Cyclodextrin overcomes deficient lysosome-to-endoplasmic reticulum transport of cholesterol in Niemann-Pick type C cells.
ABSTRACT: A handoff model has been proposed to explain the egress from lysosomes of cholesterol derived from receptor-mediated endocytosis of LDL. Cholesterol is first bound by soluble Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) protein, which hands off the cholesterol to the N-terminal domain of membrane-bound NPC1. Cells lacking NPC1 or NPC2 accumulate LDL-derived cholesterol in lysosomes and fail to deliver LDL cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for esterification by acyl-CoA acyltransferase (ACAT) and for inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage. Here, we support this model by showing that the cholesterol transport defect in NPC1 mutant cells is restricted to lysosomal export. Other cholesterol transport pathways appear normal, including the movement of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the ER after treatment of cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol or sphingomyelinase. The NPC1 or NPC2 block in cholesterol delivery to the ER can be overcome by 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, which leads to a marked increase in ACAT-mediated cholesterol esterification. The buildup of cholesteryl esters in the cytosol is expected to be much less toxic than the buildup of free cholesterol in the lysosomes of patients with mutations in NPC1 or NPC2.
Project description:Water-soluble Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) and membrane-bound NPC1 are cholesterol-binding lysosomal proteins required for export of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes. The binding site in NPC1 is located in its N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects into the lysosomal lumen. Here we perform alanine-scanning mutagenesis to identify residues in NPC2 that are essential for transfer of cholesterol to NPC1(NTD). Transfer requires three residues that form a patch on the surface of NPC2. We previously identified a patch of residues on the surface of NPC1(NTD) that are required for transfer. We present a model in which these two surface patches on NPC2 and NPC1(NTD) interact, thereby opening an entry pore on NPC1(NTD) and allowing cholesterol to transfer without passing through the water phase. We refer to this transfer as a hydrophobic handoff and hypothesize that this handoff is essential for cholesterol export from lysosomes.
Project description:LDL delivers cholesterol to lysosomes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Exit of cholesterol from lysosomes requires two proteins, membrane-bound Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and soluble NPC2. NPC2 binds cholesterol with its isooctyl side chain buried and its 3beta-hydroxyl exposed. Here, we describe high-resolution structures of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1 and complexes with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol. NPC1(NTD) binds cholesterol in an orientation opposite to NPC2: 3beta-hydroxyl buried and isooctyl side chain exposed. Cholesterol transfer from NPC2 to NPC1(NTD) requires reorientation of a helical subdomain in NPC1(NTD), enlarging the opening for cholesterol entry. NPC1 with point mutations in this subdomain (distinct from the binding subdomain) cannot accept cholesterol from NPC2 and cannot restore cholesterol exit from lysosomes in NPC1-deficient cells. We propose a working model wherein after lysosomal hydrolysis of LDL-cholesteryl esters, cholesterol binds NPC2, which transfers it to NPC1(NTD), reversing its orientation and allowing insertion of its isooctyl side chain into the outer lysosomal membranes.
Project description:Export of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes requires the cooperation of the integral membrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and a soluble protein, Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2). Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins lead to Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). NPC2 binds to NPC1's second (middle), lumenally oriented domain (MLD) and transfers cholesterol to NPC1's N-terminal domain (NTD). Here, we report the 2.4-Å resolution crystal structure of a complex of human NPC1-MLD and NPC2 bearing bound cholesterol-3-O-sulfate. NPC1-MLD uses two protruding loops to bind NPC2, analogous to its interaction with the primed Ebola virus glycoprotein. Docking of the NPC1-NPC2 complex onto the full-length NPC1 structure reveals a direct cholesterol transfer tunnel between NPC2 and NTD cholesterol binding pockets, supporting the "hydrophobic hand-off" cholesterol transfer model.
Project description:Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is caused by mutations in NPC1 or NPC2, which coordinate egress of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol from late endosomes. We previously reported that the adenovirus-encoded protein RID? rescues the cholesterol storage phenotype in NPC1-mutant fibroblasts. We show here that RID? reconstitutes deficient endosome-to-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transport, allowing excess LDL-cholesterol to be esterified by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase and stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in NPC1-deficient cells. Furthermore, the RID? pathway is regulated by the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. Studies have classified ORP1L as a sterol sensor involved in LE positioning downstream of GTP-Rab7. Our data, however, suggest that ORP1L may play a role in transport of LDL-cholesterol to a specific ER pool designated for LD formation. In contrast to NPC1, which is dispensable, the RID?/ORP1L-dependent route requires functional NPC2. Although NPC1/NPC2 constitutes the major pathway, therapies that amplify minor egress routes for LDL-cholesterol could significantly improve clinical management of patients with loss-of-function NPC1 mutations. The molecular identity of putative alternative pathways, however, is poorly characterized. We propose RID? as a model system for understanding physiological egress routes that use ORP1L to activate ER feedback responses involved in LD formation.
Project description:Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein is needed for cellular utilization of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol that has been delivered to lysosomes. The protein has 13 transmembrane domains, three large lumenal domains, and a cytoplasmic tail. NPC1's lumenally oriented, N-terminal domain binds cholesterol and has been proposed to receive cholesterol from NPC2 protein as part of the process by which cholesterol is exported from lysosomes into the cytosol. Using surface plasmon resonance and affinity chromatography, we show here that the second lumenal domain of NPC1 binds directly to NPC2 protein. For these experiments, a soluble NPC1 lumenal domain 2 was engineered by replacing adjacent transmembrane domains with antiparallel coiled-coil sequences. Interaction of NPC2 with NPC1 lumenal domain 2 is only detected at acidic pH, conditions that are optimal for cholesterol binding to NPC2 and transfer to NPC1; the pH is also appropriate for the acidic environment where binding would take place. Binding to NPC1 domain 2 requires the presence of cholesterol on NPC2 protein, a finding that supports directional transfer of cholesterol from NPC2 onto NPC1's N-terminal domain. Finally, human disease-causing mutations in NPC1 domain 2 decrease NPC2 binding, suggesting that NPC2 binding is necessary for NPC1 function in humans. These data support a model in which NPC1 domain 2 holds NPC2 in position to facilitate directional cholesterol transfer from NPC2 onto NPC1 protein for export from lysosomes.
Project description:Egress of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes requires two lysosomal proteins, polytopic membrane-bound Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and soluble Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2). The reason for this dual requirement is unknown. Previously, we showed that the soluble luminal N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1 (amino acids 25-264) binds cholesterol. This NTD is designated NPC1(NTD). We and others showed that soluble NPC2 also binds cholesterol. Here, we establish an in vitro assay to measure transfer of [(3)H]cholesterol between these two proteins and phosphatidylcholine liposomes. Whereas NPC2 rapidly donates or accepts cholesterol from liposomes, NPC1(NTD) acts much more slowly. Bidirectional transfer of cholesterol between NPC1(NTD) and liposomes is accelerated >100-fold by NPC2. A naturally occurring human mutant of NPC2 (Pro120Ser) fails to bind cholesterol and fails to stimulate cholesterol transfer from NPC1(NTD) to liposomes. NPC2 may be essential to deliver or remove cholesterol from NPC1, an interaction that links both proteins to the cholesterol egress process from lysosomes. These findings may explain how mutations in either protein can produce a similar clinical phenotype.
Project description:The rare neurodegenerative disease Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) results from mutations in either NPC1 or NPC2, which are membrane-bound and soluble lysosomal proteins, respectively. Previous studies have shown that mutations in either protein result in biochemically indistinguishable phenotypes, most notably the hyper-accumulation of cholesterol and other cargo in lysosomes. We comparatively evaluated the kinetics of [(3)H]dextran release from lysosomes of wild type, NPC1, NPC2, and NPC1/NPC2 pseudo-double mutant cells and found significant differences between all cell types examined. Specifically, NPC1 or NPC2 mutant fibroblasts treated with NPC1 or NPC2 siRNA (to create NPC1/NPC2 pseudo-double mutants) secreted dextran less efficiently than did either NPC1 or NPC2 single mutant cell lines, suggesting that the two proteins may work independently of one another in the egress of membrane-impermeable lysosomal cargo. To investigate the basis for these differences, we examined the role of NPC1 and NPC2 in the retrograde fusion of lysosomes with late endosomes to create so-called hybrid organelles, which is believed to be the initial step in the egress of cargo from lysosomes. We show here that cells with mutated NPC1 have significantly reduced rates of late endosome/lysosome fusion relative to wild type cells, whereas cells with mutations in NPC2 have rates that are similar to those observed in wild type cells. Instead of being involved in hybrid organelle formation, we show that NPC2 is required for efficient membrane fission events from nascent hybrid organelles, which is thought to be required for the reformation of lysosomes and the release of lysosomal cargo-containing membrane vesicles. Collectively, these results suggest that NPC1 and NPC2 can function independently of one another in the egress of certain membrane-impermeable lysosomal cargo.
Project description:Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 and NPC2 genes that result in an accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. The majority of children with NPC die in adolescence. Currently, no FDA-approved therapies exist for NPC and the mechanisms of NPC disease are not fully understood. Our recent study and the reports from other laboratories showed that 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) alleviates cholesterol accumulation in NPC1-deficient cells in spite of its low binding affinity for cholesterol. In this study, we explored the cellular changes that are induced upon HP?CD treatment in NPC1 patient-derived fibroblasts. We show that HP?CD treatment increases lysosome-ER association and enhances autophagic activity. Our study indicates that HP?CD induces an activation of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal functions and autophagy. Lysosome-ER association could potentially function as conduits for cholesterol transport from lysosomes to the ER. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for autophagy in rescuing the cholesterol accumulation in NPC and other degenerative diseases. Collectively, our findings suggest that HP?CD restores cellular homeostasis in NPC1-deficient cells via enhancing lysosomal dynamics and functions. Understanding the mechanisms of HP?CD-induced cellular pathways could contribute to effective NPC therapies.
Project description:Niemann Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in either the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene. The estimated incidence of NP-C is 1 in 120,000 live births, although the frequency of cases is higher in some isolated populations. More than 350 different NPC1 and NPC2 gene mutations have been reported in patients with confirmed diagnoses. Approximately 95 % of patients harbour mutations in NPC1, with most of the remaining patients having NPC2 mutations. The traditional methods for diagnosing patients with NP-C include histopathological analysis of bone marrow aspirate, liver and skin biopsies, fluorescent and electron microscopy, and cholesterol esterification assays. New laboratory methods that use mass spectroscopy for detection of cholesterol metabolism products are promising to become part of the routine diagnostic and screening tests in the near future, but further evaluation is required to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these analyses in patients with different age-at-onset forms of NP-C. Although filipin staining and cholesterol esterification studies performed in patient skin fibroblasts can, in experienced hands, provide a robust approach to diagnosing NP-C, they are only available in a few specialist laboratories. Thus, sequencing of NPC1 and NPC2 is currently the most universally accessible diagnostic technique in this disorder.
Project description:Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) is a progressive lysosomal lipid storage disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. NPC1 is essential for transporting cholesterol and other lipids out of lysosomes, but little is known about the mechanisms that control its cellular abundance and localization. Here we show that a reduction of TMEM97, a cholesterol-responsive NPC1-binding protein, increases NPC1 levels in cells through a post-transcriptional mechanism. Reducing TMEM97 through RNA-interference reduces lysosomal lipid storage and restores cholesterol trafficking to the endoplasmic reticulum in cell models of NP-C. In TMEM97 knockdown cells, NPC1 levels can be reinstated with wild type TMEM97, but not TMEM97 missing an ER-retention signal suggesting that TMEM97 contributes to controlling the availability of NPC1 to the cell. Importantly, knockdown of TMEM97 also increases levels of residual NPC1 in NPC1-mutant patient fibroblasts and reduces cholesterol storage in an NPC1-dependent manner. Our findings propose TMEM97 inhibition as a novel strategy to increase residual NPC1 levels in cells and a potential therapeutic target for NP-C.