ABSTRACT: Activation of the high-affinity receptor for IgE, FcepsilonRI, is known to elicit its rapid down-regulation through internalization and degradation. In keeping with this, expression of all three FcepsilonRI subunits is decreased at the protein level after cross-linkage of IgE with antigen. However, we find that the FcepsilonRI beta-subunit is also selectively suppressed at the mRNA level, through a pathway primarily involving Fyn, Syk, PI3K, and NF-kappaB. IgG or calcium ionophore, stimuli known to mimic portions of the IgE signaling cascade, similarly suppressed beta-subunit expression. LPS, a NF-kappaB-activating TLR ligand, did not alter beta-subunit expression. As IgE increases FcepsilonRI expression, we examined the coordinated regulation of FcepsilonRI subunits during culture with IgE, followed by cross-linkage with antigen. IgE increased the expression of all three FcepsilonRI subunits and strikingly induced expression of the antagonistic beta(T). The ratio of beta:beta(T) protein expression decreased significantly during culture with IgE and was reset to starting levels by antigen cross-linkage. These changes in protein levels were matched by similar fluctuations in beta and beta(T) mRNAs. FcepsilonRIbeta is a key regulator of IgER expression and function, a gene in which polymorphisms correlate with allergic disease prevalence. The ability of IgE and FcepsilonRI signaling to coordinate expression of the beta and beta(T) subunits may comprise a homeostatic feedback loop-one that could promote chronic inflammation and allergic disease if dysregulated.
Project description:The high affinity receptor for IgE, Fc epsilon receptor I (FcepsilonRI), is an activating immune receptor and key regulator of allergy. Antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE-loaded FcepsilonRI alpha-chains induces cell activation via immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs in associated signaling subunits, such as FcepsilonRI gamma-chains. Here we show that the human FcepsilonRI alpha-chain can efficiently reach the cell surface by itself as an IgE-binding receptor in the absence of associated signaling subunits when the endogenous signal peptide is swapped for that of murine major histocompatibility complex class-I H2-K(b). This single-chain isoform of FcepsilonRI exited the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), trafficked to the Golgi and, subsequently, trafficked to the cell surface. Mutational analysis showed that the signal peptide regulates surface expression in concert with other described ER retention signals of FcepsilonRI-alpha. Once the FcepsilonRI alpha-chain reached the cell surface by itself, it formed a ligand-binding receptor that stabilized upon IgE contact. Independently of the FcepsilonRI gamma-chain, this single-chain FcepsilonRI was internalized after receptor cross-linking and trafficked into a LAMP-1-positive lysosomal compartment like multimeric FcepsilonRI. These data suggest that the single-chain isoform is capable of shuttling IgE-antigen complexes into antigen loading compartments, which plays an important physiologic role in the initiation of immune responses toward allergens. We propose that, in addition to cytosolic and transmembrane ER retention signals, the FcepsilonRI alpha-chain signal peptide contains a negative regulatory signal that prevents expression of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-free IgE receptor pool, which would fail to induce cell activation.
Project description:IgE/antigen-dependent mast cell activation plays a central role in immediate hypersensitivity and other allergic reactions. The Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK) Lyn is activated by the cross-linking of high-affinity IgE receptors (FcepsilonRI). Activated Lyn phosphorylates the FcepsilonRI subunits, beta and gamma, leading to subsequent activation of various signaling pathways. Lyn also plays a negative regulatory function by activating negative regulatory molecules. Another SFK, Fyn, also contributes to mast cell degranulation by inducing Gab2-dependent microtubule formation. Here we show that a third SFK, Hck, plays a critical role in mast cell activation. Degranulation and cytokine production are reduced in FcepsilonRI-stimulated hck(-/-) mast cells. The reduced degranulation can be accounted for by defects in Gab2 phosphorylation and microtubule formation. Importantly, Lyn activity is elevated in hck(-/-) cells, leading to increased phosphorylation of several negative regulators. However, positive regulatory events, such as activation of Syk, Btk, JNK, p38, Akt, and NF-kappaB, are substantially reduced in hck(-/-) mast cells. Analysis of lyn(-/-)hck(-/-), lyn(-/-)FcepsilonRIbeta(-/-), and hck(-/-)FcepsilonRIbeta(-/-) cells shows that Hck exerts these functions via both Lyn-dependent and Lyn-independent mechanisms. Thus, this study has revealed a hierarchical regulation among SFK members to fine-tune mast cell activation.
Project description:Crosslinking of IgE-bound FcepsilonRI triggers mast cell degranulation. Previous fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and phosphorescent anisotropy studies suggested that FcepsilonRI must immobilize to signal. Here, single quantum dot (QD) tracking and hyperspectral microscopy methods were used for defining the relationship between receptor mobility and signaling. QD-IgE-FcepsilonRI aggregates of at least three receptors remained highly mobile over extended times at low concentrations of antigen that induced Syk kinase activation and near-maximal secretion. Multivalent antigen, presented as DNP-QD, also remained mobile at low doses that supported secretion. FcepsilonRI immobilization was marked at intermediate and high antigen concentrations, correlating with increases in cluster size and rates of receptor internalization. The kinase inhibitor PP2 blocked secretion without affecting immobilization or internalization. We propose that immobility is a feature of highly crosslinked immunoreceptor aggregates and a trigger for receptor internalization, but is not required for tyrosine kinase activation leading to secretion.
Project description:We demonstrate that binding of different IgE molecules (IgEs) to their receptor, FcepsilonRI, induces a spectrum of activation events in the absence of a specific antigen and provide evidence that such activation reflects aggregation of FcepsilonRI. Highly cytokinergic IgEs can efficiently induce production of cytokines and render mast cells resistant to apoptosis in an autocrine fashion, whereas poorly cytokinergic IgEs induce these effects inefficiently. Highly cytokinergic IgEs seem to induce more extensive FcepsilonRI aggregation than do poorly cytokinergic IgEs, which leads to stronger mast cell activation and survival effects. These effects of both types of IgEs require Syk tyrosine kinase and can be inhibited by FcepsilonRI disaggregation with monovalent hapten. In hybridoma-transplanted mice, mucosal mast cell numbers correlate with serum IgE levels. Therefore, survival effects of IgE could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic disease.
Project description:The best characterized role for ubiquitination of membrane receptors is to negatively regulate signaling by targeting receptors for lysosomal degradation. The high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) expressed on mast cells and basophils is rapidly ubiquitinated upon antigen stimulation. However, the nature and the role of this covalent modification are still largelly unknown. Here, we show that FcepsilonRI subunits are preferentially ubiquitinated at multiple sites upon stimulation, and provide evidence for a role of ubiquitin as an internalization signal: under conditions of impaired receptor ubiquitination a decrease of receptor entry is observed by FACS analysis and fluorescence microscopy. We also used biochemical approaches combined with fluorescence microscopy, to demonstrate that receptor endocytosis requires the integrity of specific membrane domains, namely lipid rafts. Additionally, by RNA interference we demonstrate the involvement of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors in FcepsilonRI internalization and sorting. Notably, the triple depletion of Eps15, Eps15R and Epsin1 negatively affects the early steps of Ag-induced receptor endocytosis, whereas Hrs depletion retains ubiquitinated receptors into early endosomes and partially prevents their sorting into lysosomes for degradation. Our results are compatible with a scenario in which the accumulation of engaged receptor subunits into lipid rafts is required for receptor ubiquitination, a prerequisite for efficient receptor internalization, sorting and delivery to a lysosomal compartment.
Project description:The high-affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI plays a key role in triggering allergic reactions. We recently reported that human FcepsilonRI beta-chain gene expression was down-regulated by a transcription factor, MZF-1, through an element in the fourth intron. In the present study, we found that this transcriptional repression by MZF-1 required FHL3 (four and a half LIM domain protein 3) as a cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that FHL3 bound MZF-1 in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of FHL3 in KU812 cells suppressed the beta-chain promoter activity through the element in the fourth intron in an MZF-1-dependent manner. Furthermore, results from pull-down assays and gel-filtration chromatography employing nuclear extracts indicated that MZF-1 and FHL3 formed a complex of high molecular mass with some additional proteins in the nucleus. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which was reported to decrease FcepsilonRI expression, induced the accumulation of FHL3 in the nucleus, in accordance with the repressive role of FHL3 in beta-chain gene expression.
Project description:Rab5 is a small GTPase that regulates early endocytic events and is activated by RabGEF1/Rabex-5. Rabaptin-5, a Rab5 interacting protein, was identified as a protein critical for potentiating RabGEF1/Rabex-5's activation of Rab5. Using Rabaptin-5 shRNA knockdown, we show that Rabaptin-5 is dispensable for Rab5-dependent processes in intact mast cells, including high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) internalization and endosome fusion. However, Rabaptin-5 deficiency markedly diminished expression of FcepsilonRI and beta1 integrin on the mast cell surface by diminishing receptor surface stability. This in turn reduced the ability of mast cells to bind IgE and significantly diminished both mast cell sensitivity to antigen (Ag)-induced mediator release and Ag-induced mast cell adhesion and migration. These findings show that, although dispensable for canonical Rab5 processes in mast cells, Rabaptin-5 importantly contributes to mast cell IgE-dependent immunologic function by enhancing mast cell receptor surface stability.
Project description:Migration is a fundamental function of immune cells, and a role for Ca(2+) in immune cell migration has been an interest of scientific investigations for many decades. Mast cells are the major effector cells in IgE-mediated immune responses, and cross-linking of IgE-Fc?RI complexes at the mast cell surface by antigen activates a signaling cascade that causes mast cell activation, resulting in Ca(2+) mobilization and granule exocytosis. These cells are known to accumulate at sites of inflammation in response to parasite and bacterial infections. Using real-time imaging, we monitored chemotactic migration of RBL and rat BMMCs in response to a gradient of soluble multivalent antigen. Here, we show that Ca(2+) influx via Orai1 plays an important role in regulating spontaneous motility and directional migration of mast cells toward antigen via IgER complexes. Inhibition of Ca(2+) influx or knockdown of the Ca(2+) entry channel protein Orai1 by shRNA causes inhibition of both of these processes. In addition, a mutant Syk- shows impaired spontaneous motility and chemotaxis toward antigen that is rescued by expression of Syk. Our findings identify a novel Ca(2+) influx-mediated, Orai1-dependent mechanism for mast cell migration.
Project description:We have identified a cohort of zebrafish expressed sequence tags encoding eight Na,K-ATPase alpha subunits and five beta subunits. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis indicate that five of the zebrafish alpha subunit genes comprise an alpha1-like gene subfamily and two are orthologs of the mammalian alpha3 subunit gene. The remaining alpha subunit clone is most similar to the mammalian alpha2 subunit. Among the five beta subunit genes, two are orthologs of the mammalian beta1 isoform, one represents a beta2 ortholog, and two are orthologous to the mammalian beta3 subunit. Using zebrafish radiation hybrid and meiotic mapping panels, we determined linkage assignments for each alpha and beta subunit gene. Na,K-ATPase genes are dispersed in the zebrafish genome with the exception of four of the alpha1-like genes, which are tightly clustered on linkage group 1. Comparative mapping studies indicate that most of the zebrafish Na,K-ATPase genes localize to regions of conserved synteny between zebrafish and humans. The expression patterns of Na,K-ATPase alpha and beta subunit genes in zebrafish are quite distinctive. No two alpha or beta subunit genes exhibit the same expression profile. Together, our data imply a very high degree of Na,K-ATPase isoenzyme heterogeneity in zebrafish, with the potential for 40 structurally distinct alpha/beta subunit combinations. Differences in expression patterns of alpha and beta subunits suggest that many of the isoenzymes are also likely to exhibit differences in functional properties within specific cell and tissue types. Our studies form a framework for analyzing structure function relationships for sodium pump isoforms using reverse genetic approaches.
Project description:Immune cells display multiple cell surface receptors that integrate signals for survival, proliferation, migration, and degranulation. Here, immunogold labeling is used to map the plasma membrane distributions of two separate receptors, the N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and the high-affinity IgE receptor (FepsilonRI). We show that the FPR forms signaling clusters in response to monovalent ligand. These domains recruit Gi, followed by the negative regulatory molecule arrestin2. There are low levels of colocalization of FPR with FcepsilonRI in unstimulated cells, shown by computer simulation to be a consequence of receptor density. Remarkably, there is a large increase in receptor coclustering when cells are simultaneously treated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and IgE plus polyvalent antigen. The proximity of two active receptors may promote localized cross-talk, leading to enhanced inositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate production and secretion. Some cointernalization and trafficking of the two receptors can be detected by live cell imaging, but the bulk of FPR and FcepsilonRI segregates over time. This segregation is associated with more efficient internalization of cross-linked FcepsilonRI than of arrestin-desensitized FPR. The observation of receptors in lightly coated membrane invaginations suggests that, despite the lack of caveolin, hematopoietic cells harbor caveolae-like structures that are candidates for nonclathrin-mediated endocytosis.