NOS1AP is a genetic modifier of the long-QT syndrome.
ABSTRACT: In congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS), a genetically heterogeneous disorder that predisposes to sudden cardiac death, genetic factors other than the primary mutation may modify the probability of life-threatening events. Recent evidence indicates that common variants in NOS1AP are associated with the QT-interval duration in the general population.We tested the hypothesis that common variants in NOS1AP modify the risk of clinical manifestations and the degree of QT-interval prolongation in a South African LQTS population (500 subjects, 205 mutation carriers) segregating a founder mutation in KCNQ1 (A341V) using a family-based association analysis. NOS1AP variants were significantly associated with the occurrence of symptoms (rs4657139, P=0.019; rs16847548, P=0.003), with clinical severity, as manifested by a greater probability for cardiac arrest and sudden death (rs4657139, P=0.028; rs16847548, P=0.014), and with greater likelihood of having a QT interval in the top 40% of values among all mutation carriers (rs4657139, P=0.03; rs16847548, P=0.03).These findings indicate that NOS1AP, a gene first identified as affecting the QTc interval in a general population, also influences sudden death risk in subjects with LQTS. The association of NOS1AP genetic variants with risk for life-threatening arrhythmias suggests that this gene is a genetic modifier of LQTS, and this knowledge may be clinically useful for risk stratification for patients with this disease, after validation in other LQTS populations.
Project description:QT interval prolongation is associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death at the population level. As 30-40% of the QT-interval variability is heritable, we tested the association of common LQTS and NOS1AP gene variants with QT interval in a Finnish population-based sample.We genotyped 12 common LQTS and NOS1AP genetic variants in Health 2000, an epidemiological sample of 5043 Finnish individuals, using Sequenom MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. ECG parameters were measured from digital 12-lead ECGs and QT intervals were adjusted for age, gender and heart rate with a nomogram (Nc) method derived from the present study population.The KCNE1 D85N minor allele (frequency 1.4%) was associated with a 10.5 ms (SE 1.6) or 0.57 SD prolongation of the adjusted QT(Nc) interval (P=3.6 x 10(-11)) in gender-pooled analysis. In agreement with previous studies, we replicated the association with QT(Nc) interval with minor alleles of KCNH2 intronic SNP rs3807375 [1.6 ms (SE 0.4) or 0.08 SD, P=4.7 x 10(-5)], KCNH2 K897T [-2.6 ms (SE 0.5) or -0.14 SD, P=2.1 x 10(-7)] and NOSA1P variants including rs2880058 [4.0 ms (SE 0.4) or 0.22 SD, P=3.2 x 10(-24)] under additive models.We demonstrate that each additional copy of the KCNE1 D85N minor allele is associated with a considerable 10.5 ms prolongation of the age-, gender- and heart rate-adjusted QT interval and could thus modulate repolarization-related arrhythmia susceptibility at the population level. In addition, we robustly confirm the previous findings that three independent KCNH2 and NOSA1P variants are associated with adjusted QT interval.
Project description:To identify loci affecting the electrocardiographic QT interval, a measure of cardiac repolarisation associated with risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, we conducted a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) including 3,558 subjects from the TwinsUK and BRIGHT cohorts in the UK and the DCCT/EDIC cohort from North America. Five loci were significantly associated with QT interval at P<1x10(-6). To validate these findings we performed an in silico comparison with data from two QT consortia: QTSCD (n = 15,842) and QTGEN (n = 13,685). Analysis confirmed the association between common variants near NOS1AP (P = 1.4x10(-83)) and the phospholamban (PLN) gene (P = 1.9x10(-29)). The most associated SNP near NOS1AP (rs12143842) explains 0.82% variance; the SNP near PLN (rs11153730) explains 0.74% variance of QT interval duration. We found no evidence for interaction between these two SNPs (P = 0.99). PLN is a key regulator of cardiac diastolic function and is involved in regulating intracellular calcium cycling, it has only recently been identified as a susceptibility locus for QT interval. These data offer further mechanistic insights into genetic influence on the QT interval which may predispose to life threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare genetic disorder and a major preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. A causal rare genetic variant with large effect size is identified in up to 80% of probands (genotype positive) and cascade family screening shows incomplete penetrance of genetic variants. Furthermore, a proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for LQTS remain genetically elusive despite genetic testing of established genes (genotype negative). These observations raise the possibility that common genetic variants with small effect size contribute to the clinical picture of LQTS. This study aimed to characterize and quantify the contribution of common genetic variation to LQTS disease susceptibility. METHODS:We conducted genome-wide association studies followed by transethnic meta-analysis in 1656 unrelated patients with LQTS of European or Japanese ancestry and 9890 controls to identify susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms. We estimated the common variant heritability of LQTS and tested the genetic correlation between LQTS susceptibility and other cardiac traits. Furthermore, we tested the aggregate effect of the 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population using a polygenic risk score. RESULTS:Genome-wide association analysis identified 3 loci associated with LQTS at genome-wide statistical significance (P<5×10-8) near NOS1AP, KCNQ1, and KLF12, and 1 missense variant in KCNE1(p.Asp85Asn) at the suggestive threshold (P<10-6). Heritability analyses showed that ?15% of variance in overall LQTS susceptibility was attributable to common genetic variation (h2SNP 0.148; standard error 0.019). LQTS susceptibility showed a strong genome-wide genetic correlation with the QT-interval in the general population (rg=0.40; P=3.2×10-3). The polygenic risk score comprising common variants previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population was greater in LQTS cases compared with controls (P<10-13), and it is notable that, among patients with LQTS, this polygenic risk score was greater in patients who were genotype negative compared with those who were genotype positive (P<0.005). CONCLUSIONS:This work establishes an important role for common genetic variation in susceptibility to LQTS. We demonstrate overlap between genetic control of the QT-interval in the general population and genetic factors contributing to LQTS susceptibility. Using polygenic risk score analyses aggregating common genetic variants that modulate the QT-interval in the general population, we provide evidence for a polygenic architecture in genotype negative LQTS.
Project description:A prolonged QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) is a major risk factor in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS). However, heart rate-related risk in this genetic disorder differs among genotypes.This study hypothesized that risk assessment in LQTS patients should incorporate genotype-specific QT correction for heart rate.The independent contribution of 4 repolarization measures (the absolute QT interval, and Bazett's, Fridericia's, and Framingham's correction formulas) to the risk of aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death during adolescence, before and after further adjustment for the RR interval, was assessed in 727 LQTS type 1 and 582 LQTS type 2 patients. Improved QT/RR correction was calculated using a Cox model, dividing the coefficient on log(RR) by that on log(QT).Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in LQTS type 1 patients 100-ms increments in the absolute QT interval were associated with a 3.3-fold increase in the risk of life-threatening cardiac events (P = .020), and 100-ms decrements in the RR interval were associated with a further 1.9-fold increase in the risk (P = .007), whereas in LQTS type 2 patients, resting heart rate was not a significant risk factor (hazard ratio 1.11; P = .51; P value for heart rate × genotype interaction = .036). Accordingly, analysis of an improved QT correction formula showed that patients with the LQTS type 1 genotype required a greater degree of QT correction for heart rate (improved QTc = QT/RR?·?) than LQTS type 2 patients (improved QTc = QT/RR?·²).Our findings suggest that risk stratification for life-threatening cardiac events in LQTS patients can be improved by incorporating genotype-specific QT correction for heart rate.
Project description:Long-QT syndrome (LQTS), a cardiac arrhythmia disorder with variable phenotype, often results in devastating outcomes, including sudden cardiac death. Variable expression, independently from the primary disease-causing mutation, can partly be explained by genetic modifiers. This study investigates variants in a known LQTS-causative gene, AKAP9, for potential LQTS-type 1-modifying effects.Members of a South African LQTS-type 1 founder population (181 noncarriers and 168 mutation carriers) carrying the identical-by-descent KCNQ1 p.Ala341Val (A341V) mutation were evaluated for modifying effects of AKAP9 variants on heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), cardiac events, and disease severity. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in AKAP9 rs11772585, rs7808587, rs2282972, and rs2961024 (order, 5'-3'positive strand) were genotyped. Associations between phenotypic traits and alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes were statistically assessed, adjusting for the degree of relatedness and confounding variables. The rs2961024 GG genotype, always represented by CGCG haplotype homozygotes, revealed an age-dependent heart rate-corrected QT interval increase (1% per additional 10 years) irrespective of A341V mutation status (P=0.006). The rs11772585 T allele, found uniquely in the TACT haplotype, more than doubled (218%) the risk of cardiac events (P=0.002) in the presence of A341V; additionally, it increased disease severity (P=0.025). The rs7808587 GG genotype was associated with a 74% increase in cardiac event risk (P=0.046), whereas the rs2282972 T allele, predominantly represented by the CATT haplotype, decreased risk by 53% (P=0.001).AKAP9 has been identified as an LQTS-type 1-modifying gene. Variants investigated altered heart rate-corrected QT interval irrespective of mutation status, as well as cardiac event risk, and disease severity, in mutation carriers.
Project description:The ECG QT interval is associated with risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A previous genome-wide association study demonstrated that allelic variants (rs10494366 and rs4657139) in the nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP), which encodes a carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, are associated with the QT interval in white adults. The present analysis was conducted to validate the association between NOS1AP variants and the QT interval and to examine the association with SCD in a combined population of 19 295 black and white adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study.We examined 19 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genomic blocks containing rs10494366 and rs4657139 in NOS1AP. SCD was defined as a sudden pulseless condition of cardiac origin in a previously stable individual. General linear models and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NOS1AP, including rs10494366, rs4657139, and rs16847548, were significantly associated with adjusted QT interval in whites (P<0.0001). In whites, after adjustment for age, sex, and study, the relative hazard of SCD associated with each C allele at rs16847548 was 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.56, P=0.002), assuming an additive model. In addition, a downstream neighboring single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs12567209, which was not correlated with rs16847548 or QT interval, was also independently associated with SCD in whites (relative hazard 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.83, P=0.003). Adjustment for QT interval and coronary heart disease risk factors attenuated but did not eliminate the association between rs16847548 and SCD, and such adjustment had no effect on the association between rs12567209 and SCD. No significant associations between tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NOS1AP and either QT interval or SCD were observed in blacks.In a combined analysis of 2 population-based prospective cohort studies, sequence variations in NOS1AP were associated with baseline QT interval and the risk of SCD in white US adults.
Project description:The congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is an important cause of sudden cardiac death in children without structural heart disease. However, specific risk factors for life-threatening cardiac events in children with this genetic disorder have not been identified.Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling was used to identify risk factors for aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death in 3015 LQTS children from the International LQTS Registry who were followed up from 1 through 12 years of age. The cumulative probability of the combined end point was significantly higher in boys (5%) than in girls (1%; P<0.001). Risk factors for cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death during childhood included corrected QT interval [QTc] duration > 500 ms (hazard ratio [HR]; 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50 to 4.92; P=0.001) and prior syncope (recent syncope [< 2 years]: HR, 6.16; 95% CI 3.41 to 11.15; P<0.001; remote syncope [> or = 2 years]: HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.22 to 5.85; P=0.01) in boys, whereas prior syncope was the only significant risk factor among girls (recent syncope: HR, 27.82; 95% CI, 9.72 to 79.60; P<0.001; remote syncope: HR, 12.04; 95% CI, 3.79 to 38.26; P<0.001). Beta-blocker therapy was associated with a significant 53% reduction in the risk of cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death (P=0.01).LQTS boys experience a significantly higher rate of fatal or near-fatal cardiac events than girls during childhood. A QTc duration > 500 ms and a history of prior syncope identify risk in boys, whereas prior syncope is the only significant risk factor among girls. Beta-blocker therapy is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of life-threatening cardiac events during childhood.
Project description:Extremes of electrocardiographic QT interval are associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD); thus, identification and characterization of genetic variants that modulate QT interval may elucidate the underlying etiology of SCD. Previous studies have revealed an association between a common genetic variant in NOS1AP and QT interval in populations of European ancestry, but this finding has not been extended to other ethnic populations. We sought to characterize the effects of NOS1AP genetic variants on QT interval in the multi-ethnic population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS, n = 3,072). The SNP most strongly associated with QT interval in previous samples of European ancestry, rs16847548, was the most strongly associated in White (P = 0.005) and Black (P = 3.6 x 10(-5)) participants, with the same direction of effect in Hispanics (P = 0.17), and further showed a significant SNP x sex-interaction (P = 0.03). A second SNP, rs16856785, uncorrelated with rs16847548, was also associated with QT interval in Blacks (P = 0.01), with qualitatively similar results in Whites and Hispanics. In a previously genotyped cohort of 14,107 White individuals drawn from the combined Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) cohorts, we validated both the second locus at rs16856785 (P = 7.63 x 10(-8)), as well as the sex-interaction with rs16847548 (P = 8.68 x 10(-6)). These data extend the association of genetic variants in NOS1AP with QT interval to a Black population, with similar trends, though not statistically significant at P<0.05, in Hispanics. In addition, we identify a strong sex-interaction and the presence of a second independent site within NOS1AP associated with the QT interval. These results highlight the consistent and complex role of NOS1AP genetic variants in modulating QT interval.
Project description:Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by the prolongation of the QT interval in ECG and manifests predisposition to life threatening arrhythmia which often leads to sudden cardiac death. We encountered a 3-generation family with 5 affected family members in which LQTS was inherited in autosomal dominant manner. The LQTS is considered an ion channel disorder in which the type and location of the genetic mutation determines to a large extent the expression of the clinical syndrome. Upon screening of the genomic sequences of cardiac potassium ion channel genes, we found a single nucleotide C deletion mutation in the exon 3 of KCNH2 gene that co-segregates with the LQTS in this family. This mutation presumably resulted in a frameshift mutation, P151fs+15X. This study added a new genetic cause to the pool of mutations that lead to defected potassium ion channels in the heart.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is one of the leading causes of sudden arrhythmic death in the young. The QT interval in CPVT patients is typically within the normal range. However, those with prolonged QT interval have often been diagnosed with mutation-negative long QT syndrome (LQTS). We report three CPVT patients with prolonged QT interval. Case 1 and 2 were diagnosed as LQTS at first. Genetic test using next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed RyR2 mutations. We should consider genetic test using NGS to identify the genes responsible for CPVT in mutation-negative LQTS.