Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase is essential for the metabolic response to exercise in vivo.
ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been postulated as a super-metabolic regulator, thought to exert numerous effects on skeletal muscle function, metabolism, and enzymatic signaling. Despite these assertions, little is known regarding the direct role(s) of AMPK in vivo, and results obtained in vitro or in situ are conflicting. Using a chronically catheterized mouse model (carotid artery and jugular vein), we show that AMPK regulates skeletal muscle metabolism in vivo at several levels, with the result that a deficit in AMPK activity markedly impairs exercise tolerance. Compared with wild-type littermates at the same relative exercise capacity, vascular glucose delivery and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were impaired; skeletal muscle ATP degradation was accelerated, and arterial lactate concentrations were increased in mice expressing a kinase-dead AMPKalpha2 subunit (alpha2-KD) in skeletal muscle. Nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) activity was significantly impaired at rest and in response to exercise in alpha2-KD mice; expression of neuronal NOS (NOSmicro) was also reduced. Moreover, complex I and IV activities of the electron transport chain were impaired 32 +/- 8 and 50 +/- 7%, respectively, in skeletal muscle of alpha2-KD mice (p < 0.05 versus wild type), indicative of impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, AMPK regulates neuronal NOSmicro expression, NOS activity, and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. In addition, these results clarify the role of AMPK in the control of muscle glucose uptake during exercise. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that AMPK is central to substrate metabolism in vivo, which has important implications for exercise tolerance in health and certain disease states characterized by impaired AMPK activation in skeletal muscle.
Project description:The activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle coordinates systemic metabolic responses to exercise1. Autophagy-a lysosomal degradation pathway that maintains cellular homeostasis2-is upregulated during exercise, and a core autophagy protein, beclin 1, is required for AMPK activation in skeletal muscle3. Here we describe a role for the innate immune-sensing molecule Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)4, and its interaction with beclin 1, in exercise-induced activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle. Mice that lack TLR9 are deficient in both exercise-induced activation of AMPK and plasma membrane localization of the GLUT4 glucose transporter in skeletal muscle, but are not deficient in autophagy. TLR9 binds beclin 1, and this interaction is increased by energy stress (glucose starvation and endurance exercise) and decreased by a BCL2 mutation3,5 that blocks the disruption of BCL2-beclin 1 binding. TLR9 regulates the assembly of the endolysosomal phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex (PI3KC3-C2)-which contains beclin 1 and UVRAG-in skeletal muscle during exercise, and knockout of beclin 1 or UVRAG inhibits the cellular AMPK activation induced by glucose starvation. Moreover, TLR9 functions in a muscle-autonomous fashion in ex vivo contraction-induced AMPK activation, glucose uptake and beclin 1-UVRAG complex assembly. These findings reveal a heretofore undescribed role for a Toll-like receptor in skeletal-muscle AMPK activation and glucose metabolism during exercise, as well as unexpected crosstalk between this innate immune sensor and autophagy proteins.
Project description:Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) ?-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in ?1 and ?2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPAR? and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.
Project description:KEY POINTS:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is considered a major regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise. However, we previously showed that, although AMPK activity increases by 8-10-fold during ?120 min of exercise at ?65% V?O2peak in untrained individuals, there is no increase in these individuals after only 10 days of exercise training (longitudinal study). In a cross-sectional study, we show that there is also a lack of activation of skeletal muscle AMPK during 120 min of cycling exercise at 65% V?O2peak in endurance-trained individuals. These findings indicate that AMPK is not an important regulator of exercise metabolism during 120 min of exercise at 65% V?O2peak in endurance trained men. It is important that more energy is directed towards examining other potential regulators of exercise metabolism. ABSTRACT:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is considered a major regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise. Indeed, AMPK is activated during exercise and activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide-ribonucleoside (AICAR) increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake and fat oxidation. However, we have previously shown that, although AMPK activity increases by 8-10-fold during ?120 min of exercise at ?65% V?O2peak in untrained individuals, there is no increase in these individuals after only 10 days of exercise training (longitudinal study). In a cross-sectional study, we examined whether there is also a lack of activation of skeletal muscle AMPK during 120 min of cycling exercise at 65% V?O2peak in endurance-trained individuals. Eleven untrained (UT; V?O2peak = 37.9 ± 5.6 ml.kg-1 min-1 ) and seven endurance trained (ET; V?O2peak = 61.8 ± 2.2 ml.kg-1 min-1 ) males completed 120 min of cycling exercise at 66 ± 4% V?O2peak (UT: 100 ± 21 W; ET: 190 ± 15 W). Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and following 30 and 120 min of exercise. Muscle glycogen was significantly (P < 0.05) higher before exercise in ET and decreased similarly during exercise in the ET and UT individuals. Exercise significantly increased calculated skeletal muscle free AMP content and more so in the UT individuals. Exercise significantly (P < 0.05) increased skeletal muscle AMPK ?2 activity (4-fold), AMPK ?Thr172 phosphorylation (2-fold) and ACC? Ser222 phosphorylation (2-fold) in the UT individuals but not in the ET individuals. These findings indicate that AMPK is not an important regulator of exercise metabolism during 120 min of exercise at 65% V?O2peak in endurance trained men.
Project description:During fasting and after exercise, skeletal muscle efficiently switches from carbohydrate to lipid as the main energy source to preserve glycogen stores and blood glucose levels for glucose-dependent tissues. Skeletal muscle cells sense this limitation in glucose availability and transform this information into transcriptional and metabolic adaptations. Here we demonstrate that AMPK acts as the prime initial sensor that translates this information into SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of the transcriptional regulators PGC-1alpha and FOXO1, culminating in the transcriptional modulation of mitochondrial and lipid utilization genes. Deficient AMPK activity compromises SIRT1-dependent responses to exercise and fasting, resulting in impaired PGC-1alpha deacetylation and blunted induction of mitochondrial gene expression. Thus, we conclude that AMPK acts as the primordial trigger for fasting- and exercise-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle and that activation of SIRT1 and its downstream signaling pathways are improperly triggered in AMPK-deficient states.
Project description:The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p < 0.05) protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n = 13-15), but not AMPK ?2 kinase dead (KD; n = 12-13) mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p = 0.051; n = 6). To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n = 7-8) and AMPK ?2 KD (n = 7-9) mice with 5-amino-1-?-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR). Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg) resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p < 0.05) and MnSOD (p < 0.01) in WT, but not AMPK ?2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-coactivator 1? (PGC-1? KO; n = 9-10). Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1? KO mice (p < 0.01) and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p < 0.05). Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle is mainly responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Dysfunction in skeletal muscle metabolism especially during obesity contributes to the insulin resistance. Astaxanthin (AX), a natural antioxidant, has been shown to ameliorate hepatic insulin resistance in obese mice. However, its effects in skeletal muscle are poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate the molecular target of AX in ameliorating skeletal muscle insulin resistance. METHODS:We fed 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with normal chow (NC) or NC supplemented with AX (NC+AX) and high-fat-diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with AX for 24 weeks. We determined the effect of AX on various parameters including insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, inflammation, kinase signaling, gene expression, and mitochondrial function in muscle. We also determined energy metabolism in intact C2C12 cells treated with AX using the Seahorse XFe96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer and assessed the effect of AX on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis. RESULTS:AX-treated HFD mice showed improved metabolic status with significant reduction in blood glucose, serum total triglycerides, and cholesterol (p< 0.05). AX-treated HFD mice also showed improved glucose metabolism by enhancing glucose incorporation into peripheral target tissues, such as the skeletal muscle, rather than by suppressing gluconeogenesis in the liver as shown by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. AX activated AMPK in the skeletal muscle of the HFD mice and upregulated the expressions of transcriptional factors and coactivator, thereby inducing mitochondrial remodeling, including increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation component and free fatty acid metabolism. We also assessed the effects of AX on mitochondrial biogenesis in the siRNA-mediated AMPK-depleted C2C12 cells and showed that the effect of AX was lost in the genetically AMPK-depleted C2C12 cells. Collectively, AX treatment (i) significantly ameliorated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance through regulation of AMPK activation in the muscle, (ii) stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in the muscle, (iii) enhanced exercise tolerance and exercise-induced fatty acid metabolism, and (iv) exerted antiinflammatory effects via its antioxidant activity in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS:We concluded that AX treatment stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and significantly ameliorated insulin resistance through activation of AMPK pathway in the skeletal muscle.
Project description:Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK) activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects.Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise.In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16 h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16 h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured.EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important for regulating glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial content and exercise capacity. R419 is a mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor that has recently been shown to acutely activate AMPK in myotubes. Our main objective was to examine whether R419 treatment improves insulin sensitivity and exercise capacity in obese insulin resistant mice and whether skeletal muscle AMPK was important for mediating potential effects. METHODS: Glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, and electron transport chain content/activity were examined in wildtype (WT) and AMPK ?1?2 muscle-specific null (AMPK-MKO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without R419 supplementation. RESULTS: There was no change in weight gain, adiposity, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity between HFD-fed WT and AMPK-MKO mice. In both HFD-fed WT and AMPK-MKO mice, R419 enhanced insulin tolerance, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, skeletal muscle 2-deoxyglucose uptake, Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content independently of alterations in body mass. In WT, but not AMPK-MKO mice, R419 improved treadmill running capacity. Treatment with R419 increased muscle electron transport chain content and activity in WT mice; effects which were blunted in AMPK-MKO mice. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of obese mice with R419 improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through a mechanism that is independent of skeletal muscle AMPK. R419 also increases exercise capacity and improves mitochondrial function in obese WT mice; effects that are diminished in the absence of skeletal muscle AMPK. These findings suggest that R419 may be a promising therapy for improving whole-body glucose homeostasis and exercise capacity.
Project description:Metabolic dysfunction of skeletal muscle is often prevalent at an early stage in the development of several non-communicable diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of a myokine, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), on glucose tolerance in human and mouse skeletal muscles. SPARC knockout mice showed marked decreases in parameters for whole-body glucose metabolism, along with reduced phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt in skeletal muscle tissues compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice injected with SPARC showed improved glucose tolerance concomitant with AMPK activation. Exogenous SPARC treatment accelerated glucose uptake in muscle tissues isolated from wild-type mice but not from AMPKγ3 knockout mice. In muscle cells, SPARC increased glucose uptake concomitant with AMPK activation, mediated by a calcium-dependent signal. Chronic treatment of SPARC restored metabolic functions in diet-induced obese mice. These findings suggest that SPARC improves glucose metabolism via AMPK activation in skeletal muscle, providing mechanistic insights on exercise-induced metabolic benefits and physical inactivity-induced glucose intolerance. Overall design: We performed a microarray analysis to compare the metabolic gene expression profiles in the skeletal muscle from each mouse.
Project description:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) ?1 or ?2 subunits are required for assembling of AMPK heterotrimers and are important for regulating enzyme activity and cellular localization. In skeletal muscle, ?2?2?3-containing heterotrimers predominate. However, compensatory up-regulation and redundancy of AMPK subunits in whole-body AMPK ?2, ?2, and ?3 null mice has made it difficult to determine the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle metabolism, because these models have normal mitochondrial content, contraction-stimulated glucose uptake, and insulin sensitivity. In the current study, we generated mice lacking both AMPK ?1 and ?2 isoforms in skeletal muscle (?1?2M-KO). ?1?2M-KO mice are physically inactive and have a drastically impaired capacity for treadmill running that is associated with reductions in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content but not a fiber-type switch. Interestingly, young ?1?2M-KO mice fed a control chow diet are not obese or insulin resistant but do have impaired contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. These data demonstrate an obligatory role for skeletal muscle AMPK in maintaining mitochondrial capacity and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake, findings that were not apparent in mice with single mutations or deletions in muscle ?, ?, or ? subunits.