 15,726 deliveries from 11 regional centers were evaluated using the 10-group classification system. Standardized indications for CD in each group were used. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to calculate (1) relationship between institutional CD rates and relative sizes/CD rates in each of the ten groups/centers; (2) correlation between institutional CD rates and indications for CD in each of the ten groups/centers. Overall CD rates correlated with both CD rates in spontaneous and induced labouring nulliparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy at term (P = 0.005). Variation of CD rates was also dependent on relative size and CD rates in multiparous women with previous CD, single cephalic pregnancy at term (P < 0.001). As for the indications, "cardiotocographic anomalies" and "failure to progress" in the group of nulliparous women in spontaneous labour and "one previous CD" in multiparous women previous CD correlated significantly with institutional CD rates (P = 0.021, P = 0.005, and P < 0.001, resp.). These results supported the conclusion that only selected indications in specific obstetric groups accounted for interinstitutional variation of CD rates.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To identify obstetrical subgroups in which (1) the caesarean delivery (CD) rate may be reduced without compromising safety and (2) CD may be associated with better perinatal outcomes.<h4>Design</h4>A multicentre cross-sectional study.<h4>Setting</h4>19 hospitals in the USA that participated in the Consortium on Safe Labor.<h4>Participants</h4>228?562 pregnant women in 2002-2008.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Maternal and neonatal safety was measured using the individual Weighted Adverse Outcome Score.<h4>Methods</h4>Women were divided into 10 subgroups according to a modified Robson classification system. Generalised estimated equation model was used to examine the relationships between mode of delivery and Weighted Adverse Outcome Score in each subgroup.<h4>Results</h4>The overall caesarean rate was 31.2%. Repeat CD contributed 29.5% of all CD, followed by nulliparas with labour induction (15.3%) and non-cephalic presentation (14.3%). The caesarean rates in induced nulliparas with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy and women with previous CD were 31.6% and 82.0%, respectively. CD had no clinically meaningful association with perinatal outcomes in most subgroups. However, in singleton preterm breech presentation and preterm twin gestation with the first twin in non-cephalic presentation, CD was associated with substantially improved maternal and perinatal outcomes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Women with repeat CD, term non-cephalic presentation, term twins or other multiple gestation and preterm births may be the potential targets for safely reducing prelabour CD rate, while nulliparas or multiparas with spontaneous or induced labour, women with repeat CD, term non-cephalic presentation, term twins or other multiple gestation and preterm births are potential targets for reducing intrapartum CD rate without compromising maternal and neonatal safety in the USA. On the other hand, CD may still be associated with better perinatal outcomes in women with singleton preterm breech presentation or preterm twins with the first twin in non-cephalic presentation.
Project description:Gestational diabetes (GDM) affects a substantial proportion of women in pregnancy and is associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal and long term outcomes. Treatment seems to improve perinatal outcomes, the relative effectiveness of different strategies for identifying women with GDM however is less clear.This paper describes an evaluation of the impact of a change in policy from selective risk factor based offering, to universal offering of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to identify women with GDM on maternal and neonatal outcomes.Retrospective six year analysis of 35,674 births at the Women's and Newborn unit, Bradford Royal Infirmary, United Kingdom.The proportion of the whole obstetric population diagnosed with GDM increased almost fourfold following universal offering of an OGTT compared to selective offering of an OGTT; Rate Ratio (RR) 3.75 (95% CI 3.28 to 4.29), the proportion identified with severe hyperglycaemia doubled following the policy change; 1.96 (1.50 to 2.58). The case detection rate however, for GDM in the whole population and severe hyperglycaemia in those with GDM reduced by 50-60%; 0.40 (0.35 to 0.46) and 0.51 (0.39 to 0.67) respectively. Universally offering an OGTT was associated with an increased induction of labour rate in the whole obstetric population and in women with GDM; 1.43 (1.35 to 1.50) and 1.21 (1.00 to1.49) respectively. Caesarean section, macrosomia and perinatal mortality rates in the whole population were similar. For women with GDM, rate of caesarean section; 0.70 (0.57 to 0.87), macrosomia; 0.22 (0.15 to 0.34) and perinatal mortality 0.12 (0.03 to 0.46) decreased following the policy change.Universally offering an OGTT was associated with increased identification of women with GDM and severe hyperglycaemia and with neonatal benefits for those with GDM. There was no evidence of benefit or adverse effects in neonatal outcomes in the whole obstetric population.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Internationally, the 10-Group Classification System (TGCS) has been used to report caesarean section rates, but analysis of other outcomes is also recommended. We now aim to present the TGCS as a method to assess outcomes of labour and delivery using routine collection of perinatal information. DESIGN:This research is a methodological study to describe the use of the TGCS. SETTING:Stavanger University Hospital (SUH), Norway, National Maternity Hospital Dublin, Ireland and Slovenian National Perinatal Database (SLO), Slovenia. PARTICIPANTS:9848 women from SUH, Norway, 9250 women from National Maternity Hospital Dublin, Ireland and 106 167 women, from SLO, Slovenia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:All women were classified according to the TGCS within which caesarean section, oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, operative vaginal deliveries, episiotomy, sphincter rupture, postpartum haemorrhage, blood transfusion, maternal age >35 years, body mass index >30, Apgar score, umbilical cord pH, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, antepartum and perinatal deaths were incorporated. RESULTS:There were significant differences in the sizes of the groups of women and the incidences of events and outcomes within the TGCS between the three perinatal databases. CONCLUSIONS:The TGCS is a standardised objective classification system where events and outcomes of labour and delivery can be incorporated. Obstetric core events and outcomes should be agreed and defined to set standards of care. This method provides continuous and available observations from delivery wards, possibly used for further interpretation, questions and international comparisons. The definition of quality may vary in different units and can only be ascertained when all the necessary information is available and considered together.