Sac3 is an insulin-regulated phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate phosphatase: gain in insulin responsiveness through Sac3 down-regulation in adipocytes.
ABSTRACT: Insulin-regulated stimulation of glucose entry and mobilization of fat/muscle-specific glucose transporter GLUT4 onto the cell surface require the phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P(2)) pathway for optimal performance. The reduced insulin responsiveness observed under ablation of the PtdIns(3,5)P(2)-synthesizing PIKfyve and its associated activator ArPIKfyve in 3T3L1 adipocytes suggests that dysfunction of the PtdIns(3,5)P(2)-specific phosphatase Sac3 may yield the opposite effect. Paradoxically, as uncovered recently, in addition to turnover Sac3 also supports PtdIns(3,5)P(2) biosynthesis by allowing optimal PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve association. These opposing inputs raise the key question as to whether reduced Sac3 protein levels and/or hydrolyzing activity will produce gain in insulin responsiveness. Here we report that small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Sac3 by approximately 60%, which resulted in a slight but significant elevation of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) in 3T3L1 adipocytes, increased GLUT4 translocation and glucose entry in response to insulin. In contrast, ectopic expression of Sac3(WT), but not phosphatase-deficient Sac3(D488A), reduced GLUT4 surface abundance in the presence of insulin. Endogenous Sac3 physically assembled with PIKfyve and ArPIKfyve in both membrane and soluble fractions of 3T3L1 adipocytes, but this remained insulin-insensitive. Importantly, acute insulin markedly reduced the in vitro C8-PtdIns(3,5)P(2) hydrolyzing activity of Sac3. The insulin-sensitive Sac3 pool likely controls a discrete PtdIns(3,5)P(2) subfraction as the high pressure liquid chromatography-measurable insulin-dependent elevation in total [(3)H]inositol-PtdIns(3,5)P(2) was minor. Together, our data identify Sac3 as an insulin-sensitive phosphatase whose down-regulation increases insulin responsiveness, thus implicating Sac3 as a novel drug target in insulin resistance.
Project description:Insulin activates glucose transport by promoting translocation of the insulin-sensitive fat/muscle-specific glucose transporter GLUT4 from an intracellular storage compartment to the cell surface. Here we report that an optimal insulin effect on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is dependent upon expression of both PIKfyve, the sole enzyme for PtdIns 3,5-P(2) biosynthesis, and the PIKfyve activator, ArPIKfyve. Small-interfering RNAs that selectively ablated PIKfyve or ArPIKfyve in this cell type depleted the PtdIns 3,5-P(2) pool and reduced insulin-activated glucose uptake to a comparable degree. Combined loss of PIKfyve and ArPIKfyve caused further PtdIns 3,5-P(2) ablation that correlated with greater attenuation in insulin responsiveness. Loss of PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and the cell surface accumulation of GLUT4 or IRAP, but not GLUT1-containing vesicles without affecting overall expression of these proteins. ArPIKfyve and PIKfyve were found to physically associate in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and this was insulin independent. In vitro labeling of membranes isolated from basal or insulin-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes documented substantial insulin-dependent increases of PtdIns 3,5-P(2) production on intracellular membranes. Together, the data demonstrate for the first time a physical association between functionally related PIKfyve and ArPIKfyve in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and indicate that the novel ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve-PtdIns 3,5-P(2) pathway is physiologically linked to insulin-activated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport.
Project description:The mammalian phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P(2)) phosphatase Sac3 and ArPIKfyve, the associated regulator of the PtdIns3P-5 kinase PIKfyve, form a stable binary complex that associates with PIKfyve in a ternary complex to increase PtdIns(3,5)P(2) production. Whether the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 subcomplex functions outside the PIKfyve context is unknown. Here we show that stable or transient expression of ArPIKfyve(WT) in mammalian cells elevates steady-state protein levels and the PtdIns(3,5)P(2)-hydrolyzing activity of Sac3, whereas knockdown of ArPIKfyve has the opposite effect. These manipulations do not alter the Sac3 mRNA levels, suggesting that ArPIKfyve might control Sac3 protein degradation. Inhibition of protein synthesis in COS cells by cycloheximide reveals remarkably rapid turnover of expressed Sac3(WT) (t((1/2)) = 18.8 min), resulting from a proteasome-dependent clearance as evidenced by the extended Sac3(WT) half-life upon inhibiting proteasome activity. Coexpression of ArPIKfyve(WT), but not the N- or C-terminal halves, prolongs the Sac3(WT) half-life consistent with enhanced Sac3 protein stability through association with full-length ArPIKfyve. We further demonstrate that mutant Sac3, harboring the pathogenic Ile-to-Thr substitution at position 41 found in patients with CMT4J disorder, is similar to Sac3(WT) with regard to PtdIns(3,5)P(2)-hydrolyzing activity, association with ArPIKfyve, or rapid proteasome-dependent clearance. Remarkably, however, neither is the steady-state Sac3(I41T) elevated nor is the Sac3(I41T) half-life extended by coexpressed ArPIKfyve(WT), indicating that unlike with Sac3(WT), ArPIKfyve fails to prevent Sac3(I41T) rapid loss. Together, our data indentify a novel regulatory mechanism whereby ArPIKfyve enhances Sac3 abundance by attenuating Sac3 proteasome-dependent degradation and suggest that a failure of this mechanism could be the primary molecular defect in the pathogenesis of CMT4J.
Project description:Phosphoinositides (PIs) are lipid second messengers implicated in signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Seven distinct PIs can be synthesized by phosphorylation of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), and their metabolism is accurately regulated by PI kinases and phosphatases. Two of the PIs, PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2), are present on intracellular endosomal compartments, and several studies suggest that they have a role in membrane remodeling and trafficking. We refer to them as 'endosomal PIs'. An increasing number of human genetic diseases including myopathy and neuropathies are associated to mutations in enzymes regulating the turnover of these endosomal PIs. The PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2) 3-phosphatase myotubularin gene is mutated in X-linked centronuclear myopathy, whereas its homologs MTMR2 and MTMR13 and the PtdIns(3,5)P(2) 5-phosphatase SAC3/FIG4 are implicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth peripheral neuropathies. Mutations in the gene encoding the PtdIns3P 5-kinase PIP5K3/PIKfyve have been found in patients affected with François-Neetens fleck corneal dystrophy. This review presents the roles of the endosomal PIs and their regulators and proposes defects of membrane remodeling as a common pathological mechanism for the corresponding diseases.
Project description:Exogenous delivery of carrier-linked phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] to adipocytes promotes the trafficking, but not the insertion, of the glucose transporter GLUT4 into the plasma membrane. However, it is yet to be demonstrated if endogenous PtdIns(3)P regulates GLUT4 trafficking and, in addition, the metabolic pathways mediating plasma membrane PtdIns(3)P synthesis are uncharacterized. In unstimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, conditions under which PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was not synthesized, ectopic expression of wild-type, but not catalytically inactive 72-kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (72-5ptase), generated PtdIns(3)P at the plasma membrane. Immunoprecipitated 72-5ptase from adipocytes hydrolyzed PtdIns(3,5)P2, forming PtdIns(3)P. Overexpression of the 72-5ptase was used to functionally dissect the role of endogenous PtdIns(3)P in GLUT4 translocation and/or plasma membrane insertion. In unstimulated adipocytes wild type, but not catalytically inactive, 72-5ptase, promoted GLUT4 translocation and insertion into the plasma membrane but not glucose uptake. Overexpression of FLAG-2xFYVE/Hrs, which binds and sequesters PtdIns(3)P, blocked 72-5ptase-induced GLUT4 translocation. Actin monomer binding, using latrunculin A treatment, also blocked 72-5ptase-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. 72-5ptase expression promoted GLUT4 trafficking via a Rab11-dependent pathway but not by Rab5-mediated endocytosis. Therefore, endogenous PtdIns(3)P at the plasma membrane promotes GLUT4 translocation.
Project description:Multivesicular body morphology and size are controlled in part by PtdIns(3,5)P(2), produced in mammalian cells by PIKfyve-directed phosphorylation of PtdIns(3)P. Here we identify human Vac14 (hVac14), an evolutionarily conserved protein, present in all eukaryotes but studied principally in yeast thus far, as a novel positive regulator of PIKfyve enzymatic activity. In mammalian cells and tissues, Vac14 is a low-abundance 82-kDa protein, but its endogenous levels could be up-regulated upon ectopic expression of hVac14. PIKfyve and hVac14 largely cofractionated, populated similar intracellular locales, and physically associated. A small-interfering RNA-directed gene-silencing approach to selectively eliminate endogenous hVac14 rendered HEK293 cells susceptible to morphological alterations similar to those observed upon expression of PIKfyve mutants deficient in PtdIns(3,5)P(2) production. Largely decreased in vitro PIKfyve kinase activity and unaltered PIKfyve protein levels were detected under these conditions. Conversely, ectopic expression of hVac14 increased the intrinsic PIKfyve lipid kinase activity. Concordantly, intracellular PtdIns(3)P-to-PtdIns(3,5)P(2) conversion was perturbed by hVac14 depletion and was elevated upon ectopic expression of hVac14. These data demonstrate a major role of the PIKfyve-associated hVac14 protein in activating PIKfyve and thereby regulating PtdIns(3,5)P(2) synthesis and endomembrane homeostasis in mammalian cells.
Project description:PIKfyve is essential for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] and for the regulation of endolysosomal membrane dynamics in mammals. PtdIns(3,5)P2 deficiency causes neurodegeneration in mice and humans, but the role of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in non-neural tissues is poorly understood. Here we show that platelet-specific ablation of PIKfyve in mice leads to accelerated arterial thrombosis, and, unexpectedly, also to inappropriate inflammatory responses characterized by macrophage accumulation in multiple tissues. These multiorgan defects are attenuated by platelet depletion in vivo, confirming that they reflect a platelet-specific process. PIKfyve ablation in platelets induces defective maturation and excessive storage of lysosomal enzymes that are released upon platelet activation. Impairing lysosome secretion from PIKfyve-null platelets in vivo markedly attenuates the multiorgan defects, suggesting that platelet lysosome secretion contributes to pathogenesis. Our findings identify PIKfyve as an essential regulator for platelet lysosome homeostasis, and demonstrate the contributions of platelet lysosomes to inflammation, arterial thrombosis and macrophage biology.
Project description:Key components of membrane trafficking and signaling machinery in eukaryotic cells are proteins that bind or synthesize phosphoinositides. PIKfyve, a product of an evolutionarily conserved single-copy gene has both these features. It binds to membrane phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)3P and synthesizes PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns5P. Molecular functions of PIKfyve are elusive but recent advances are consistent with a key role in the course of endosomal transport. PIKfyve dysfunction induces endosome enlargement and profound cytoplasmic vacuolation, likely as a result of impaired normal endosome processing and membrane exit out of endosomes. Multicellular organisms with genetically impaired function of PIKfyve or that of the PIKfyve protein partners regulating PtdIns(3,5)P2 homeostasis display severe disorders, including embryonic/perinatal death. This review describes recent advances on PIKfyve functionality in higher eukaryotes, with particular reference to biochemical and genetic insights in PIKfyve protein partners.
Project description:PIKfyve, an evolutionarily conserved kinase synthesizing PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P2, is crucial for mammalian cell proliferation and viability. Accordingly, PIKfyve inhibitors are now in clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs. Among those, apilimod is the most promising, yet its potency to inhibit PIKfyve and affect endomembrane homeostasis is only partially characterized. We demonstrate here for the first time that apilimod powerfully inhibited in vitro synthesis of PtdIns5P along with that of PtdIns(3,5)P2. HPLC-based resolution of intracellular phosphoinositides (PIs) revealed that apilimod triggered a marked reduction of both lipids in the context of intact cells. Notably, there was also a profound rise in PtdIns3P resulting from arrested PtdIns3P consumption for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis. As typical for PIKfyve inhibition and the concomitant PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction, apilimod induced the appearance of dilated endomembrane structures in the form of large translucent cytoplasmic vacuoles. Remarkably, bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) fully reversed the aberrant cell phenotype back to normal and completely precluded the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles when added prior to apilimod. Inspection of the PI profiles ruled out restoration of the reduced PtdIns(3,5)P2 pool as a molecular mechanism underlying BafA1 rescue. Rather, we found that BafA1 markedly attenuated the PtdIns3P elevation under PIKfyve inhibition. This was accompanied by profoundly decreased endosomal recruitment of fusogenic EEA1. Together, our data demonstrate that apilimod inhibits not only PtdIns(3,5)P2 but also PtdIns5P synthesis and that the cytoplasmic vacuolization triggered by the inhibitor is precluded or reversed by BafA1 through a mechanism associated, in part, with reduction in both PtdIns3P levels and EEA1 membrane recruitment.
Project description:Insulin stimulation of glucose uptake is achieved by redistribution of insulin-responsive glucose transporters, GLUT4, from intracellular storage compartment(s) to the plasma membrane in adipocytes and muscle cells. Although GLUT4 translocation has been investigated using various approaches, GLUT4 trafficking properties within the cell are largely unknown. Our novel method allows direct analysis of intracellular GLUT4 dynamics at the single molecule level by using Quantum dot technology, quantitatively establishing the behavioral nature of GLUT4. Our data demonstrate the predominant mechanism for intracellular GLUT4 sequestration in the basal state to be "static retention" in fully differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes. We also directly defined three distinct insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking processes: 1) release from the putative GLUT4 anchoring system in storage compartment(s), 2) the speed at which transport GLUT4-containing vesicles move, and 3) the tethering/docking steps at the plasma membrane. Intriguingly, insulin-induced GLUT4 liberation from its static state appeared to be abolished by either pretreatment with an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or overexpression of a dominant-interfering AS160 mutant (AS160/T642A). In addition, our novel approach revealed the possibility that, in certain insulin-resistant states, derangements in GLUT4 behavior can impair insulin-responsive GLUT4 translocation.
Project description:Gene mutations in the phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes are linked to various human diseases. In mammals, PIKfyve synthesizes PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and PtdIns5P lipids that regulate endosomal trafficking and responses to extracellular stimuli. The consequence of pikfyve gene ablation in mammals is unknown. To clarify the importance of PIKfyve and PIKfyve lipid products, in this study, we have characterized the first mouse model with global deletion of the pikfyve gene using the Cre-loxP approach. We report that nearly all PIKfyve(KO/KO) mutant embryos died before the 32-64-cell stage. Cultured fibroblasts derived from PIKfyve(flox/flox) embryos and rendered pikfyve-null by Cre recombinase expression displayed severely reduced DNA synthesis, consistent with impaired cell division causing early embryo lethality. The heterozygous PIKfyve(WT/KO) mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio and developed into adulthood. PIKfyve(WT/KO) mice were ostensibly normal by several other in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro criteria despite the fact that their levels of the PIKfyve protein and in vitro enzymatic activity in cells and tissues were 50-55% lower than those of wild-type mice. Consistently, steady-state levels of the PIKfyve products PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and PtdIns5P selectively decreased, but this reduction (35-40%) was 10-15% less than that expected based on PIKfyve protein reduction. The nonlinear decrease of the PIKfyve protein versus PIKfyve lipid products, the potential mechanism(s) discussed herein, may explain how one functional allele in PIKfyve(WT/KO) mice is able to support the demands for PtdIns(3,5)P(2)/PtdIns5P synthesis during life. Our data also shed light on the known human disorder linked to PIKFYVE mutations.