Mental status and health-related quality of life in an elderly population 15 years after limited cerebral ischaemia.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stroke has a major impact on survivors. Our study was designed to describe the mental status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in long-term survivors of TIA or minor ischaemic stroke (MIS) and evaluate associations of mental and physical factors with HR-QoL. METHODS: A random sample of the 10-year survivors of the Dutch TIA Trial (DTT) and the dutch participants of the European Atrial Fibrillation Trial (EAFT) were interviewed by postal questionnaire (n = 468) and at home (n = 198). Demographic data, mental health status (depression (CES-D), cognition (CAMCOG)), and health perception (SF-36 and Euroqol) were measured. RESULTS: 198 long-term survivors were included; mean age was 72.5 (SD 8.7 years), 22% was depressed (CES-D > or = 16) and 15% had cognitive dysfunction (CAMCOG < 80). The overall HR-QoL did not differ much from the norm population. Physical disability, occurrence of a major stroke and comorbidity of locomotion or the heart were independently associated with a low health perception. CONCLUSIONS: Despite varying amounts of disability, the majority of long-term survivors of a TIA or MIS rated their quality of life as rather good. Physical factors, rather than mental status were independently related to a decrease in perceived health.
Project description:Stroke may have a major effect on survivors and on the healthcare system.To study the functional status and use of healthcare facilities in long-term survivors of a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor ischaemic stroke (MIS) and evaluate associations with baseline and follow-up characteristics.Follow-up of patients who had participated in the Dutch TIA Trial or the European Atrial Fibrillation Trial was extended to a mean period of 15.6 years. Patients were interviewed through a postal questionnaire (n = 468) and a sample of this group was also interviewed at home (n = 198). Demographic data, information on comorbidity, functional status (Barthel Index, Frenchay Activities Index and modified Rankin Scale) and use of healthcare facilities were recorded.About one third of the survivors interviewed at home experienced any residual disability and 26% were moderately to severely handicapped. Factors associated with poor functional status were advanced age and the presence of any infarct on a baseline computed tomography scan, the recurrence of a new major stroke or the presence of comorbidity of locomotion. One third of survivors used any kind of professional care, which was predominantly related to the functional status at follow-up.Recurrent stroke and the presence of comorbidity of locomotion are important determinants of long-term disability of survivors of a TIA or an MIS, which, in turn, is strongly associated with the long-term use of professional care. The need for measuring comorbidity with regard to functional status is recommended in research on stroke outcome.
Project description:We investigated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with TIA and minor ischemic stroke (MIS) using Neuro-QOL, a validated, patient-reported outcome measurement system.Consecutive patients with TIA or MIS who had (1) modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 or 1 at baseline, (2) initial NIH Stroke Scale score of ?5, (3) no acute reperfusion treatment, and (4) 3-month follow-up, were recruited. Recurrent stroke, disability by mRS and Barthel Index, and Neuro-QOL scores in 5 prespecified domains were prospectively recorded. We assessed the proportion of patients with impaired HRQOL, defined as T scores more than 0.5 SD worse than the general population average, and identified predictors of impaired HRQOL using logistic regression.Among 332 patients who met study criteria (mean age 65.7 years, 52.4% male), 47 (14.2%) had recurrent stroke within 90 days and 41 (12.3%) were disabled (mRS >1 or Barthel Index <95) at 3 months. Any HRQOL impairment was noted in 119 patients (35.8%). In multivariate analysis, age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.04), initial NIH Stroke Scale score (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.17-1.64), recurrent stroke (adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.06-4.13), and proxy reporting (adjusted OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.54-10.10) were independent predictors of impaired HRQOL at 3 months.Impairment in HRQOL is common at 3 months after MIS and TIA. Predictors of impaired HRQOL include age, index stroke severity, and recurrent stroke. Future studies should include HRQOL measures in outcome assessment, as these may be more sensitive to mild deficits than traditional disability scales.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to compare the health outcomes of catheter ablation therapy against those of antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF). The effects of catheter ablation and AADs on a number of parameters were compared, including AF recurrence, all-cause mortality, stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and quality of life (QoL). A systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted to obtain relevant randomized controlled trials. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of AF recurrence, all-cause mortality and stroke/TIA between catheter ablation and AADs were subsequently calculated. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were used to evaluate the QoL between the two therapy groups. In total, 11 randomized trials, which included 1,763 AF patients, were eligible for the meta-analysis. Overall, the results indicated that catheter ablation produces superior outcomes compared with AADs in reducing AF recurrence (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.38-0.58; P<0.001) and improving the QoL (physical component summary: WMD, 2.23; 95% CI, 0.24-4.21; P=0.03; mental component summary: WMD, 2.69; 95% CI, 0.04-5.35; P=0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was identified between the two groups with regard to the incidence of all-cause mortality (RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.37-2.06; P=0.76) and stroke/TIA (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 0.73-4.55; P=0.20). In summary, catheter ablation was demonstrated to markedly reduce AF recurrence and improve QoL when compared with AAD therapy. However, the incidence rates of all-cause mortality and stroke/TIA were comparable between catheter ablation and AAD therapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:In patients after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, dysfunction is often underestimated by clinical measures due to invisible symptoms, including cognitive and emotional problems. Many of these patients need stroke care programme, but others do not. In this study, we aim to identify potential predictors of quality of life (QoL) in patients with TIA or minor stroke 1 year poststroke to be able to select which of these patients will need aftercare. DESIGN:Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING:Single-centre hospital in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS:120 patients, diagnosed with TIA or minor stroke and discharged without rehabilitation treatment, completed the study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:QoL (RAND-36), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), the degree of disability or functional dependence after stroke (modified Rankin Scale (mRS)) and symptoms of anxiety and depression specific to stroke (SSADQ) were assessed at baseline (2-6 weeks poststroke) and compared with follow-up at 1 year poststroke. RESULTS:Depression (B=-1.35, p<0.001) and anxiety (B=-0.57, p=0.041) at baseline predicted a worse mental component of QoL after 1 year. Depression (B=-1.100, p<0.001) at baseline, but also age (B=-0.261, p=0.002) and female sex (B=4.101, p=0.034) predicted a worse physical component of QoL after 1 year. CONCLUSION:With the identification of these predictors, we might be able to select more efficiently and timely the patients with TIA or minor stroke who need stroke aftercare.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of caregivers and survivors of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and stroke during one year post discharge in comparison to age- and sex-matched population norms; and to analyse the association of initial stroke severity, measured by a routinely used stroke-specific scale, on subsequent HRQoL of caregivers and survivors. METHODS:Cohort of hospitalized patients with TIA and stroke discharged alive from a large university hospital in Norway, and their informal caregivers. Questionnaires at 3 and 12 months post discharge were filled out by caregivers (n?=?320 and n?=?326, respectively) and survivors (n?=?368 and n?=?383, respectively). Multivariable linear regression analyses tested associations between initial stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS) and HRQoL (EQ-5D-3L) in caregivers and survivors. RESULTS:Caregivers of survivors with TIA or stroke did not report lower HRQoL than matched norms. There was some evidence of an association of the NIHSS with caregiver HRQoL at 3 months only (age-sex-adjusted coefficient -?0.01, p?=?0.008), however, this was attenuated after additional adjustments. Survivors with stroke, but not TIA, reported lower HRQoL than population norms at both time points. There was a negative association between higher NIHSS scores and survivors' HRQoL; fully adjusted coefficient -?0.01 at both time points (p?=?0.001). CONCLUSION:The informal caregivers and survivors with TIA did not report lower than expected HRQoL. Increasing stroke severity was associated with decreasing HRQoL among survivors, but had limited predictive value among caregivers. Other factors may therefore be better indicators of 'at risk' caregivers.
Project description:Three-year changes in well-being were studied among family caregivers of an epidemiologically derived sample of stroke survivors from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study and compared to matched noncaregivers.Family caregivers of REGARDS participants who experienced a stroke event completed telephone interviews assessing depressive symptoms, mental and physical health quality of life (QOL), life satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction at approximately 9, 18, 27, and 36 months after the stroke (n = 235). For each stroke caregiver, a family member of a stroke-free REGARDS participant was enrolled as a matched noncaregiving control (n = 235) and completed similar interviews.Multilevel longitudinal models found that caregivers showed poorer well-being at 9 months poststroke than controls on all measures except physical health QOL. Significant differences were sustained for 22 months after the stroke event for depressive symptoms, 31 months for mental health QOL, and 15 months for life satisfaction. For leisure satisfaction, differences were still significant at 36 months poststroke. Caregiving effects were similar across race and sex.Stroke caregiving is associated with persistent psychological distress, but life satisfaction, depression, and mental health QOL became comparable to noncaregivers by 3 years after stroke. Caregiver leisure satisfaction was chronically lower than in noncaregivers. Intervention for stroke caregivers should recognize both the strains faced by caregivers and their capacity for successful coping over time.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Large-scale clinical trials have analyzed risk factors for any ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the risk factors for cardioembolic stroke (CES), specifically, have not been reported. To clarify the risk factors for CES and clinically significant cardioembolic infarction, we examined the incidence of CES and larger infarct volume (IV) (> 30 mL) CES, employing the Fushimi AF Registry, a community-based prospective cohort of AF patients in the Fushimi ward, Kyoto, Japan. METHODS:A total of 4,182 Fushimi AF patients were enrolled from March 2011 to December 2014. The risk factors for CES were evaluated using multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Of 4,182 patients enrolled, 3,749 patients were observed for ?1 year. During the follow-up period (mean duration, 979 ± 7.7 days), 91/3,749 patients experienced a CES (2.43%). Significant risk factors associated with CES were older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.72; p = 0.046), low body weight (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03-1.65; p = 0.033), sustained AF (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.05-2.71; p = 0.034), and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.22-3.06; p = 0.004). Predictors of a large IV were chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.09-4.05; p = 0.027) and previous stroke/TIA (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.19-4.24; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS:In this population-based cohort of Japanese patients with AF, in addition to previous stroke/TIA and older age, sustained AF and low body weight emerged as risk factors for CES, as opposed to any stroke, which may have a different risk profile. Patients with CKD or previous stroke/TIA who developed cardioembolic infarction exhibited more advanced severity. There is a need for direct oral anticoagulants that can be used safely in patients with comorbid AF and CKD.
Project description:Quality of life (QoL) assessment is important when monitoring over time the recovery of stroke-survivors living at home. This study explores the associations between QoL and socioeconomic factors, functional impairments and self-reported dissatisfaction with received information and home-care services among survivors two years after stroke onset. This problem remains partially addressed though optimal information and services may improve survivors' QoL.Stroke-survivors admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg 18 months or more previously were identified using the only care-expenditure-reimbursement national system database. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed. Ninety four patients aged 65 years and living at home were interviewed to gather socioeconomic characteristics, functional impairments, dissatisfaction with information and home-care services, and QoL (using the Newcastle Stroke-Specific QoL, newsqol) assessing 11 domains. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models.About 50% of survivors had low education and lower income. Functional impairments were common: sensory (45%), motor (35%), memory (32%), language (31%), and vision (20%). Survivors with education (<12th grade) or lower income had low values for most newsqol domains (sex-age-adjusted regression coefficient saRC, i.e. mean difference, between -23 and -8). Patients who were working had better values for pain, mental feelings and sleep domains than did retired people (saRC between -3.9 and 4.2). Various functional impairments were associated with markedly low values of nearly all domains (saRC between -33.5 and -7.5) and motor, language, memory and sensory impairments had the highest impact. The survivors' perceived QoL was markedly low, especially for the domains of interpersonal relationship, sleep, cognition, mental feelings, and pain. Various QoL domains were strongly related to dissatisfaction with information about stroke and its consequences/changes over time, accuracy of information obtained, help received, coordination between services, and the possibility of receiving help when necessary (saRC reaching -30).Stroke-survivors had major alterations in QoL that reflected depressive symptoms, which should be appropriately treated. These findings may help with the development of public policies aiming at improving QoL among stroke survivors. The newsqol could be used routinely to measure the recovery of survivors over time and their needs in terms of information, help and care services.
Project description:Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after life-threatening events, including illness, but correlates of PTSD after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) have not been well described.We measured the prevalence of stroke-induced PTSD with the PTSD Checklist Specific for stroke (PCL-S) in adults who had a stroke or TIA within 5 years. A PCL-S score of 50 or more indicated likely PTSD. We tested for potential predictors of stroke-associated PTSD, including demographics, stroke history, disability, medical comorbidities, depression, and emotional support and then examined the association between poststroke PTSD and measures of physical and mental health.Of 535 participants, 95 (18%) had a PCL-S score of 50 or more; the mean score was 35.4 ± 13.7 (range 17-80 of 85). In logistic regression analysis, low income (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.61), recurrent stroke or TIA (OR 1.86, 1.10-3.16), more disability (OR 1.79, 1.43-2.23), and increased comorbidities (OR 1.90, 1.05-3.45) were independently associated with PTSD. Older age (OR .93, .90-.95), marriage or partnership (OR .52, .28-.98), and having emotional support (OR .25, .11-.54) were protective against developing PTSD. Participants with likely PTSD had worse physical and mental health.In this racially and ethnically diverse cohort of stroke and TIA survivors, stroke-induced PTSD was associated with younger age, recurrent strokes, greater disability, and comorbidities. PTSD was associated with a substantially increased physical, mental, and quality of life burden in this already vulnerable population. Having social support was protective, suggesting a potential target for intervention.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:There is a lack of knowledge regarding post-discharge hospitalisation utilisation after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in China. The aim of this study is to quantify rehospitalisation use in survivors of TIA compared with their own previous hospital use and matched survivors of stroke. DESIGN:Nested case-control study of electronic medical records datasets. SETTING:958 hospitals in Henan, China, from July 2012 to December 2015. PARTICIPANTS:In total, 4823 survivors of stroke were matched to the TIA cohort (average age: 64.5 years; proportion of men: 48.4%) at a 1:1 ratio. All subjects with an onset of stroke/TIA were recorded with a 1-year look-back and follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES:Adjusted difference-in-differences (DID) values in 1-year hospital lengths of stay (LOSs) and readmission within 7, 30 and 90 days. RESULTS:There was an increase in hospital admissions in survivors of TIA in the year after the index hospitalisation compared with the prior year. Of the 2449 rehospitalisation events that occurred during the first year after TIA, stroke (20.6%) was the most common reason for rehospitalisation. There was no difference in the stroke-specific readmission rates between the TIA and stroke cohorts (p=0.198). The TIA cohort had fewer readmissions within 30 days and 90 days after all-cause discharge compared with the controls. The corresponding covariate-adjusted DID values were -3.5 percentage points (95%?CI -5.3 to -1.8) and -4.5 (95% CI -6.5 to -2.4), respectively. A similar trend was observed in the 1-year LOS. In the stratified analysis, the DID reductions were not significant in patients with more comorbidities or in rural patients. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with survivors of stroke, survivors of TIA use fewer hospital resources up to 1?year post-discharge. Greater attention to TIAs among patients with more comorbidities and rural patients may provide an opportunity to reduce hospital use.