ROS3 is an RNA-binding protein required for DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in diverse organisms. Recent studies suggest that the methylation status of a number of genes is dynamically regulated by methylation and demethylation. In Arabidopsis, active DNA demethylation is mediated by the ROS1 (repressor of silencing 1) subfamily of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases through a base excision repair pathway. These demethylases have critical roles in erasing DNA methylation and preventing TGS of target genes. However, it is not known how the demethylases are targeted to specific sequences. Here we report the identification of ROS3, an essential regulator of DNA demethylation that contains an RNA recognition motif. Analysis of ros3 mutants and ros1 ros3 double mutants suggests that ROS3 acts in the same genetic pathway as ROS1 to prevent DNA hypermethylation and TGS. Gel mobility shift assays and analysis of ROS3 immunoprecipitate from plant extracts shows that ROS3 binds to small RNAs in vitro and in vivo. Immunostaining shows that ROS3 and ROS1 proteins co-localize in discrete foci dispersed throughout the nucleus. These results demonstrate a critical role for ROS3 in preventing DNA hypermethylation and suggest that DNA demethylation by ROS1 may be guided by RNAs bound to ROS3.
Project description:Genomic imprinting is a form of epigenetic regulation resulting in differential gene expression that reflects the parent of origin. In plants, imprinted gene expression predominantly occurs in the seed endosperm. Maternal-specific DNA demethylation by the DNA demethylase DME frequently underlies genomic imprinting in endosperm. Whether other more ubiquitously expressed DNA demethylases regulate imprinting is unknown. Here, we found that the DNA demethylase ROS1 regulates the imprinting of DOGL4 DOGL4 is expressed from the maternal allele in endosperm and displays preferential methylation and suppression of the paternal allele. We found that ROS1 negatively regulates imprinting by demethylating the paternal allele, preventing its hypermethylation and complete silencing. Furthermore, we found that DOGL4 negatively affects seed dormancy and response to the phytohormone abscisic acid and that ROS1 controls these processes by regulating DOGL4 Our results reveal roles for ROS1 in mitigating imprinted gene expression and regulating seed dormancy.
Project description:De novo DNA methylation through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway and active DNA demethylation play important roles in controlling genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in plants. Little is known about how cells manage the balance between DNA methylation and active demethylation activities. Here, we report the identification of a unique RdDM target sequence, where DNA methylation is required for maintaining proper active DNA demethylation of the Arabidopsis genome. In a genetic screen for cellular antisilencing factors, we isolated several REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ros1) mutant alleles, as well as many RdDM mutants, which showed drastically reduced ROS1 gene expression and, consequently, transcriptional silencing of two reporter genes. A helitron transposon element (TE) in the ROS1 gene promoter negatively controls ROS1 expression, whereas DNA methylation of an RdDM target sequence between ROS1 5' UTR and the promoter TE region antagonizes this helitron TE in regulating ROS1 expression. This RdDM target sequence is also targeted by ROS1, and defective DNA demethylation in loss-of-function ros1 mutant alleles causes DNA hypermethylation of this sequence and concomitantly causes increased ROS1 expression. Our results suggest that this sequence in the ROS1 promoter region serves as a DNA methylation monitoring sequence (MEMS) that senses DNA methylation and active DNA demethylation activities. Therefore, the ROS1 promoter functions like a thermostat (i.e., methylstat) to sense DNA methylation levels and regulates DNA methylation by controlling ROS1 expression.
Project description:DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark that plays important roles in plant and vertebrate development, genome stability, and gene regulation. Canonical Methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins are important interpreters of DNA methylation that recognize methylated CG sites and recruit chromatin remodelers, histone deacetylases, and histone methyltransferases to repress transcription. Here, we show that Arabidopsis MBD7 and Increased DNA Methylation 3 (IDM3) are anti-silencing factors that prevent gene repression and DNA hypermethylation. MBD7 preferentially binds to highly methylated, CG-dense regions and physically associates with other anti-silencing factors, including the histone acetyltransferase IDM1 and the alpha-crystallin domain proteins IDM2 and IDM3. IDM1 and IDM2 were previously shown to facilitate active DNA demethylation by the 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1. Thus, MBD7 tethers the IDM proteins to methylated DNA, which enables the function of DNA demethylases that in turn limit DNA methylation and prevent transcriptional gene silencing.
Project description:DNA methylation patterns in plants are dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and active DNA demethylation in response to both environmental changes and development of plant. Beginning with the removal of methylated cytosine by ROS1/DME family of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair. So far, many components involved in active DNA demethylation remain undiscovered. Through a forward genetic screening of Arabidopsis mutants showing DNA hypermethylation at the EPF2 promoter region, we identified the conserved iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein MET18. MET18 dysfunction caused DNA hypermethylation at more than 1000 loci as well as the silencing of reporter genes and some endogenous genes. MET18 can directly interact with ROS1 in vitro and in vivo. ROS1 activity was reduced in the met18 mutant plants and point mutation in the conserved Fe-S cluster binding motif of ROS1 disrupted its biological function. Interestingly, a large number of DNA hypomethylated loci, especially in the CHH context, were identified from the met18 mutants and most of the hypo-DMRs were from TE regions. Our results suggest that MET18 can regulate both active DNA demethylation and DNA methylation pathways in Arabidopsis.
Project description:DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in diverse organisms including plants and many animals. In contrast to the well characterized mechanism of DNA methylation by methyltransferases, the mechanisms and function of active DNA demethylation have been controversial. Genetic evidence suggested that the DNA glycosylase domain-containing protein ROS1 of Arabidopsis is a putative DNA demethylase, because loss-of-function ros1 mutations cause DNA hypermethylation and enhance transcriptional gene silencing. We report here the biochemical characterization of ROS1 and the effect of its overexpression on the DNA methylation of target genes. Our data suggest that the DNA glycosylase activity of ROS1 removes 5-methylcytosine from the DNA backbone and then its lyase activity cleaves the DNA backbone at the site of 5-methylcytosine removal by successive beta- and delta-elimination reactions. Overexpression of ROS1 in transgenic plants led to a reduced level of cytosine methylation and increased expression of a target gene. These results demonstrate that ROS1 is a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase important for active DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis.
Project description:DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark established by the combined actions of methylation and demethylation reactions. Plants use a base excision repair pathway for active DNA demethylation. After 5-methylcytosine removal, the Arabidopsis DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1 incises the DNA backbone and part of the product has a single-nucleotide gap flanked by 3'- and 5'-phosphate termini. Here we show that the DNA phosphatase ZDP removes the blocking 3' phosphate, allowing subsequent DNA polymerization and ligation steps needed to complete the repair reactions. ZDP and ROS1 interact in vitro and colocalize in vivo in nucleoplasmic foci. Extracts from zdp mutant plants are unable to complete DNA demethylation in vitro, and the mutations cause DNA hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of a reporter gene. Genome-wide methylation analysis in zdp mutant plants identified hundreds of hypermethylated endogenous loci. Our results show that ZDP functions downstream of ROS1 in one branch of the active DNA demethylation pathway.
Project description:Recent research has indicated that a subset of defense-related genes is downregulated in the Arabidopsis DNA demethylase triple mutant rdd (ros1 dml2 dml3) resulting in increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In rdd plants these downregulated genes contain hypermethylated transposable element sequences (TE) in their promoters, suggesting that this methylation represses gene expression in the mutant and that these sequences are actively demethylated in wild-type plants to maintain gene expression. In this study, the tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression patterns of rdd-downregulated genes were investigated and the individual role of ROS1, DML2, and DML3 demethylases in these spatiotemporal regulation patterns was determined. Large differences in defense gene expression were observed between pathogen-infected and uninfected tissues and between root and shoot tissues in both WT and rdd plants, however, only subtle changes in promoter TE methylation patterns occurred. Therefore, while TE hypermethylation caused decreased gene expression in rdd plants it did not dramatically effect spatiotemporal gene regulation, suggesting that this latter regulation is largely methylation independent. Analysis of ros1-3, dml2-1, and dml3-1 single gene mutant lines showed that promoter TE hypermethylation and defense-related gene repression was predominantly, but not exclusively, due to loss of ROS1 activity. These data demonstrate that DNA demethylation of TE sequences, largely by ROS1, promotes defense-related gene expression but does not control spatiotemporal expression in Arabidopsis. Summary: Ros1-mediated DNA demethylation of promoter transposable elements is essential for activation of defense-related gene expression in response to fungal infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Project description:Active DNA demethylation is an important epigenetic process that plays a key role in maintaining normal gene expression. In plants, active DNA demethylation is mediated by DNA demethylases, including ROS1, DME, DML2, and DML3. In this study, the available bisulfite sequencing and mRNA sequencing data from ros1 and rdd mutants were analyzed to reveal how the active DNA demethylation process shapes the DNA methylation patterns of Arabidopsis nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes, a class of important plant disease resistance genes. We demonstrate that the CG methylation levels of three NLR genes (AT5G49140, AT5G35450, and AT5G36930) are increased in the ros1 mutants relative to the wild-type plants, whereas the CG methylation level of AT2G17050 is decreased. We also observed increased CG methylation levels of AT4G11170 and AT5G47260 and decreased CG methylation levels of AT5G38350 in rdd mutants. We further found that the expression of three NLR genes (AT1G12280, AT1G61180, and AT4G19520) was activated in both ros1 and rdd mutants, whereas the expression of another three NLR genes (AT1G58602, AT1G59620, and AT1G62630) was repressed in these two mutants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction detection showed that the expression levels of AT1G58602.1, AT4G19520.3, AT4G19520.4, and AT4G19520.5 were decreased in the ros1 mutant; AT3G50950.1 and AT3G50950.2 in the rdd mutant were also decreased in expression compared to Col-0, whereas AT1G57630.1, AT1G58602.2, and AT5G45510.1 were upregulated in the rdd mutant relative to Col-0. These results indicate that some NLR genes are regulated by DNA demethylases. Our study demonstrates that each DNA demethylase (ROS1, DML2, and DML3) exerts a specific effect on the DNA methylation of the NLR genes, and active DNA demethylation is part of the regulation of DNA methylation and transcriptional activity of some Arabidopsis NLR genes.
Project description:DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in many biological processes, and active DNA demethylation plays critical roles in regulating expression of genes and anti-silencing of transgenes. In this study, we isolated mutations in one arabidopsis gene, ROS5, which causes the silencing of transgenic 35S-NPTII because of DNA hypermethylation, but no effect on transgenic RD29A-LUC. ROS5 encodes an atypical small heat shock protein. ROS5 can physically interact with IDM1 and is required for preventing DNA hypermethylation of some endogenous genes that are also regualated by IDM1 and ROS1. We propose that ROS5 may regulate active DNA demethylation by interacting with IDM1, thereby creating a friendly chromatin environment that facilitates the binding of ROS1 to erase DNA methylation.
Project description:The Arabidopsis ROS1/DEMETER family of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) DNA glycosylases are the first genetically characterized DNA demethylases in eukaryotes. However, the features of ROS1-targeted genomic loci are not well understood. In this study, we characterized ROS1 target loci in Arabidopsis Col-0 and C24 ecotypes. We found that ROS1 preferentially targets transposable elements (TEs) and intergenic regions. Compared with most TEs, ROS1-targeted TEs are closer to protein coding genes, suggesting that ROS1 may prevent DNA methylation spreading from TEs to nearby genes. ROS1-targeted TEs are specifically enriched for H3K18Ac and H3K27me3, and depleted of H3K27me and H3K9me2. Importantly, we identified thousands of previously unknown RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) targets following depletion of ROS1, suggesting that ROS1 strongly antagonizes RdDM at these loci. In addition, we show that ROS1 also antagonizes RdDM-independent DNA methylation at some loci. Our results provide important insights into the genome-wide targets of ROS1 and the crosstalk between DNA methylation and ROS1-mediated active DNA demethylation.