Inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and activation of A2A adenosine receptors by 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-modified cAMP analogs and their hydrolytic products.
ABSTRACT: Cyclic AMP analogs containing hydrophobic modification of C(8) at the adenine ring such as 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-pCPT-cAMP) and 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-methyl-cAMP) can penetrate membranes due to their high lipophilicity and directly activate intracellular cAMP effectors. Therefore, these cAMP analogs have been used in numerous studies, assuming that their effects reflect the consequences of direct activation of cAMP effectors. The present study provides evidence that 8-pCPT-modified cAMP analogs and their corresponding putative hydrolysis products (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine (8-pCPT-ado) and 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-adenosine (8-pCPT-2'-O-methyl-ado)) inhibit the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1). In PC12 cells, in which nucleoside transport strongly depended on ENT1, 8-pCPT-ado, 8-pCPT-2'-O-methyl-ado, and, to a smaller extent, 8-pCPT-2'-O-methyl-cAMP caused an increase of protein kinase A substrate motif phosphorylation and anti-apoptotic effect by an A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)R)-dependent mechanism. In contrast, the effects of 8-pCPT-cAMP were mainly A(2A)R-independent. In HEK 293 showing little endogenous ENT1-dependent nucleoside transport, transfection of ENT1 conferred A(2A)R-dependent increase in protein kinase A substrate motif phosphorylation. Together, the data of the present study indicate that inhibition of ENT1 and activation of adenosine receptors have to be considered when interpreting the effects of 8-pCPT-substituted cAMP/adenosine analogs.
Project description:bTREK-1 K(+) channels set the resting membrane potential of bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells and function pivotally in the physiology of cortisol secretion. Adrenocorticotropic hormone controls the function and expression of bTREK-1 channels through signaling mechanisms that may involve cAMP and downstream effectors including protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein 2 directly activated by cAMP (Epac2). Using patch-clamp and Northern blot analysis, we explored the regulation of bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current expression by cAMP analogs and several of their putative metabolites in bovine AZF cells. At concentrations sufficient to activate both PKA and Epac2, 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP enhanced the expression of both bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current. N(6)-Benzoyladenosine-cAMP, which activates PKA but not Epac, also enhanced the expression of bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current measured at times from 24 to 96 h. An Epac-selective cAMP analog, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8CPT-2'-OMe-cAMP), potently stimulated bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current expression, whereas the nonhydrolyzable Epac activator 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP, Sp-isomer was ineffective. Metabolites of 8CPT-2'-OMe-cAMP, including 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-5'-O-monophosphate and 8CPT-2'-OMe-adenosine, promoted the expression of bTREK-1 transcripts and ion current with a temporal pattern, potency, and effectiveness resembling that of the parent compound. Likewise, at low concentrations, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8CPT-cAMP; 30 microM) but not its nonhydrolyzable analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP, Sp-isomer, enhanced the expression of bTREK-1 mRNA and current. 8CPT-cAMP metabolites, including 8CPT-adenosine and 8CPT-adenine, also increased bTREK-1 expression. These results indicate that cAMP increases the expression of bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current through a cAMP-dependent but Epac2-independent mechanism. They further demonstrate that one or more metabolites of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP analogs potently stimulate bTREK-1 expression by activation of a novel cAMP-independent mechanism. These findings raise significant questions regarding the specificity of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP analogs as cAMP mimetics.
Project description:Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express Ca(v)3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels that function pivotally in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol secretion. The regulation of Ca(v)3.2 expression in AZF cells by ACTH, cAMP analogs, and their metabolites was studied using Northern blot and patch clamp recording. Exposing AZF cells to ACTH for 3-6 days markedly enhanced the expression of Ca(v)3.2 current. The increase in Ca(v)3.2 current was preceded by an increase in corresponding CACNA1H mRNA. O-Nitrophenyl,sulfenyl-adrenocorticotropin, which produces a minimal increase in cAMP, also enhanced Ca(v)3.2 current. cAMP analogs, including 8-bromoadenosine cAMP (600 mum) and 6-benzoyladenosine cAMP (300 mum) induced CACNA1H mRNA, but not Ca(v)3.2 current. In contrast, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) (8CPT)-cAMP (10-50 mum) enhanced CACNA1H mRNA and Ca(v)3.2 current, whereas nonhydrolyzable Sp-8CPT-cAMP failed to increase either Ca(v)3.2 current or mRNA. Metabolites of 8CPT-cAMP, including 8CPT-adenosine and 8CPT-adenine, increased Ca(v)3.2 current and mRNA with a potency and effectiveness similar to the parent compound. The Epac activator 8CPT-2'-O-methyl-cAMP and its metabolites 8CPT-2'-OMe-5'-AMP and 8CPT-2'-O-methyl-adenosine increased CACNA1H mRNA and Ca(v)3.2 current; Sp-8CPT-2'-O-methyl-cAMP increased neither Ca(v)3.2 current nor mRNA. These results reveal an interesting dichotomy between ACTH and cAMP with regard to regulation of CACNA1H mRNA and Ca(2+) current. Specifically, ACTH induces expression of CACNA1H mRNA and Ca(v)3.2 current in AZF cells by mechanisms that depend at most only partly on cAMP. In contrast, cAMP enhances expression of CACNA1H mRNA but not the corresponding Ca(2+) current. Surprisingly, chlorophenylthio-cAMP analogs stimulate the expression of Ca(v)3.2 current indirectly through metabolites. ACTH and the metabolites may induce Ca(v)3.2 expression by the same, unidentified mechanism.
Project description:AIM:Recently we have observed differences in the ability of metformin and AICAR to repress glucose production from hepatocytes using 8CPT-cAMP. Previous results indicate that, in addition to activating protein kinase A, 8CPT-modified cAMP analogues suppress the nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT1. We aimed to exploit 8CPT-cAMP, 8CPT-2-Methyl-O-cAMP and NBMPR, which is highly selective for a high-affinity binding-site on ENT1, to investigate the role of ENT1 in the liver-specific glucose-lowering properties of AICAR and metformin. METHODS:Primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with AICAR and metformin in combination with cAMP analogues, glucagon, forskolin and NBMPR. Hepatocyte glucose production (HGP) and AMPK signalling were measured, and a uridine uptake assay with supporting LC-MS was used to investigate nucleoside depletion from medium by cells. RESULTS:AICAR and metformin increased AMPK pathway phosphorylation and decreased HGP induced by dibutyryl cAMP and glucagon. HGP was also induced by 8CPT-cAMP, 8CPT-2-Methyl-O-cAMP and NBMPR; however, in each case this was resistant to suppression by AICAR but not by metformin. Cross-validation of tracer and mass spectrometry studies indicates that 8CPT-cAMP, 8CPT-2-Methyl-O-cAMP and NBMPR inhibited the effects of AICAR, at least in part, by impeding its uptake into hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS:We report for the first time that suppression of ENT1 induces HGP. ENT1 inhibition also impedes uptake and the effects of AICAR, but not metformin, on HGP. Further investigation of nucleoside transport may illuminate a better understanding of how metformin and AICAR each regulate HGP.
Project description:ENT1 of Arabidopsis thaliana was the first member of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family to be identified in plants and characterized as a cellular, high-affinity nucleoside importer. Evidence is presented here for a tonoplast localization of ENT1 based on proteome data and Western blot analyses. Increased export of adenosine from reconstituted tonoplast preparations from 35S:ENT1 mutants compared with those from the wild type and ENT1-RNAi mutants support this view. Furthermore, increased vacuolar adenosine and vacuolar 2'3'-cAMP (an intermediate of RNA catabolism) contents in ENT1-RNAi mutants, but decreased contents of these metabolites in 35S:ENT1 over-expresser mutants, were observed. An up-regulation of the salvage pathway was detected in the latter mutants, leading to the conclusion that draining the vacuolar adenosine storage by ENT1 over-expression interferes with cellular nucleotide metabolism. As a consequence of the observed metabolic alterations 35S:ENT1 over-expresser mutants exhibited a smaller phenotypic appearance compared with wild-type plants. In addition, ENT1:RNAi mutants exhibited significantly lower in vitro germination of pollen and contained reduced internal and external ATP levels. This indicates that ENT1-mediated nucleosides, especially adenosine transport, is important for nucleotide metabolism, thus influencing growth and pollen germination.
Project description:The identification of 2'-O-methyl substituted adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) analogs that activate the Epac family of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMP-GEFs, also known as Epac1 and Epac2), has ushered in a new era of cyclic nucleotide research in which previously unrecognized signalling properties of the second messenger cAMP have been revealed. These Epac-Selective Cyclic AMP Analogs (ESCAs) incorporate a 2'-O-methyl substitution on the ribose ring of cAMP, a modification that impairs their ability to activate protein kinase A (PKA), while leaving intact their ability to activate Epac (the Exchange Protein directly Activated by Cyclic AMP). One such ESCA in wide-spread use is 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. It is a cell-permeant derivative of 2'-O-Me-cAMP, and it is a super activator of Epac. A wealth of newly published studies demonstrate that 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP is a unique tool with which to asses atypical actions of cAMP that are PKA-independent. Particularly intriguing are recent reports demonstrating that ESCAs reproduce the PKA-independent actions of ligands known to stimulate Class I (Family A) and Class II (Family B) GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This topical review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the molecular pharmacology and signal transduction properties of Epac-selective cAMP analogs. Special attention is focused on the rational drug design of ESCAs in order to improve their Epac selectivity, membrane permeability, and stability. Also emphasized is the usefulness of ESCAs as new tools with which to assess the role of Epac as a determinant of intracellular Ca2+ signalling, ion channel function, neurotransmitter release, and hormone secretion.
Project description:Ticagrelor is a potent antagonist of the P2Y<sub>12</sub> receptor (P2Y<sub>12</sub>R) and consequently an inhibitor of platelet activity effective in the treatment of atherothrombosis. Here, we sought to further characterize its molecular mechanism of action. Initial studies showed that ticagrelor promoted a greater inhibition of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced Ca<sup>2+</sup> release in washed platelets vs other P2Y<sub>12</sub>R antagonists. This additional effect of ticagrelor beyond P2Y<sub>12</sub>R antagonism was in part as a consequence of ticagrelor inhibiting the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) on platelets, leading to accumulation of extracellular adenosine and activation of G<sub>s</sub>-coupled adenosine A<sub>2A</sub> receptors. This contributed to an increase in basal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P). In addition, ticagrelor increased platelet cAMP and VASP-P in the absence of ADP in an adenosine receptor-independent manner. We hypothesized that this increase originated from a direct effect on basal agonist-independent P2Y<sub>12</sub>R signaling, and this was validated in 1321N1 cells stably transfected with human P2Y<sub>12</sub>R. In these cells, ticagrelor blocked the constitutive agonist-independent activity of the P2Y<sub>12</sub>R, limiting basal G<sub>i</sub>-coupled signaling and thereby increasing cAMP levels. These data suggest that ticagrelor has the pharmacological profile of an inverse agonist. Based on our results showing insurmountable inhibition of ADP-induced Ca<sup>2+</sup> release and forskolin-induced cAMP, the mode of antagonism of ticagrelor also appears noncompetitive, at least functionally. In summary, our studies describe 2 novel modes of action of ticagrelor, inhibition of platelet ENT1 and inverse agonism at the P2Y<sub>12</sub>R that contribute to its effective inhibition of platelet activation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Endothelial tight and adherens junctions control a variety of physiological processes like adhesion, paracellular transport of solutes or trafficking of activated leukocytes. Formation and maintenance of endothelial junctions largely depend on the microenvironment of the specific vascular bed and on interactions of the endothelium with adjacent cell types. Consequently, primary cultures of endothelial cells often lose their specific junctional pattern and fail to establish tight monolayer in vitro. This is also true for endothelial cells isolated from the vein of human umbilical cords (HUVEC) which are widely used as model for endothelial cell-related studies.<h4>Results</h4>We here compared the effect of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and its derivates on formation and stabilization of tight junctions and on alterations in paracellular permeability in HUVEC. We demonstrated by light and confocal laser microscopy that for shorter time periods the sodium salt of 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP/Na) and for longer incubation periods 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (pCPT-cAMP) exerted the greatest effects of all compounds tested here on formation of continuous tight junction strands in HUVEC. We further demonstrated that although all compounds induced protein kinase A-dependent expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin only pCPT-cAMP slightly enhanced paracellular barrier functions. Moreover, we showed that pCPT-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP/Na induced expression and membrane translocation of tricellulin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>pCPT-cAMP and, to a lesser extend, 8-Br-cAMP/Na improved formation of continuous tight junction strands and decreased paracellular permeability in primary HUVEC. We concluded that under these conditions HUVEC represent a feasible in vitro model to study formation and disassembly of endothelial tight junctions and to characterize tight junction-associated proteins.
Project description:Analogs of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP have been extensively used to mimic or modulate cellular events mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), or protein kinase G (PKG). We report here that some of the most commonly used cyclic nucleotide analogs inhibit transmembrane transport mediated by the liver specific organic anion transporter peptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, unrelated to actions on Epac, PKA or PKG. Several cAMP analogs, particularly with 8-pCPT-substitution, inhibited nodularin (Nod) induced primary rat hepatocyte apoptosis. Inhibition was not mediated by PKA or Epac, since increased endogenous cAMP, and some strong PKA- or Epac-activating analogs failed to protect cells against Nod induced apoptosis. The cAMP analogs inhibiting Nod induced hepatocyte apoptosis also reduced accumulation of radiolabeled Nod or cholic acid in primary rat hepatocytes. They also inhibited Nod induced apoptosis in HEK293 cells with enforced expression of OATP1B1 or 1B3, responsible for Nod transport into cells. Similar results were found with adenosine analogs, disconnecting the inhibitory effect of certain cAMP analogs from PKA or Epac. The most potent inhibitors were 8-pCPT-6-Phe-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, whereas analogs like 6-MB-cAMP or 8-Br-cAMP did not inhibit Nod uptake. This suggests that the addition of aromatic ring-containing substituents like the chloro-phenyl-thio group to the purines of cyclic nucleotides increases their ability to inhibit the OATP-mediated transport. Taken together, our data show that aromatic ring substituents can add unwanted effects to cyclic nucleotides, and that such nucleotide analogs must be used with care, particularly when working with cells expressing OATP1B1/1B3, like hepatocytes, or intact animals where hepatic metabolism can be an issue, as well as certain cancer cells. On the other hand, cAMP analogs with substituents like bromo, monobutyryl were non-inhibitory, and could be considered an alternative when working with cells expressing OATP1 family members.
Project description:Adenosine uptake into cells by nucleoside transporters plays a significant role in governing extracellular adenosine concentration. Extracellular adenosine is an important signaling molecule that modulates many cellular functions via 4 G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes (A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)). Previously, we demonstrated that adenosine is critical in maintaining airway homeostasis and airway repair and that airway host defenses are impaired by alcohol. Taken together, we hypothesized that ethanol impairs adenosine uptake via the nucleoside transport system.To examine ethanol-induced alteration on adenosine transport, we used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). Cells were preincubated for 10 minutes in the presence and absence of varying concentrations of ethanol (EtOH). In addition, some cells were pretreated with S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (100 microM: NBT), a potent adenosine uptake inhibitor. Uptake was then determined by addition of [(3)H]-adenosine at various time intervals.Increasing EtOH concentrations resulted in increasing inhibition of adenosine uptake when measured at 1 minute. Cells pretreated with NBT effectively blocked adenosine uptake. In addition, short-term EtOH revealed increased extracellular adenosine concentration. Conversely, adenosine transport became desensitized in cells exposed to EtOH (100 mM) for 24 hours. To determine the mechanism of EtOH-induced desensitization of adenosine transport, cAMP activity was assessed in response to EtOH. Short-term EtOH exposure (10 minutes) had little or no effect on adenosine-mediated cAMP activation, whereas long-term EtOH exposure (24 hours) blocked adenosine-mediated cAMP activation. Western blot analysis of lysates from unstimulated BEAS-2B cells detected a single 55 kDa band indicating the presence of hENT1 and hENT2, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR of RNA from BEAS-2B revealed transcriptional expression of ENT1 and ENT2.Collectively, these data reveal that acute exposure of cells to EtOH inhibits adenosine uptake via a nucleoside transporter, and chronic exposure of cells to EtOH desensitizes the adenosine transporter to these inhibitory effects of ethanol. Furthermore, our data suggest that inhibition of adenosine uptake by EtOH leads to an increased extracellular adenosine accumulation, influencing the effect of adenosine at the epithelial cell surface, which may alter airway homeostasis.
Project description:Adenosine kinase (Ado kinase) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is structurally and biochemically unique from other known Ado kinases. This purine salvage enzyme catalyzes the first step in the conversion of the adenosine analog, 2-methyl-Ado (methyl-Ado), into a metabolite with antitubercular activity. Methyl-Ado has provided proof of concept that the purine salvage pathway from M. tuberculosis may be utilized for the development of antitubercular compounds with novel mechanisms of action. In order to utilize this enzyme, it is necessary to understand the topography of the active site to rationally design compounds that are more potent and selective substrates for Ado kinase. A previous structure-activity relationship identified modifications to the base moiety of adenosine (Ado) that result in substrate and inhibitor activity. In an extension of that work, 62 Ado analogs with modifications to the ribofuranosyl moiety, modifications to the base and ribofuranosyl moiety, or modifications to the glycosidic bond position have been analyzed as substrates and inhibitors of M. tuberculosis Ado kinase. A subset of these compounds was further analyzed in human Ado kinase for the sake of comparison. Although no modifications to the ribose moiety resulted in compounds as active as Ado, the best substrates identified were carbocyclic-Ado, 8-aza-carbocyclic-Ado, and 9-[alpha-l-lyxofuranosyl]-adenine with 38%, 4.3%, and 3.8% of the activity of Ado, respectively. The most potent inhibitor identified, 5'-amino-5'-deoxy-Ado, had a K(i)=0.8muM and a competitive mode of inhibition. MIC studies demonstrated that poor substrates could still have potent antitubercular activity.